原标题: 乌鲁木齐打美白针价格赶集对话
BJ leads annual wage list北京平均工资领跑全国As of Monday, at least 20 provincial-level regions in China had published their average salary in 2014, with Beijing taking the lead.截至15日,全国至少已有20个省份公布了2014年平均工资,其中北京年平均工资最高。Data released by the Beijing Statistics Bureau showed that the average yearly income of non-private sector employees in the capital was RMB102,268 last year, making Beijing the only region with an average annual payroll beyond the RMB100,000 mark.北京市统计局公布的数据显示,2014年北京市城镇非私营单位就业人员年平均工资为102268元,是目前全国唯一突破10万元大关的地区。Beijing is followed by Zhejiang (RMB61,572) and Guangdong (RMB59,481).浙江和广东省分列二、三位,去年平均工资分别为61572元和59481元。Only four out of the 20 provincial-level regions reported an average annual salary higher than the national average.纵览20个省份的平均工资,仅有4个省份超过全国平均水平。 /201506/381048

When many of us have a little cash to invest, we might buy a mutual fund or a stock — if we don’t blow it on the latest tech gadget. Not the truly wealthy, however. They often put their money in property, art, businesses and other investments that the rest of us can only dream of owning. How this group uses their cash differentiates them from the rest of us — and keeps them in the black。很多人手头有现金时,如果不将其全部挥霍在最新的高技术产品上,就会买共同基金或者股票。但是真正的富人不这么做,他们经常投资一些普通人梦寐以求的不动产、艺术品、商业或者其他投资项目。这个团体使用现金的方式让其在众人中脱颖而出,也让他们一直保持富有状态。Take Joshua Coleman, for example. When his family sold their Chicago-based telecom company for 0m in 2004, they didn’t run out and buy something extravagant. Instead, they began seeking advice on ways to save their newfound riches and help them grow。以约书亚·科尔曼为例。2004年其家人以4亿美元的价格将总部位于芝加哥的电信公司售出,但是他们并没有将这笔钱挥霍殆尽或者购买其他奢侈品。相反的是,他们开始寻求建议,以找到节约这笔新财富并使其增值的方式。Their quest sparked an idea for Coleman. In 2011, he launched Momentum Advanced Planning — a firm that connects people to tax, legal and wealth experts. If the business one day sells, he could see a big return, just like his first business。探索激发了建立科尔曼公司的想法。2011年,科尔曼成立了动力现金计划公司,为人们提供税收、法律以及健康专家的信息。如果有一天商业运转起来,就会和之前的企业一样,有很大的收益。If you think that starting a business is an odd way to invest your money, then you probably aren’t among the ultra-wealthy. People who have at least m in assets invest in stocks and bonds, but they also grow their money by buying companies and investing in unusual securities, such as airline leasing funds. They also own art and cars that they hope will appreciate in value。如果你认为创业并不是投资方式,那么你很可能就不属于超级富豪这个群体。拥有3千万美元资产的人不仅投资各类股票和债券,还会收购公司并投资一些不寻常的债券,如航空租赁基金,使自己的资产增值。此外,他们还拥有一些艺术品和汽车,期待其增值。“It’s called alpha risk,” said Coleman. “It’s this kind of stuff where there can be a lot of upside。”“这叫做‘阿尔法风险’,”科尔曼说道,“这能为你带来很多好处。”As for the downside, many of these investments are riskier than traditional investments, so there’s a higher chance of losing a large chunk of change. As well, they’re far less liquid than stocks and it could talk months or years for the wealthy to get their money out of an investment。其缺点在于,与传统投资方式相比,此类投资的风险更大,因此更可能失去改变的机会。此类投资不如股票的流动性强,通常要过数月或者数年才能从投资中收回。Even if you don’t have millions to invest, though, you can learn a thing or two about how the rich reap returns and apply it your own portfolios。尽管你没有数百万元进行投资,但是你也能从富人收获回报的方式中学习一两点,并将其应用于自己的投资中。 /201503/363739

A diver died after participating in the search for missing people from last month#39;s ferry disaster in South Korea, officials said, the second fatality of a member of the disaster-recovery team. 韩国官员们称,一名参加上个月韩国沉船事故搜救工作的潜水员丧生,是灾难救助团队中第二例救援人员死亡事件。The civilian diver working for a private contractor stopped responding early Tuesday to radio communication at around 25 meters (82 feet) underwater. He was found to be unconscious and was evacuated by helicopter, but was pronounced dead at 7:36 a.m. local time. 这位为私营承包商工作的平民潜水员周二早间在25米深的水下停止对无线电通信做出回应。他被发现失去意识,由直升飞机救出水面,但于当地时间早间7:36被宣告死亡。The unnamed diver was on his first mission at the site of the sunken ferry, the Sewol, and was assigned to installing a line used as a guide for divers in the murky waters and strong current. 这位未具名潜水员正在“岁月”号(Sewol)客轮沉没处执行首次任务,被派遣安装一条绳索,以便在黑暗的水下和湍急水流中为潜水员提供指引。Officials overseeing the recovery said they were gathering more information on the diver#39;s previous experience and the cause of death. The diver had worked on power-station and dam construction sites,mission spokesman Ko Myung-seok said at a daily morning briefing. 负责救援工作的官员们表示,他们正在收集有关该潜水员之前经历及死亡原因的更多信息。救援小组发言人Ko Myung-seok在每日早间新闻通报中称,这名潜水员曾在发电站和水?建筑工地工作。All 64 cabins in which searchers expect to find bodies have been opened. Divers on Monday installed a fresh anchor line on the ferry to enter from a new point, Mr. Ko said. Ko表示,搜寻人员认为可能有船上人员的所有64个船舱均已打开。潜水员周一在船上安装了新的锚索,准备从一个新的入口进入。The number of missing people from the April 16th sinking stands at 39 as of Tuesday morning, after divers found a body in a cabin in the center of the fourth deck, raising the death toll to 263. 截至周二早间,4月16日沉船事故中的失踪人数为39人,此前潜水员在第四甲板的一个客舱内发现一具尸体,使死亡人数增至263人。 /201405/294627

Not content with a 6.4 per cent tumble last Friday to cap off the worst week since the financial crisis, the Shanghai Composite chose to push the envelope today, chalking up a 7.4 per cent fall to 4,192.88.上周五,上综指收跌6.4%,为金融危机以来表现最糟糕的一周画上了句号。今日,该指数选择挑战一下极限,以7.4%这一更大的跌幅收盘,最终收至4192.88点。At an intra-day low of 4,139.53, the index was down as much as 8.57 per cent.该指数今日盘中一度跌至4139.53点,跌幅高达8.57%。The 7.4 per cent fall now ranks as the second-biggest fall this year for Shanghai stocks, behind a 7.7 per cent plunge on January 19. It also makes the cut as the fifth-biggest daily fall since 2000 (see table). The index is now down 18.8 per cent since a multi-year closing high of 5,166.35.上综指今日的下跌创下今年以来上海股市第二大单日跌幅(1月19日下跌7.7%),也是2000年以来的第五大单日跌幅(见图表)。上综指现在已较5166.35点的多年收盘价高点下跌了18.8%。That leaves the index very close to entering bear market territory, defined as a decline of 20 per cent from a peak.该指数非常接近于进入熊市,熊市的定义是自峰值水平下跌20%。On an intra-day basis, the Shanghai Composite did enter a bear market, with a fall of 20.06 per cent from an intra-day high of 5,178.191 on June 12 to today#39;s intra-day low. On a closing basis, the level for a bear market is 4,133.08.按盘中价格计算,上综指其实已步入熊市,从6月12日5178.19点的盘中高点到今日的盘中低点,跌幅已达20.06%。按收盘价计算,要达到熊市标准,收盘点位需要达到4133.08点。The Shenzhen Composite is aly growling, down 20.3 per cent from its June 12 record close of 3,140.663. The tech-heavy index closed 7.87 per cent lower at 2,502.96 for its biggest one-day drop since June 10, 2008, and its third-biggest one-day fall since 2000 (see table).深综指已从6月12日3140.66点的创纪录收盘点位下跌20.3%。成份股中科技股众多的该指数今日收跌7.87%,至2502.96点,为自2008年6月10日以来最大单日跌幅,也是自2000年以来第三大单日跌幅。For the week, the Shanghai Composite was down 6.37 per cent and the Shenzhen Composite was down 8.72 per cent, for the first back-to-back weekly declines since early February.本周,上综指累计下跌6.37%,深综指累计下跌8.72%,这是自2月初以来首次出现连续两周下跌。On a back-of-the-envelope calculation (relax, I#39;m using a spsheet), today#39;s fall wiped a combined 7bn in market capitalisation from the Shanghai and Shenzhen exchanges.粗略算来,今天的下跌导致沪深两市市值蒸发了7670亿美元。During China#39;s bull market of 2006-07, the Shanghai Composite suffered six corrections greater than 10 per cent (see squiggle chart). That includes a decline from mid-October to the end of November 2007 that wiped off 21.15 per cent. Although the index managed to recover some poise after that, the bear market had begun, and the index then sank for the next 12 months as the financial crisis took hold.2006-07年的中国牛市期间,上综指曾经历6次跌幅超过10%的调整(见图表),其中包括从2007年10月中旬到11月底的一轮下跌行情,那次的跌幅达21.15%。尽管该指数在那之后有所企稳,但沪市却开始步入熊市,随着金融危机站稳脚跟,该指数在接下来的12个月里一路下跌。In other words, during that previous bull market, there was no sustainable recovery from a correction as deep as the one Chinese investors are experiencing now. It remains to be seen whether that pattern will play out this time around.换句话说,在那次牛市中,中国投资者在遭遇和这次同等幅度的调整后,并没有迎来可持续的反弹。这一次,这一幕是否会重演,还有待观察。 /201506/383360

SHENZHEN, China — In a grimy workshop, among boiling vats of chemicals, factory workers are busy turning stainless steel rods into slender tube casings, a crucial component of electronic cigarettes. Not long ago, Skorite Electronics was a tiny firm struggling to produce pen parts. Today, it is part of an enormous — and virtually unregulated — supply chain centered here that produces about 90 percent of the world’s e-cigarettes.中国深圳——肮脏的车间里满是装着沸腾的化学品的大桶,工人们正忙着将不锈钢棒制作成细长的套管,这是电子烟的关键组件。不久之前,斯可瑞特电子有限公司(Skorite Electronics)还是一个靠生产笔的零件苦苦挣扎的小公司。如今,公司已经成为以这里为中心的一个巨大的——几乎不受管制的——供应链的一部分,世界上90%的电子烟都产自这里。This year, Chinese manufacturers are expected to ship more than 300 million e-cigarettes to the ed States and Europe, where they will reach the shelves of Walmart, 7-Eleven stores, gas station outlets and so-called vaping shops.今年,中国的制造商将向美国和欧洲运送逾3亿电子烟,它们将出现在沃尔玛(Walmart)、7-11(7-Eleven)、加油站商店,以及所谓的电子烟商店的货架上。The devices have become increasingly popular, particularly among young adults, and yet hundreds of e-cigarette manufacturers in China operate with little oversight. Experts say flawed or sloppy manufacturing could account for some of the heavy metals, carcinogens and other dangerous compounds, such as lead, tin and zinc, that have been detected in some e-cigarettes.电子烟越来越受欢迎,特别是在青年人中间,然而在中国运营的数以百计的电子烟生产商几乎不受监管。专家表示,目前已经在一些电子烟中检测到的重金属、致癌物质和铅、锡、锌的危险化合物,可能与存在缺陷或疏忽的生产过程有关。One study found e-cigarette vapor that contained hazardous nickel and chromium at four times the level they appear in traditional cigarette smoke; another found that half the e-cigarettes sampled malfunctioned and some released vapor tainted with silicon fibers.一项研究发现,电子烟蒸汽中有害物质镍和铬的含量是传统香烟烟雾的四倍;另一项研究发现,取样的电子烟有一半存在故障,有一些电子烟会释放含有硅纤维的蒸汽。There have also been reports in the ed States of e-cigarettes that exploded after a lithium ion battery or electric charger overheated, causing burns.此前美国有过锂电池或充电器过热导致电子烟爆炸的报道,爆炸造成了烧伤。“We need to understand what e-cigarettes are made of,” says Avrum Spira, a lung specialist at the Boston University School of Medicine, “and the manufacturing process is a critical part of that understanding.”“我们需要了解电子烟是由什么制成的,”波士顿大学医学院(Boston University School of Medicine)肺病专家阿夫鲁·斯皮拉(Avrum Spira)说。“为了了解这一点,我们需要了解它的生产过程。”A review by The New York Times of manufacturing operations in Shenzhen found that many factories were legitimate and made efforts at quality control, but that some were lower-end operations that either had no safety testing equipment or specialized in counterfeiting established brands, often with cheaper parts. The Times visited several such workshops in Shenzhen, including a counterfeiting shop set up in a garage and another that displayed a knockoff of an e-cigarette brand called “Russian 91%,” which the factory boss said was destined for the ed States.《纽约时报》有关深圳地区电子烟生产经营的调查显示,很多工厂都是合法生产,都在努力加强质量管控,但一些工厂属于低端经营,它们有的没有安全检测设备,有的专门伪造名牌产品,通常采用廉价零件。《纽约时报》走访了深圳的几家工厂,其中包括一家设在车库里的仿冒品车间,另一家工厂则展示了仿造电子烟品牌“Russian 91%”的产品,工厂老板表示,这些产品将销往美国。The e-cigarette industry in China has developed differently from other industries, like toys, apparel and smartphones, where global brands outsource their manufacturing here but monitor and enforce quality control standards. Chinese companies were the first to develop e-cigarettes, and that happened in a regulatory void. In the ed States, the Food and Drug Administration has just begun to move toward regulating e-cigarettes, working on rules that would force global producers, in China and elsewhere, to provide the agency with a list of ingredients and details about the manufacturing process.中国电子烟产业的发展道路与玩具、装及智能手机等产业不同。在那些产业中,国际品牌将生产任务外包给中国,但会监督、实施质量管控标准。中国公司最先研发了电子烟,并且是在监管缺失的情况下进行的。在美国,美国食品药品监督(Food and Drug Administration,简称FDA)刚刚开始准备对电子烟进行管控,制定规定,迫使中国及其他地方的生产商提供成分列表,以及生产过程的细节。But analysts say setting those rules and new manufacturing guidelines could take years. In the meantime, Chinese factories are quickening the pace, hoping to build profits and market share before regulatory scrutiny arrives and most likely forces many e-cigarette makers to close.但分析人士表示,制定规定及新的生产指南需要几年的时间。与此同时,中国工厂正在加快步伐,希望在受到监管者关注前盈利,占据市场份额,监管举措可能会迫使很多电子烟制造商关门。“This is really a chaotic industry,” says Jackie Zhuang, deputy general manager of Huabao International, a Chinese tobacco flavoring company in Shanghai and an expert on China’s e-cigarette market. “I hope it will soon be well regulated.”“这是一个非常混乱的产业,”上海烟草香料公司华宝国际公司副总经理、中国电子烟市场专家庄志强(音)说。“我希望,这个产业很快能得到有效管控。”In a five-square-mile area in the northwestern part of Shenzhen called Bao’an, in a district packed with industrial parks, there are believed to be more than 600 e-cigarette producers, and many more component suppliers selling bulk orders of tube casings, integrated circuit boards, heating coils and lithium ion batteries, the essential components of the e-cigarette. If you are a manufacturer in Shenzhen and need 50,000 baked-metal casings, a local manufacturer can supply them for about ,000 and have them delivered within hours.深圳西北部的宝安区到处都是工业园区,在其中一块5平方英里(约合13平方公里)的区域,据称有600多家电子烟生产商,套管、集成电路板、加热线圈和锂电子电池等电子烟基本元件的批发商就更多了。如果你是深圳的一个制造商,需要5万个金属壳套管,当地的厂家可以2.5万美元(约合15万元人民币)的价格提供货物,而且会在数小时内送货。Unlike the counterfeiters’ shops, the largest Shenzhen e-cigarette manufacturing operations are relatively clean, with rows of workers seated on plastic stools along a fast-moving assembly line.与仿造作坊不同,深圳最大的电子烟生产工厂相对比较干净,成排的工人坐在塑料凳上,旁边是快速运转的流水作业线。In 2004, a Chinese pharmacist named Han Li helped develop the e-cigarette, which was then sold through his company, Beijing Ruyan. Other manufacturers soon followed, and by 2009, as e-cigarettes became more popular in the ed States and Europe, more factories opened.2004年,中医师韩力参与研发了电子烟,后来通过自己的公司北京如烟公司进行销售。其他生产商紧随其后,到2009年,随着电子烟在美国和欧洲日益受欢迎,越来越多的电子烟工厂应运而生。The boom has made China the breeding ground for a new, and some would say innovative, product. And yet the Chinese government has played no role in the development of the industry or in regulating it. As in the West, China’s tobacco authority — which acts as both regulator and dominant, state-controlled producer of cigarettes and tobacco products — has been caught off guard by a product that is neither a food nor a drug and perhaps not necessarily even a tobacco product.这股热潮使得中国成为一种新产品——一些人会说是创新产品——的发源地。但中国政府在该产业的发展中没有起到作用,也没有进行监管。就像在西方一样,中国的烟草主管部门——既是监管者,又是居主导地位的国有香烟及烟制品生产商——被这种既不属于食品、也不属于药品,甚至未必算是烟草制品的产品打了个措手不及。Some Chinese companies, however, are trying to get ahead of the anticipated F.D.A. rules. First Union is one of the biggest, operating several manufacturing complexes here in Shenzhen with about 6,000 employees. Its plants have glass-enclosed, dust-free rooms that the company says are as clean and sophisticated as pharmaceutical labs.但一些中国公司正设法赶在FDA出台规定前赢得利润。合元集团是最大的电子烟公司之一,在深圳有几个工厂,拥有大约6000名员工。该公司的工厂设有无尘玻璃屋,该公司称这些无尘玻璃屋像制药实验室一样清洁、精密。First Union and Kimree, a rival based in nearby Huizhou, say they manufacture for many of the best-selling e-cigarette brands. Neither Chinese company, however, has a long history. The founders of Kimree, which recently filed for an initial public stock offering in the ed States, got their start making consumer electronics, like cordless telephones. And before turning to e-cigarettes in 2006, the founders of First Union made silica gel brassieres and weight loss belts. Company executives say they can deliver high-quality goods.合元集团及位于附近惠州地区的竞争对手吉瑞公司表示,他们为很多畅销的电子烟品牌生产产品。但这些中国公司的历史都不长。吉瑞公司最初是生产无线电话等消费类电子产品的,最近在美国申请进行首次公开募股。合成集团于2006年进军电子烟产业,在此之前主要生产硅胶胸罩和减肥腰带。公司高管表示,它们能够提供优质产品。“We have the same quality-control standards as medical device makers,” said Sunny Xu, the chairman at First Union.合成集团总裁徐中立说,“我们的质量管控采用的是医疗设备生产商的标准。”Global tobacco giants that have entered the e-cigarette market are also manufacturing in China, and they insist they are doing so with stringent controls.已经进入电子烟市场的国际烟草巨头也在中国生产产品,它们坚称在生产过程中进行了严格的管控。Altria, formerly known as Philip Morris, sells the e-cigarette brand MarkTen. In a statement, Altria said: “MarkTen is manufactured in China for Nu Mark” — Altria’s e-cigarette subsidiary — “by an established manufacturer of e-cigarettes, which is following Nu Mark’s design specifications and quality control requirements” with “detailed quality-control measures.”奥驰亚集团(Altria)原名菲利普莫里斯(Philip Morris),销售MarkTen品牌的电子烟。奥驰亚在声明中称:“MarkTen是在中国为Nu Mark制造的产品”(Nu Mark是奥驰亚制造电子烟的子公司),其制造者是一个经验丰富的电子烟厂家,遵循Nu Mark的设计规范和质量控制要求,实施了“详细的质量控制措施”。Troubled Manufacturing问题丛生的生产过程Smaller manufacturers, though, are more representative of the ethos here. Tiny start-up factories buy components from suppliers, set up assembly lines and hire low-skilled migrant workers to snap, stamp, glue and solder the e-cigarette components together.不过,规模较小的制造商更能代表这个产业的特色。微小的初创公司从供应商处购买组件,设立组装线,并雇佣低技能的外来务工人员,双手上下翻飞,把电子香烟的组件粘合、焊接在一起。“In the e-cigarette market, you don’t need big capital — that’s why there are now so many manufacturers here,” said Qiu Weihua, the founder of Joyetech, a large Chinese firm that is trying to distinguish itself as a high-quality producer of e-cigarettes. The firm, for example, employs testers who vape and check for flaws. “The big challenge is how to make a quality product.”“在电子烟市场,你并不需要太大的资本——这就是现在这里有这么多制造商的原因,”中国大型公司卓尔悦(Joyetech)的创始人邱伟华说。这家公司试图与其他公司区别开来,树立一个高品质电子香烟制造商的形象。例如,公司还聘请了专门的测试者试吸,看是否存在问题,“最大的挑战是如何制造优质产品。”The e-cigarette makers, many run by young entrepreneurs, have found markets overseas, using online platforms like Alibaba.com. But occasionally, an American businessman like Yaniv Nahon simply shows up at the factory gate. In 2010, Mr. Nahon, then 29, grew tired of selling e-cigarettes at a mall kiosk in South Florida and decided to produce his own line called Vapor 123.许多电子烟工厂都是由年轻的创业者开设的,它们通过Alibaba.com等网络平台在海外找到了市场。但是,像亚尼维·纳翁(Yaniv Nahon)这样的美国商人偶尔也会出现在工厂门口。2010年,时年29岁的纳翁因为厌倦了在南佛罗里达州一个商场内的小摊销售电子烟,决定生产自己的产品,他的产品叫做Vapor 123。“A lot of our products come in smaller orders using express mail service, no questions asked,” Mr. Nahon said in an interview at a factory called Jomo in Shenzhen. “Importing this into the U.S. isn’t difficult.”“我们的很多产品都会通过特快专递,被小批量地送到这里,没人会问任何问题,”纳翁在深圳一家叫做九的工厂里接受采访时说。“把这个引进美国并不困难。”That simplicity has made it easy for counterfeiting operations. Legitimate Shenzhen factory bosses complain about the fakes sold to wholesalers and online traders, who then mix fakes in with bulk orders of the authentic brands. Among the concerns is that some smaller manufacturers use poor-quality insulation paint on the heating coils, paint that could prove dangerous if it leached into the e-liquids.这种简易性使造假变得非常容易。合法深圳厂家的老板经常抱怨有人卖假货给批发商和网络交易者,这些人之后会在大宗真货订单中掺杂假货。有人担心,一些规模较小的制造商会在加热线圈上使用质量很差的绝缘涂料,倘若这种涂料渗入电子烟液,可能会很危险。“I worry about overseas consumers,” says Danny Zhu, who runs KangerTech, a large Shenzhen e-cigarette maker. “There are lots of small workshops here, with 10 or 20 people, and they have no quality control or safety certifications for the material they use. Some of their products are covered with a layer of paint. It’s unhealthy.”“我很担心海外消费者,”深圳大型电子烟制造商康尔(KangerTech)的经营者丹尼·朱(Danny Zhu)说。“这里有很多小作坊,里面有一二十个工作人员,对于他们所使用的材料,既没有质量管控也没有安全认。他们的有些产品上涂着一层涂料。很不健康。”Scientific studies hint at a host of problems related to poor manufacturing standards. A study published last year in the open access online journal PLoS One found the presence of tin particles and other metals in e-cigarette vapors and said they appeared to come from the “solder joints” of e-cigarette devices.科学研究表明,很多的问题都和糟糕的生产标准有关。去年发布在公开网络杂志《公共科学图书馆·综合》(PLoS One)上的一份研究报告称在电子烟的蒸汽中发现了锡颗粒和其他金属,并表示它们似乎来自电子烟的“焊接接头”。Another study of nearly two dozen e-cigarettes bought in the ed States found large amounts of nickel and chromium, which probably came from the heating element, another suggestion that poorly manufactured e-cigarettes may allow the metals to enter into the e-liquids.另一项研究在购自美国的将近20多电子烟中发现了大量的镍和铬,这些物质可能来自加热元件,这再次表明,劣质的电子烟可能会使这些金属物质进入电子烟液。“We’ve found on the order of 25 or 26 different elements, including metals, in the e-cigarette aerosols,” says Prue Talbot, a professor of cell biology at the University of California, Riverside, and co-author of several of the studies. “Some of the metal particles are less than 100 nanometers in diameter, and those are a concern because they can penetrate deep into the lungs.”“我们已经在电子烟的气雾剂里发现了大约二十五六种不同元素,其中包括金属,”加州大学河滨分校(University of California, Riverside)的细胞生物学教授、几篇相关论文的合著者普吕·塔尔特(Prue Talbot)说。“有些金属颗粒的直径还不到100纳米,这些东西之所以令人担心,是因为它们能够深入肺部。”Health advocates say they are troubled by a history of food and drug safety scandals in China, such as when manufacturers substituted diethylene glycol, an industrial solvent, for the sweetener glycerin when making toothpastes and cough medicine. That led to reports of more than 350 deaths in Panama, China and other countries in 2006 alone.健康倡导者表示,中国食品和药物安全丑闻的历史让他们深感担忧。比如,制造商在制造牙膏和止咳药的时候,会用工业溶剂二甘醇代替甜味剂甘油。报道称,仅2006年,这种做法就在巴拿马、中国和其他国家造成了超过350例死亡事件。The risk of diethylene glycol showing up in e-cigarettes is real. In 2009, the F.D.A. issued a warning about the potential health risks associated with e-cigarettes, saying laboratory studies of some samples had found the presence of toxic chemicals, including diethylene glycol, which is used in antifreeze.电子烟中出现二甘醇的风险是真实存在的。2009年,FDA发布了一条与电子烟相关的潜在健康风险警告称,在对一些样本进行实验室研究后发现,里面存在二甘醇等有毒化学物质,而这些东西是用于防冻剂的。Pressure on Regulators管理者的压力Eventually, analysts say, the F.D.A. could be compelled to certify e-cigarette factories and the manufacturing standards. But that could be months if not years away. The agency, however, is under pressure from public health advocates and medical experts.分析人士称,FDA最终将被迫对电子烟工厂和制造标准进行资质认。但是,这个过程可能需要几个月甚至几年。然而,FDA还面临着来自公共健康倡导者和医疗专家的压力。“What if someone in China buys nicotine, solvents and flavorings, but the source of these ingredients is unknown and they’re manufactured with impurities?” says Maciej Goniewicz, a toxicologist at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo. “That could put consumers at risk.”“如果中国有人购买了尼古丁,溶剂和调味品,但这些材料来源未知,而且在制造时还含有杂质怎么办?”布法罗罗斯威尔·帕克癌症研究所(Roswell Park Cancer Institute)的毒理学家马切伊·戈尼威茨(Maciej Goniewicz)说。“这可能会使消费者陷入危险。”Keenly aware that tighter regulations are on the horizon, Shenzhen e-cigarette makers are beginning to establish overseas branches to make e-liquids — the substance that is heated, then turned into vapor and inhaled. The F.D.A. does not yet have standards for e-liquids, but many of the Chinese companies say they make them in labs in the ed States that have passed F.D.A. quality-control standards.由于清楚地意识到官方将实施更严格的管制,深圳电子烟制造商都开始建立海外分机构来制造电子烟液——这些电子烟液经过加热,会变成蒸汽,然后被人吸入。FDA目前还没有关于电子烟液的标准,但许多中国企业都声称,他们是在美国的一些达到FDA质量控制标准的实验室制造这些液体的。“I can tell you that all of our e-liquid is manufactured, bottled and filled here in the ed States,” the chief executive at Mistic e-cigarettes, John J. Wiesehan Jr., said in an email. “Our liquid never leaves the U.S. We get no e-liquid from China.”“我可以告诉你,我们所有的电子烟液都是在美国制造、装瓶和填充的,”Mistic电子烟的首席执行官小约翰·J·维森汉(John J. Wiesehan Jr.)在一封电子邮件中说。“我们的液体从未离开美国。我们没有任何来自中国的电子烟液。”Big e-cigarette makers in the ed States have begun to move manufacturing to the ed States or Europe. Global tobacco companies are doing likewise. And some Chinese manufacturers, including Joyetech, are also moving their production facilities to the West.美国的大型电子烟制造商开始把制造过程转移到美国或欧洲。国际性的烟草公司也在这样做。包括卓尔悦在内的一些中国制造商也开始把他们的生产设施搬到西方。“A lot of people don’t trust the air or water in China,” says Mr. Qiu, the boss at Joyetech e-cigarettes, “so why would they trust our e-liquid?”“很多人都不信任中国的空气或水源,”卓尔悦电子烟的老板邱伟华说,“那么他们为什么要信任我们的电子烟液?” /201412/348812

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