巴中做双眼皮术费用时空中文

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 巴中做双眼皮术费用39乐园
Kennedy Town is among the few remaining districts on Hong Kong island where hole-in-the-wall noodle joints and traditional tea houses outnumber clothing stores and US coffee shops.在坚尼地城(Kennedy Town),不起眼的面店和传统茶馆要多于装店和美式咖啡馆,香港岛上这样的街区已经不多见了。The town, named after Hong Kong’s seventh British governor Arthur Edward Kennedy, was for many years inhabited by a working-class community. Low-rise apartment blocks and industrial buildings dating back to the 1950s have yet to be knocked down despite planned redevelopment.坚尼地城是以英国派驻香港的第七任总督坚尼地(Arthur Edward Kennedy)的名字命名的,多年来一直是工薪阶层的聚居区。这里的低层公寓楼和工业建筑最早建于20世纪50年代,虽然有重新开发的计划,但至今那些老建筑仍未被推倒。To the relief of many locals, few mainland Chinese tourists venture into this part of town. No high-end retail stores are here to sate their appetite for luxury goods. As the last stop on the tram line, Kennedy Town has developed far more slowly than other areas on the island.令许多当地人安心的是,还没有多少中国内地游客闯进这片区域。这里没有高端零售店,满足不了内地游客对奢侈品的欲望。作为有轨电车的终点站,坚尼地城的发展速度远远落后于香港其他片区。However, this appears to be changing. A new subway station connecting Kennedy Town to central Hong Kong has opened, while western-themed restaurants and bars are replacing local diners. Developers are determined to revitalise the area to serve a growing number of wealthier residents, which means rents and property prices will rise. The remaining working-class community is starting to shift to the New Territories north of Hong Kong island.然而,这一现状似乎正在改变。一个新地铁站已经开通,将坚尼地城与市中心连接起来。西式餐馆和酒吧正逐渐取代本地小饭馆。开发商决心要恢复这个片区的活力,以务日益增多的富裕居民,这意味着租金和楼价都会上涨。剩下的工薪阶层开始陆续搬往香港岛以北的新界。For many locals, these changes are yet another sign that Hong Kong’s local culture is eroding. At street level, there is a sense that the city is becoming less “Hong Kong” and more mainland Chinese in character and that the lines between both are blurring.在许多本地人看来,上述变化是香港本土文化日渐式微的又一迹象。从街道外观上,这座城市给人感觉正变得越来越不“香港”,越来越像中国内地,而两地间的界线在不断模糊。In Causeway Bay, a crowded district on Hong Kong island, rising rents — buoyed by an influx of mainland Chinese property buyers — have forced traditional clothing stores to shut down. Only a handful of high-margin businesses, such as luxury European retailers or pharmacies selling milk powder to mainland Chinese mums, are able to afford the rents. Louis Vuitton, the French luxury retailer, has two stores in Causeway Bay and more stores across all of Hong Kong than in London.铜锣湾是香港的一个繁华地区,由于中国内地购房者涌入抬高了这里的租金,传统装店被迫关门。只有少数高利润的商店能付得起租金,如欧洲奢侈品零售商或卖奶粉给中国内地妈妈的药店。法国奢侈品零售商路易威登(Louis Vuitton)在铜锣湾有两家门店,全香港的路易威登店比伦敦的还多。“Imagine 10 shops on one street, of which eight are watch and jewellery shops or pharmacy stores selling milk powder,” says Ho Chun Sing, a self-employed resident of Hong Kong who recently moved out of Causeway Bay in search of a quieter neighbourhood.香港自由职业者何振声(音译)说:“试想一条街上有10家店,8家都是钟表店、珠宝店,或者是卖奶粉的药店。”为了寻找一个安静的社区,他最近搬出了铜锣湾。“Do the people of Hong Kong really need that many? How do large shopping centres and entertainment complexes that cater to mainland Chinese people benefit Hong Kong residents?” What angers locals, he adds, is that the government does not seem interested in improving the lives of ordinary Hong Kong people.“难道香港人真的需要这么多这种店?大型购物中心和中心都是满足中国内地人的,香港居民怎么会受益呢?”他说,本地人感到恼火的是,香港政府对改善普通市民生活似乎并不感兴趣。Mr Ho is one of an increasing number of younger residents who believe their prospects under Chinese rule have deteriorated. Rising inequality is a key issue. Hong Kong’s property market has seen average prices more than double in the past decade, according to Centaline, a property agent.越来越多像他这样的香港年轻人相信,在中国统治下,他们的日子会越来越难过。日益严重的不平等是个关键问题。根据中原地产代理公司(Centaline)的数据,近十年来香港房地产市场平均价格已经翻了一倍以上。The city’s gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality, is up 25 per cent from the 1970s and higher than in many developed countries including Singapore. Ordinary locals are frustrated with what they view as China’s rising influence in all aspects of their lives from everyday business to politics and culture.基尼系数是一个衡量收入不平等程度的指标,香港的基尼系数从20世纪70年代以来已上升了25%,高出许多发达国家,其中包括新加坡。香港的普通市民认为,从日常事务到政治和文化,中国越来越多地影响着他们生活的方方面面,他们对此感到不满。“All decisions by the government seem oriented towards serving mainland Chinese tourists,” says Pamela Low, who moved back to Hong Kong after the handover.香港主权移交后搬回香港的Pamela Low说:“香港政府的所有决定似乎都以务中国内地游客为导向。”The frustrations of the island’s inhabitants are manifested by the increasingly common sight of a local deriding mainland Chinese visitors for behaviours such as spitting, jumping the queue or eating on the subway.有一种现象就体现出了香港市民的不满情绪,他们越来越经常嘲笑内地游客随地吐痰、插队、在地铁上吃东西等行为。The Chinese government recently introduced measures encouraging tourists to improve their etiquette when travelling abroad. Yet young Hong Kongers such as Adrian Li, who works at a law firm, remain sceptical: “The quality of mainland visitors will probably not improve in the short-run. Many Hong Kong locals would rather lose their business than have them here.”中国政府最近出台措施,劝告游客在境外旅行时注意礼仪。然而像Adrian Li这样的香港年轻人仍持怀疑态度。在律所工作的Adrian Li说:“内地游客的素质短期内大概不会提高。许多香港本地人宁愿丢掉生意,也不愿内地游客来这儿。”Mainland shoppers made up a third of Hong Kong’s retail receipts and 10 per cent of GDP in 2013, notes Capital Economics, underscoring the city’s increasingly reliance on Chinese demand.凯投宏观(Capital Economics)指出,2013年香港有三分之一的零售收入和10%的本地生产总值(GDP)都是内地消费者贡献的,凸显了这座城市日益依赖于来自中国内地的需求。Therein lies the challenge for the city. Until recently, Hong Kong served as shining example of capitalism that worked. As long as most locals benefited, it was acceptable to erect an 80-storey building beside a “wet market” selling fruit and vegetables. Hong Kongers managed to adapt.这也正是香港所面临的挑战。不久前,香港还被当做成功推行资本主义的光辉榜样。只要大多数本地人能受益,人们就可以接受将一座80层高的大楼建在卖水果蔬菜的“湿货市场”旁边。香港人设法适应了这种现实。Today’s image of the island is more complicated. It evolves but with a sense that it is leaving many locals behind.今日香港在世人心目中的形象比较复杂。它在前进,但感觉上它将许多港人甩在了后面。 /201506/380287Recently, a friend showed me her mobile phone, with a despairing sigh. The screen was a mosaic of photos of a goggle-eyed baby, taken from every conceivable angle, sometimes holding chirpy, handwritten messages. “It’s overwhelming my inbox!” she muttered, explaining that four months earlier she had become a grandmother to the infant, who lived in a different city. A decade ago, that would have meant she only saw the baby every month — say, over a holiday meal.最近,一位朋友带着一声绝望的叹息,把她的手机给我看。屏幕上是一个睁大眼睛的婴儿各个角度照片的拼接图,有的照片还附带了快活的手写信息。“这塞满了我的收件箱!”她嘟囔着,解释说屏幕上是她那4个月前刚出生的孙子。孩子和父母在另一个城市生活。若是换到10年前,她只能一个月见到孩子一次,比如在节日聚餐的时候。But not in 2015. In the past month, the doting parents have taken to dispatching baby photos to all their friends and family on a daily basis. And now — to her utter bewilderment — my friend has been asked to send text messages to the infant. The idea is that these “texts” can be posted online to show that the grandparents are constantly thinking about their new grandson, and thus enable the family to “connect”. “It’s crazy,” she giggled, explaining that she didn’t want to cause offence but could not quite bring herself to send texts to a four-month-old. “What do I do?”但在2015年,情况不同了。上个月,宠爱孩子的父母开始每天向所有的朋友和家人发送孩子的照片。而现在,让我的朋友非常迷惑的是,他们要求我的朋友给孩子发文字消息。这其中的想法是,这些“文字”能够公布到网上,以彰显祖父母时刻在思念着他们刚出世的孙子,从而让整个家庭“联系起来”。“这太疯狂了,”她咯咯直笑,解释说她不想惹恼家人,但她真的没办法给一个4个月大的婴儿发送文字消息。“我该怎么办呢?”It is a peculiarly 21st-century dilemma. As linguists and anthropologists know well, the way that human families define themselves and communicate with each other has changed numerous times over the millennia. But the past decade has produced a shift in the pattern of family communications that is more speedy and intense than anything seen before.这是一个21世纪特有的窘境。语言学家和人类学家非常了解,千年以来,人类家庭诠释自身以及成员间互相沟通的方式发生了无数次改变。但在过去十年,家庭沟通方式发生的转变比以往任何一次都要迅速和剧烈。Never mind the fact that the internet has suddenly linked the entire globe; social media and mobile phones have enabled us all to disappear into cyber space, colliding and connecting — however we choose. That is not just reshaping work but altering domestic space, creating new forms of cyber family traditions, even during the holidays.不必担心如下事实:互联网在突然之间将全球连接在一起;社交媒体和手机让所有人消失在网络空间之中,发生不受我们自身控制的相互碰撞和连接。这不仅重塑了我们的工作环境,也改变了我们的家庭空间,创造出新形式的网络家庭传统,甚至是节日传统。For many people, this shift seems frightening. Last month, for example, Newmarket Holidays, one of the UK’s largest tour operators, conducted a survey of grandparents that showed that more than three-quarters thought that their relationship with their grandchildren was different from the relationship they had with their own grandparents — and that more than half feel that the difficulty in sharing Christmas traditions is due to computer games taking the attention of their grandchildren. Another third blamed mobile phones and TV for distracting the kids and undermining the type of traditional Christmas activities that the grandparents thought were crucial to maintain family ties (such as talking, playing board games or singing songs).对很多人来说,这种转变似乎很可怕。比如,英国最大的旅行社之一Newmarket Holidays上个月对祖父母进行了一项调查。结果显示,超过四分之三的受调查者认为他们与孙辈的关系不同于他们和自己的祖父母的关系,超过一半的受调查者感到与孩子分享圣诞节传统存在困难,原因是电脑游戏占据了孙辈们的注意力。另有三分之一的受调查者指责手机和电视让孩子分心,削弱了他们认为对维系家庭关系起关键作用的圣诞节传统活动(比如聊天、玩棋盘游戏或者唱歌)。Other surveys in the US reflect this concern. Between half and two-thirds of adults today say that children are too obsessed with social media, and fear that the rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets is creating a more individualistic, alienated society. It is little wonder, then, that one of the fastest-growing categories of self-help books is the one which tells people how to maintain social connections — and quality family time — in the face of this digital onslaught. No doubt some of those books have been handed around as Christmas presents (along with a vastly bigger mountain of electronic gadgets).美国的一些其他调查也反映了这种忧虑。现在有一半到三分之二的成年人认为儿童对社交媒体过于沉迷,他们担心电子玩意儿的迅速普及正在造就一个人们更强调个性、彼此更疏远的社会。所以,这也难怪增长最快的一类自助图书,是教人们如何在这种数字攻势下维持社会关系、保和家人一起度过宝贵时光的书。毫无疑问,一些人将这种书作为圣诞礼物(与大得多的一堆电子器件一起)送给家人朋友。But while it is easy for parents (like me) to worry that iPads, iPhones and Instagram are undermining the family, it is not always that simple. As Danah Boyd, a digital anthropologist, points out, our cyber behaviour needs to be viewed in a much bigger social context. Take the oft-cited concern that electronic media are separating children from their parents (or grandparents). To a casual observer, this might seem self-evident, given how much time children tend to spend online, roaming cyber space or chatting with friends.但是,尽管父母们(比如我)很容易担忧iPad、iPhone和Instagram正在削弱家庭关系,可事情并不总是那么简单。数字人类学家丹纳#8226;伊德(Danah Boyd)指出,我们在网络上的行为需要放到一个大得多的社会背景下进行理解。一个常被提及的忧虑是,电子媒体正使孩子与他们的父母(或者祖父母)的关系更为疏远。以此为例,对一般的观察者来说,考虑到孩子们在网络漫游或者与朋友聊天等在线活动上花了多少时间,这一点似乎是不言而喻的。But, as Boyd points out, what children are doing online today is simply an extension of what they used to do in the real world. In the past, kids often wandered the streets (or woods and fields) with relative freedom, and used that time to explore boundaries and congregate with friends. But now that this has been curtailed by protective parents, children are roaming in cyber space instead. While Twitter or Instagram might be new, what is not new is the idea that teens want to escape — even at Christmas.但是,就如伊德指出的,今天的孩子们在网络上做的事情不过是过去他们在真实世界里做的事情的延伸。过去,孩子们经常相对自由地在街道上(或者树林和田野中)漫游,并且花时间探索边界,与朋友们聚在一起。但现在,想保护孩子的父母限制了这些活动,因此孩子们转而在网络空间中漫游。尽管Twitter或者Instagram或许是新事物,但青少年哪怕是在圣诞节的时候都想要逃离,这种想法却并不是新鲜事。Similarly, while the rise of social media might undermine the type of family traditions that grandparents say they love, it is also creating new links. Parents today can monitor what teenagers are saying to each other far more closely than before. Kids can talk — or Skype or FaceTime — with their relatives all over the world on Christmas Day. Family news or holiday snaps can be shared on social media platforms.类似的,尽管社交媒体的兴起或许削弱了祖父母喜爱的一些家庭传统,但同时也创造了新的关联。当今的父母们可以更严密地监控青少年谈话的内容。孩子们可以通过Skype或者Facetime在圣诞节这天与世界各地的亲人聊天。家庭新闻或者节日照片能够在社交媒体平台上分享。Then there is the innovation of sending “texts” to babies. To some people (such as my friend) that might sound bizarre; to others (like my friends’ children) it seems normal. Either way, the key point is this: in today’s cyber world we have extraordinary freedom to reshape our family web as we choose. And that is rather an inspiring development to consider — particularly as another holiday season draws to a close. 6还有关于给婴儿发送“文字”的新颖做法。对一些人(比如我的朋友)来说,这听上去可能很怪异,但对另一些人(比如我朋友的子女)来说,这或许很正常。不管怎样,关键点是在今天的网络世界里,我们有很大的自由,按照自己的心意重塑家庭网络。这是一种值得我们思考的、令人相当鼓舞的新情况,尤其是在下一个节假日到来之前。 /201501/354732

Lenore Skenazy, a New York City mother of two, earned the sobriquet “America’s Worst Mom” after reporting in a newspaper column that she had allowed her younger son, then 9, to ride the subway alone.家住纽约市的莉诺·斯科纳兹(Lenore Skenazy)是两个孩子的母亲,自从报纸专栏报道了她让9岁的小儿子独自乘坐地铁的事情之后,“美国最差妈妈”的绰号就落在了她的头上。The damning criticism she endured, including a threat of arrest for child endangerment, intensified her desire to encourage anxious parents to give their children the freedom they need to develop the self-confidence and resilience to cope effectively with life’s many challenges.她承受了严厉的谴责,甚至面临着因危害儿童罪而受到逮捕的威胁,但这一切反而令她的信念更加坚定,她期望能通过自己的努力,鼓励焦虑的家长们放手,给孩子更多自由,让孩子们有机会建立自信心和适应力,从而更有效地应对生活中的诸多挑战。One result was the publication in 2009 of her book “Free Range Kids: How to Raise Safe, Self-Reliant Children (Without Going Nuts With Worry).” A second result is the Free Range Kids Project and a 13-part series, starting Thursday on Discovery Life Channel, called “World’s Worst Mom.” In it, Ms. Skenazy intervenes to rescue bubble-wrapped kids from their overprotective parents by guiding the children safely through a sequence of once-forbidden activities and showing their anxious parents how well the children perform and how proud they are of what they accomplished.为此,她在2009年出版了一本书,名为《放养孩子》(Free Range Kids: How to Raise Safe, Self-Reliant Children [Without Going Nuts With Worry])。此外她还建立了“放养孩子计划”(Free Range Kids Project),并拍摄了名为《世界上最糟糕的妈妈》(‘World’s Worst Mom’)的13集系列片,从周四开始在探索生活频道(Discovery Life Channel)播出。在这个节目里,斯科纳兹试图通过干预将受到过度保护的“花骨朵”们从父母手中解放出来,指导他们安全地完成一系列一度被父母严格禁止的活动,向那些总是忧心忡忡的父母们显示,他们的孩子有多棒,以及他们的孩子对自己的成就有多么感到自豪。The term “helicopter parents” applies to far more than those who hover relentlessly over their children’s academic and musical development. As depicted in the first episode of the series, it applies to 10-year-old Sam’s very loving mother who wouldn’t let him ride a bike (“she’s afraid I’ll fall and get hurt”), cut up his own meat (“Mom thinks I’ll cut my fingers off”), or play “rough sports” like skating. The plea from a stressed-out, thwarted Sam: “I just want to do things by myself.”“直升机父母”这个词常形容的是那些每分每秒都悬在孩子头顶,督促他们在学业和音乐上不断进步的父母,但其实这个词的适用范围远远不止于此。斯科纳兹系列片的第一集中介绍的、10岁男孩山姆的母亲就是典型的“直升机父母”。她对自己的儿子过分爱护,以至于不允许他骑自行车(“她怕我会跌倒受伤”),不许他自己用餐刀切碎盘中肉食(“妈妈认为我肯定会切到手指头”),更不许参加滑冰之类“粗野的运动”。压力山大且倍受挫折的山姆恳求道:“我想要的,不过是自己的事情自己做而已。”In an interview, Ms. Skenazy said, “Having been brainwashed by all the stories we hear, there’s a prevailing fear that any time you’re not directly supervising your child, you’re putting the child in danger.” The widesp publicity now given to crimes has created an exaggerated fear of the dangers children face if left to navigate and play on their own.斯科纳兹女士在一次采访中说:“被道听途说的传闻洗脑之后,人们普遍存在这么一种忧虑:只要没有紧紧盯着自己孩子的一举一动,就是将孩子置于险境。”现如今对犯罪行为的广泛宣传,也大大夸大了让儿童独立行动和玩耍时可能遇到的危险。Yet, according to Peter Gray, a research psychologist at Boston College, “the actual rate of strangers abducting or molesting children is very small. It’s more likely to happen at the hands of a relative or family friend. The statistics show no increase in childhood dangers. If anything, there’s been a decrease.”然而,美国波士顿学院(Boston College)的研究心理学家彼得·格雷(Peter Gray)指出:“实际上,陌生人拐骗或猥亵儿童的案发率非常低,亲戚或家庭友人作案的机率反而更大。而且,统计数据并未显示儿童面临的危险增加,实情是此类事件是呈下降趋势的。”Experts say there is no more crime against children by strangers today — and probably significantly less — than when I was growing up in the 1940s and ’50s, a time when I walked to school alone and played outdoors with friends unsupervised by adults. “The world is not perfect — it never was — but we used to trust our children in it, and they learned to be resourceful,” Ms. Skenazy said. “The message these anxious parents are giving to their children is ‘I love you, but I don’t believe in you. I don’t believe you’re as competent as I am.’ ”专家们表示,与我小时候,也就是20世纪40年代和50年代相比,今天由陌生人实施的针对儿童的犯罪非但没有增加,很可能还显著减少了。要知道,我们那时候是自己步行上学,还在户外跟朋友玩耍,旁边都没有成年人的监管。“世界不是完美的——从来就不是,但过去我们一直相信孩子们自己能行,相信他们可以从中学会随机应变,”斯科纳兹女士说。“而如今的这些焦虑的父母传达给子女们的信息却是:‘我爱你,但我不信任你。我不相信你像我一样能干。’ ”Dr. Gray, author of “Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life,” said in an interview, “If children are not allowed to take routine risks, they’ll be less likely to be able to handle real risks when they do occur.”格雷士撰写了《会玩才会学——当野孩子有什么不好?》(Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life)一书。他在接受采访时说,“如果孩子们从没有机会面对日常风险,那么,当真正的危险降临时,他们越不可能有能力应对。”Case in point: His college’s counseling office has seen a doubling in the rate of emergency calls in the last five years, “mainly for problems kids used to solve on their own,” like being called a bad name by a roommate or finding a mouse in the room. “Students are prepared academically, but they’re not prepared to deal with day-to-day life, which comes from a lack of opportunity to deal with ordinary problems,” Dr. Gray said. “Over the past 60 years, there’s been a huge change, well documented by social scientists, in the hours a day children play outdoors — less than half as much as parents did at their children’s ages,” he said.举例为:在过去五年内,他所在学院的辅导办公室接到的紧急求助电话翻了一番,“基本上都是为了一些以往孩子们可以独立解决的问题”,比如被室友起了个难听的昵称或是在房间里发现一只老鼠等等。“学生们只准备好了如何搞定学业上的困难,却并没有准备好要如何应对日常生活,因为他们一直没什么机会去处理那些寻常的问题,”格雷士说。“社会科学家的资料显示,在过去的60年里发生了巨大的变化——现在孩子们每天在户外玩耍的时间还不到他们父母当初的一半,”他说。In decades past, children made up their own games and acquired important life skills in the process. “In pickup games,” Dr. Gray said, “children make the rules, negotiate, and figure out what’s fair to keep everyone happy. They develop creativity, empathy and the ability to the minds of other players, instead of having adults make the rules and solve all the problems.”几十年前,孩子们自创游戏,并从这一过程中习得重要的生活技能。格雷士说:“在临时组织的比赛中,孩子们自己制定规则并相互协商,最后确定下来让每个人都满意的最公平的玩法。由此他们的创造力得到了开发,也学会了揣度和体谅其他玩家的心理,而不是任由成年人给他们定下规矩并大包大揽地解决所有问题。”Dr. Gray links the astronomical rise in childhood depression and anxiety disorders, which are five to eight times more common than they were in the 1950s, to the decline in free play among young children. “Young people today are less likely to have a sense of control over their own lives and more likely to feel they are the victims of circumstances, which is predictive of anxiety and depression,” he said.格雷士认为,今天儿童抑郁症和焦虑症会飙升至20世纪50年代的五到八倍,与儿童自由玩耍时间的减少有关。他说:“如今的年轻人对生活的掌控力较弱,相反,他们更容易觉得自己不过是客观环境下的牺牲品,这当然会产生焦虑和抑郁情绪。”There are also physical consequences to restricting children’s outdoor play because there are no adults available to supervise it. Children today spend many more hours indoors than in years past, which in part accounts for the rise in childhood obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Many elementary schools have even canceled recess, believing it is time better spent cramming children’s heads with facts and figures.由于成年人没有足够的时间和精力来监管,就限制孩子们能在户外玩耍的时间,这对他们的身体也会造成影响。与以前相比,如今的孩子们待在室内的时间大大增加,从某种程度上导致了儿童肥胖和2型糖尿病的多发。很多小学甚至把课间休息也取消了,他们认为与其休息,还不如抓紧这些时间把资料和数字塞进孩子们的脑袋里。“Childhood should be a time of freedom and play, not building a résumé for college,” Dr. Gray said.格雷士说:“童年本就应该自由玩耍,这段时光不是用来打造漂亮的大学入学简历的。”As Ms. Skenazy put it, “if parents truly believe children must be supervised every second of the day, then they can’t walk to school, play in the park, or wake up Saturday morning, get on their bikes and go have an adventure.”正如斯科纳兹女士所说的那样:“如果家长真的认为自己的子女每分每秒都离不开照管,那么孩子们就不能自己走路去上学或是在公园玩耍,更不能在星期六早上起床后骑上自行车出门去探索新天地。”Some 2,000 families were screened by the Discovery Life Channel to find 13 families crippled by anxiety yet willing to have an intervention. “The parents weren’t easy pushovers,” Ms. Skenazy said. “Some were very unhappy to see me at first. But once pride in what their children achieved replaced their fears, they were ecstatic — relaxed and happy instead of crippled with fear.”探索生活频道筛查了约2000个家庭,从中找到了13个深受焦虑困扰却愿意尝试接受干预的家庭。“要说父母们可不是件容易的事,”斯科纳兹说。“有些人一开始根本不想见到我。但当他们对孩子成就的自豪感冲淡了恐惧,每个人都欣喜若狂,变得又轻松又快乐。”Ms. Skenazy spent four days with each family, introducing a different challenge each day. Sam learned to cut cheese and slice a tomato with a sharp knife and then made sandwiches for his parents. He also learned to ride a two-wheeler.斯科纳兹与每个家庭都共处了四天,每一天都给他们提出不同的挑战课题。山姆学会了用锋利的餐刀将奶酪和西红柿切片,然后给父母做三明治。他还学会了骑两轮脚踏车。“I don’t guarantee I’ll take away all their worry, just give them the confidence to loosen the reins on their kids,” she said. “Kids need roots and wings. Parents give them roots. I give them wings.”“我无法保我可以解除他们所有的忧虑,我只是给了他们一点信心,让他们放松对孩子们的束缚而已,”斯科纳兹说。“孩子们需要根基和翅膀。如果说父母给了他们根基,那么,就让我来给他们翅膀吧。” /201503/367277MY kids have recently picked up a worrying French slang word: bim (pronounced “beam”). It’s what children say in the schoolyard here after they’ve proved someone wrong, or skewered him with a biting remark. English equivalents like “gotcha” or “booyah” don’t carry the same sense of gleeful vanquish, and I doubt British or American kids use them quite as often.我的孩子们最近学会了一个令人担心的法语俚语词:bim(发音与英语的“beam”相似)。孩子们在校园里明别人犯了错,或者用尖刻的话把对方驳得体无完肤时,就会说“bim”。英语里类似的词语“gotcha”或者“booyah”并没有完全传达出那种碾压别人的喜悦。而且我也怀疑,英国和美国的孩子说这些词并没有那么频繁。As an American married to an Englishman and living in France, I’ve spent much of my adult life trying to decode the rules of conversation in three countries. Paradoxically, these rules are almost always unspoken. So much bubbles beneath what’s said, it’s often hard to know what anyone means.作为一个嫁给英国人、目前生活在法国的美国人,我成年后的大把时间,都在努力破译这三个国家语言交流的规则。可矛盾的是,这些规则几乎总是心照不宣的。人们说出的话里有太多掩饰,常常很难明白真实的用意。I had a breakthrough on French conversation recently, when a French sociologist suggested I watch “Ridicule,” a 1996 French movie (it won the César award for best film) about aristocrats at the court of Versailles, on the eve of the French Revolution.在理解法国式对话方面,我最近取得了重大进展。一位法国社会学家建议我看一看1996年的法国电影《荒谬无稽》(Ridicule)。这部片子赢得了凯撒奖的最佳影片奖项,讲述了法国大革命前夕凡尔赛宫廷里贵族的故事。Life at Versailles was apparently a protracted battle of wits. You gained status if you showed “esprit” — clever, erudite and often caustic wit, aimed at making rivals look ridiculous. The king himself kept abreast of the sharpest remarks, and granted audiences to those who made them. “Wit opens every door,” one courtier explained.凡尔赛宫的生活似乎就是漫长的唇舌剑,如果能展示出“esprit”——聪明、学且时常很尖刻的机锋,并让其他人显得可笑——那么你就能赢得地位。国王本人也时刻关注着最犀利的言辞,而说出这种话的人会得到接见。一位侍臣解释道,“机智能打开每一扇门。”If you lacked “esprit” — or suffered from “l’esprit de l’escalier” (thinking of a comeback only once you had reached the bottom of the staircase) — you’d look ridiculous yourself.但是,如果你缺乏“esprit”,或者遭遇“l’esprit de l’escalier”(走到楼梯最下面,才想起如何反击),那么你自己就会显得十分可笑。Granted, France has changed a bit since Versailles. But many modern-day conversations — including the schoolyard cries of “Bim!” — make more sense once you realize that everyone around you is in a competition not to look ridiculous. When my daughter complained that a boy had insulted her during recess, I counseled her to forget about it. She said that just wouldn’t do: To save face, she had to humiliate him.诚然,法国比起凡尔赛的时代已经发生了一些变化。但是当你意识到,周围的所有人都在为了不显得可笑而奋力竞争,那么当代的很多对话,包括校园里高呼的“Bim!”,就都显得合理了。我的女儿抱怨,一个男孩课间欺负了她,我建议她别在意这件事。但她说那是不行的:要想挽回面子,就必须羞辱回去。Many children train for this at home. Where Americans might coo over a child’s most inane remark, to boost his confidence, middle-class French parents teach their kids to be concise and amusing, to keep everyone listening. “I force him or her to discover the best ways of retaining my attention,” the anthropologist Raymonde Carroll wrote in her 1987 book “Cultural Misunderstandings: The French-American Experience.”许多孩子在家就接受了这种训练。为了激发孩子的信心,美国人对子女最愚蠢的言论或许都会柔声赞许,但是法国中产阶级父母却会教导孩子要讲话简洁风趣,好让所有人都愿意听。“我会强迫他或她,想方设法地吸引我的注意力,”人类学家雷蒙德·卡罗(Raymonde Carroll)在她1987年出版的《文化误解:法国和美国的经验》(Cultural Misunderstandings: The French-American Experience)一书中写道。This is probably worse in Paris, and among the professional classes. But a lot of French TV involves round-table discussions in which well-dressed people attempt to land zingers on one another. Practically every time I speak up at a school conference, a political event or my apartment building association’s annual meeting, I’m met with a display of someone else’s superior intelligence. (Adults don’t actually say “bim,” they just flash you a satisfied smile.) Jean-Beno#238;t Nadeau, a Canadian who co-wrote a forthcoming book on French conversation, told me that the penchant for saying “no” or “it’s not possible” is often a cover for the potential humiliation of seeming not to know something. Only once you trust someone can you turn down the wit and reveal your weaknesses, he said. (I think the French obsession with protecting private life comes from the belief that everyone’s entitled to a humiliation-free zone.)这种现象在巴黎,在专业阶层当中或许更严重。不过,法国的很多电视节目都有圆桌讨论的情形,让衣着考究的嘉宾用尖刻的口吻相互嘲弄。在学校会议、政治活动,或者公寓楼居民协会的年会上发言时,我几乎每次都会遇到别人炫耀高超的智力。(成年人并不会真的说出“bim”,只是脸上闪现出一丝满意的微笑而已。)加拿大人让-贝努阿·纳多(Jean-Beno#238;t Nadeau)与人合著了一本关于法国式谈话的书,即将出版。他告诉我,爱说“不”、“不可能”的习惯,常常是为了避免因为看起来不知道某事而可能受到的羞辱。他说,只有当你信任某人时,才能不必那么机智,袒露自己的弱点。(我想,法国人对保护私生活的偏执,源于他们认为每个人都有权得到一个免受羞辱的空间。)At least it’s not boring. Even among friends, being dull is almost criminal. A French entrepreneur told me her rules for dinner-party topics: no kids, no jobs, no real estate. Provocative opinions are practically required. “You must be a little bit mean but also a little bit vulnerable,” she said.至少这样聊天不会无聊。即使是在朋友之间,表现得无趣几乎也是犯罪行为。一名法国企业家告诉我,她为聚餐话题立下的规矩是:不谈孩子、不谈工作、不谈房地产。这实际上就需要提出争议性的意见。她说,“必须要有一些恶毒,但也要有一些脆弱。”It’s dizzying to switch to the British conversational mode, in which everyone’s trying to show they don’t take themselves seriously. The result is lots of self-deprecation and ironic banter. I’ve sat through two-hour lunches in London waiting for everyone to stop exchanging quips so the real conversation could begin. But “real things aren’t supposed to come up,” my husband said. “Banter can be the only mode of conversation you ever have with someone.”切换到英国式的交谈模式则会令人不知所措。在这种模式里,人人都努力表现得不把自己当回事,结果就是大量的自嘲和讽刺性的调侃。在伦敦,我曾好几次耐着性子坚持到两个小时的午餐结束,一直等着所有人停止相互打趣,这样才能开始真正的交谈。但“可别以为一定会谈什么实质内容,”我丈夫说。“和有的人,只存在戏谑这一种谈话模式。”Earnestness makes British people gag. Viewers respond to the “gushy, tearful” speeches of American actors at the Oscars with a “finger-down-throat ‘I’m going to be sick’ gesture,” writes Kate Fox, author of “Watching the English.” Moralizing politicians get this, too.真诚会让英国人呛着。《观察英国人》(Watching the English)的作者凯特·福克斯(Kate Fox)写道,对美国演员在奥斯卡颁奖礼上“含泪发表的煽情”感言,英国观众会做出“把手指塞进喉咙里,表示‘我要吐了’的动作”。面对爱说教的政客,他们也不会客气。Even British courtships can be conducted ironically. “ ‘You’re just not my type,’ uttered in the right tone and in the context of banter, can be tantamount to a proposal of marriage,” Ms. Fox writes.就连英国式的求爱,也可以在冷嘲热讽中展开。“在戏谑语境下用恰当的语调说出‘你决不是我喜欢的类型’,简直无异于求婚,”福克斯写道。Being ridiculous is sometimes required. The classic British hen night — a bachelor party for brides — involves groups of women wearing feather boas to a bar, then daring one another to “kiss a bald man” or “remove your bra without leaving the room.” Stumbling around drunk with friends — then recounting your misadventures for months afterward — is a standard bonding ritual.有时候,表现得滑稽可笑是必须的。在传统的英国女子婚前单身派对上,会有很多姑娘戴着羽毛围巾前往酒吧,然后用激将法撺掇彼此“亲吻一个秃顶男人”或是“当场脱掉内衣”。醉醺醺地和朋友一起出丑——然后在接下来的几个月里一直回顾自己当时做的糗事——是建立友情的标准仪式。After being besieged by British irony and French wit, I sometimes yearn for the familiar comfort of American conversations, where there are no stupid questions. Among friends, I merely have to provide reassurance and mirroring: No, you don’t look fat, and anyway, I look worse.被英国式的嘲讽和法国式的机智包围后,我时不时会渴望美国式谈话给人带来的那种熟悉的舒适感。这种谈话里没有问题会被认为是愚蠢的。在朋友之间,我只需要宽慰对方,并拿自己做参照:不,你看起来不胖,而且不管怎样,我看上去更遭。It might not matter what I say, since some American conversations resemble a succession of monologues. A 2014 study led by a psychologist at Yeshiva University found that when researchers crossed two unrelated instant-message conversations, as many as 42 percent of participants didn’t notice. A lot of us — myself included — could benefit from a basic rule of improvisational comedy: Instead of planning your next remark, just listen very hard to what the other person is saying. Call it “mindful conversation,” if you like. That’s what the French tend to do — even if it ends with “bim.”我说什么可能根本不重要,因为有些美式谈话其实是一连串的独白。叶史瓦大学(Yeshiva University)的一名心理学家在2014年牵头进行的一项研究中发现,当研究人员将两个不相干的即时通讯对话交叉在一起时,多达42%的参与者毫无察觉。我们中的很多人,包括我在内,可以从即兴喜剧的一条基本规则中受益:与其构思接下来要说什么,不如干脆非常认真地听对方在说什么。不妨称之为“用心交谈”。法国人往往会这么做,尽管最后会加上一个“bim”。 /201503/364986

One Friday night last fall, 50 well-dressed guests piled into an apartment in Hell’s Kitchen for a party celebrating Sheela-Marie Padgett, a 57-year-old former dancer with the New York City Ballet.去年秋天的一个周五晚上,位于纽约地狱厨房区的一处公寓楼内,50位衣着光鲜的客人接踵而至。他们前来参加为前纽约市芭蕾舞团舞蹈演员、57岁的茜拉·玛丽·帕吉特(Sheela-Marie Padgett)举行的派对。Waiters passed drinks before a buffet dinner of fancy Indian food was presented. Then came a chocolate cake from the Erotic Bakery made in the shape of corseted showgirl with a male appendage. It was sliced up and served to the crowd.侍者们供应着酒水。之后,客人们享用了印式精致美食自助餐。甜点是来自“情欲面包房”的一块巧克力蛋糕。蛋糕的形状是一个穿了紧身胸衣却有着男性性器官的歌舞女郎。蛋糕被切成小块以偿宾客。Which was fitting enough, because the following morning, Sheela — formerly known as Bruce — was scheduled to fly to Scottsdale, Ariz., for the last major procedure in her transition from male to female: gender reassignment surgery.这真是再应景不过了。第二天早上,茜拉——她之前的名字是布鲁斯——就要飞到亚利桑那州的斯克茨戴尔完成她从男性变为女性的最后一步:变性手术。One by one, friends made their way over to the Nakashima-style wood dining table to offer congratulations. Almost unanimously, they noted that Bruce had been cynical, withdrawn and biting, while Sheela is soft and effervescent.朋友们一个接着一个走到中岛风格(Nakashima-style)的餐桌前,向茜拉表示祝贺。他们几乎不约而同地注意到:之前的布鲁斯愤世嫉俗、孤僻、爱嘲讽,而茜拉却温婉活泼。“It’s like you’re a different person,” said Edwin Pabon, a freelance photographer. “Before the lights were off, and now they’re on.”“她完全变了一个人,”自由职业摄影师埃德温·帕波恩说:“就好像之前灯是关着的,现在它们打开了。”“It’s true,” said Ms. Padgett, who stands 5 foot 7 inches tall (when not in heels), wore a black lace top, and, with her hair done in a Raphaelite style, looked rather like the portrait that would emerge if John Singer Sargent were alive today to paint Madonna. “My friends were all frightened of me. I was a nasty person. I was so unhappy. It tainted all my relationships.”“这是真的,”帕吉特女士说:“以前,我的朋友们都怕我。我不是一个好相处的人。我非常不快乐。这影响了我所有的人际关系。”帕吉特身高一米七,穿着一件黑色的蕾丝上衣,头发的样式模仿了拉斐尔派画像里的女性。如果肖像画家约翰·辛格·萨金特(John Singer Sargent)还在世的话,他画的麦当娜可能会和她别无二致。Lori Ogle, another friend, said: “It’s really brave to do what she’s doing and it’s even braver because it’s so late in life. We were born the same year. I don’t know what I want to change, but this is inspiring. It’s like, ‘Go ahead, it’s not too late.’ ”另一位朋友,萝莉·奥格(Lori Ogle)说:“她做这件事真的很有勇气。考虑到她的年龄,她尤其显得勇敢。我们是同一年出生的。帕吉特给了我激励,尽管我不知道我想改变什么。这就好像有人告诉我:‘放手去做吧,还为时不晚。’”Awareness of transgender issues has surged over the last year. Laverne Cox, a star of the television show “Orange Is the New Black,” appeared in June on the cover of Time. Janet Mock chronicled her transition from male to female in the memoir “Redefining Realness,” which landed last spring on the New York Times best-seller list. Transgender models like Andreja Pejic have walked the runways in New York and Milan. And major retailers like Barneys are using transgender men and women in their ad campaigns.对于跨性别话题的关注从去年开始高涨。电视剧《铁女子监狱》(Orange Is the New Black)中的主演之一,变性女星拉文·考克斯(Laverne Cox)在去年六月上了《时代》周刊的封面。简妮特·默克(Janet Mock)的回忆录《重新定义真实》(Redefining Realness)记述了她从男性到女性的转变,并于去年春季跻入《纽约时报》畅销书排行榜。像安德烈·佩伊其(Andreja Pejic)这样的跨性模特在纽约和米兰的秀场崭露头角。而诸如巴尼斯(Barneys)这样的零售商巨头也在广告宣传中启用了跨性人士。But it took Amazon’s popular and acclaimed TV series “Transparent,” about a septuagenarian father of three who is coming out as trans (which coincided with frenzied coverage of Bruce Jenner’s drastically changed physical appearance) to shed light on a largely undiscussed segment of the transgender population: those who undergo a gender change later in life, sometimes even in their 60s and 70s, after decades of feeling not fully whole.而很少人会去关注那些在人生后半段——有些甚至是到了六七十岁,在经历了好几十年的缺憾后才开始转变性别的跨性人群。亚马逊出品的《透明家庭》(Transparent)改变了这一情况。这部人气高涨,备受好评的电视剧讲述了一位耄耋之年,养育了三个子女的跨性父亲的出柜故事(电视播出的同时,媒体正大肆报道1949年出生的前运动员布鲁斯·詹纳[Bruce Jenner]变性后大为改变的外貌)。Coming out as transgender is not easy for anyone. But the issues are particularly thorny for those trying to reconfigure a central tenet of identity decades after building an adult life with family and career.出柜对于跨性人士来说并非易事。对于那些构建了好几十年人生,有了家庭和事业的人们来说,要想改变身份的核心成分更是难上加难。Social changes have a tendency to take root among the young, and to then trickle up years (sometimes decades) later. To be in transition around the time you qualify for AARP membership is to be on some level a paradox; a person newly born at a seasoned age.社会身份的变化会在年轻人心目中扎根,然后在数年甚至数十年后体现出来。到了该退休的年龄再想改变性别,这无异于一个悖论:本是熟龄人士,却刚获得新生。Additionally, these late transitioners grew up in an era of rigid gender stereotypes, which they have been both oppressed by and in some cases internalized. A great number of them are married and have children who struggle to accept that the person who raised them is now becoming someone new.此外,这些高龄变性者成长于一个性别观念僵化的年代。他们被这些观念压迫,而这些观念也成了他们当中某些人自我意识的一部分。他们中的大多数人都已成家,有了子女。对后代来说,要接受养育他们的家长现在就要变为另外一个人,这会是一个艰难的过程。There are pragmatic as well as physical challenges, too, particularly for the older population of trans women (which refers to those born with men’s anatomy and who have since transitioned). Men’s jaws and shoulders widen over time, making a more “womanly” shape hard to achieve. Hair grows on their bodies while disappearing from their scalps, necessitating hair transplants or wigs.另外还有一些现实的和身体上的挑战,尤其是对于女性跨性别者(女性跨性别者指的是生下来是男性,后来转变为女性的人士)来说。男性的下颚和肩膀会随着年岁增长变宽。这使得他们更难获得较为女性化的身材。他们的体毛变得旺盛,但是头发却逐渐脱落。这样他们不得不进行头发移植,或是戴假发。All of which has profound emotional consequences for a group of people coming to terms not only with their genders but with the indignities of aging and impending mortality. Many will not be beautiful, like the young transitioners they watch on TV. Many will not “pass.”所有这些困难对高龄变性人的情绪影响极其深刻:他们既为自己的性别身份而苦苦挣扎,同时还要面对因为衰老而丧失尊严和即将到来的死亡所带来的困扰。许多人都不会像他们在电视上看到的那些年轻变性人那样美貌。还有许多人的变性结果并不会获得社会“认可”。“After I went on hormones, there was a letdown,” said Barbara, 63, who lives on the Upper East Side and agreed to talk to a reporter on the condition that her last name not be used. “I thought, ‘Where do I go now?’ I’m not going to look like a movie actress in her 20s or 30s. I’m not going to look like Laverne Cox.”“在摄入荷尔蒙后,我有点失望,”63岁的芭芭拉说。芭芭拉住在纽约的上东区,她接受记者采访的条件是不透露姓氏。“我想:‘我现在该怎么办?’我不可能变成像二三十岁的电影演员那样美丽。我不可能变得像拉文·考克斯那样。”Today, she goes to a support group at Sage, the largest organization for older LGBT people. “No one there is dating,” she said.如今,芭芭拉参加了一个名为Sage的互助小组,这是全国最大的老年LGBT人士互助小组。“我们小组里没有一个人在约会,”芭芭拉说。Still, the pull to live as a person wants, even for a short time, even under reduced circumstances, remains powerful. Some people interviewed said they waited to retire before transitioning so as not to disrupt or destroy their careers. Others chose to push forward after the deaths of their parents or after their children had left the nest.尽管如此,能过上自己所渴望的生活——哪怕只是很短的时间,并有各种不尽如人意——这种吸引力还是巨大的。接受采访的一些人说,为了不至于干扰自己的事业,或是使事业毁于一旦,他们等到退休后才开始变性。另一些等到他们父母去世或是子女们成人离家后才开始有所动作。But invariably, they said that they had given enough, pretended enough, and wanted to claim the years remaining as their own. The entirety of their bucket list was to finally become themselves.但是所有的人都说他们已经付出够多,伪装够长。他们想在有生余年过上自己想要的生活。他们现在的人生目标清单只有一项,那就是做回自己。As Ms. Padgett tells it, she lived the first part of her life assuming that the pull to be female would go away. Her father was a Baptist minister in Mississippi. Her mother taught first grade. When she came to New York and became a dancer, she thought that she had found her calling, a world that was more open and tolerant.就像帕吉特女士所讲述的那样。在她人生的上半段,她一直都以为自己想要变成女性的渴求会随时间消逝。她的父亲是密西西比州的一位浸礼会牧师。母亲是小学一年级教师。当她来到纽约成为一名舞者后,她以为自己找到了人生归宿——一个更加开放和宽容的世界。She hung out with Andy Warhol at Indochine and spent late nights at Studio 54 and the Peppermint Lounge.她和安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)一起在印度那(Indochine,纽约著名餐厅——译注)用餐,在54号工作室(Studio 54,纽约一俱乐部——译注)和薄荷舞厅(Peppermint Lounge)寻欢到深夜。And yet during all the years she was a member of one of the world’s most famous ballet companies, she stood off to the side, wanting not to be the prince in “Swan Lake,” but Odette, the female swan.但是置身世界上最有名的芭蕾舞团之一的这些年里,她却一直是一个边缘人物。她不想当《天鹅湖》中的王子,却一直想出演白天鹅奥杰塔。It didn’t happen. Instead, after she turned 50, she found herself increasingly lonely and isolated. Then, in 2007 and 2008, her parents died in quick succession. She began to think of what she characterizes (in stronger language) as the “what the hell” years.她没有如愿。反而,在过了50岁之后,她觉得自己越发孤寂。她的父母于2007年和2008年先后过世。“怎么会这样?”(帕吉特女士的原话语气更为强烈)是她这段时间里的口头禅。生活的不如意促使她思考。There was a small inheritance. A friend who had had gender reassignment surgery more than 20 years before went in for facial feminization surgery. “It was a big success,” Ms. Padgett said. “It completely changed her appearance.” Soon, she began telling people that she was transitioning.她继承了一小笔遗产。一位朋友在20年前做了变性手术,这会儿刚做完了使脸部女性化的手术。“手术很成功,”帕吉特女士说:“她完全变了样。”不久,帕吉特开始告诉周围的人她在变性。Though the reaction to Ms. Padgett’s transition has been largely positive, the process nevertheless has been arduous, and filled with roadblocks that may not have existed had she made the leap earlier.大多数人对帕吉特女士变性消息的反应是正面的。尽管如此,变性的过程相当艰难,充满了许多障碍,而如果帕吉特女士早一点决定变性的话,这些障碍可能并不会存在。“Your grandmother looks more like your grandfather than she did while they were younger,” said Dr. Jeffrey Spiegel, a plastic surgeon in Boston who works largely on trans women and who treated Ms. Padgett. “The eyebrows drop, the nose changes, cheeks get more flat, the upper lips get longer, the jaw gets wider, skin quality deteriorates.”“你的祖母年岁越大长得就越像你的祖父,”杰弗瑞·史比格尔(Jeffrey Spiegel)——一位波士顿的整容医师说。史比格尔医生的客户大多是跨性女性。他也是帕吉特女士的医生。“女性随着年龄的增长眉毛会下垂,鼻子也会有所改变,面颊变平,上唇变长,下颚变宽,肤质也变差了。”“Dr. Spiegel redid my forehead,” Ms. Padgett said. “I had a very masculine brow bone, so he softened that. He raised my eyebrows so that there’s more space between my eye and my eyebrows. He cut the skin inside my lids to take away the old skin. He did a rhinoplasty to make my nose smaller and more delicate. He raised my upper lip so that there’s less space between my nose and my upper lip. He put in cheek implants and chin implants, and he did a tracheal shave and a lower neck and face-lift.”“史比格尔医生给我的额头做了些改变,”帕吉特女士说:“我之前的眉骨非常男性化,所以他把它变得柔和了一些。他还把我的眉毛提高,这样我的眼睛和眉毛之间距离就大了一些。他割去了我眼皮下的一些老皮。还给我的鼻子做了手术,让它变得小巧玲珑一些。他提升了我的上唇,缩小了我的鼻子和上唇的距离。他还给我的面颊和下巴放入了填充物。他除掉了我的喉结,并给我做了下颈部和脸部的拉皮。”The total cost for Dr. Spiegel’s work was ,000. In addition, Ms. Padgett has had several years of painful electrolysis treatments to stop hair from growing on her face and body. Almost nothing related to Ms. Padgett’s gender transition was covered by her health insurance company, including her gender reassignment surgery and breast implants. With those three things added on, she estimates that the cost of transitioning physically was about 0,000. “I am broke,” she said.史比格尔医生做的这些一共花去了53,000美元。除此之外,帕吉特女士还进行了好几年痛苦的电解治疗,使她脸上和身上的毛发停止生长。所有这些和变性有关的治疗,包括变性手术和乳房填充术,帕吉特女士的医疗保险公司几乎都不受理。帕吉特女士估计在变性上的花销一共有差不多10万美元。“我已经成穷光蛋了,”她说。Many trans people older than Ms. Padgett describe growing up in a time when there was really no vocabulary to even describe what they were.许多比帕吉特女士年长的跨性人士都说,在他们成长的那个年代,甚至没有一个词汇来描述他们这群人。“The only word was ‘transvestism,’ nothing was known of this at all,” said Bobbi Swan, 84, of Clinton, Mich., just north of Detroit. She transitioned at age 72.“唯一的一个词就是‘异装癖’了,人们对此真的是一无所知,”84岁的葆比·斯万(Bobbi Swan)说。斯万来自位于密歇根州紧邻底特律南边的科林顿。她在72岁的时候开始了变性历程。After high school, deeply in the closet, Ms. Swan went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, got her degree in aeronautical engineering, and then served in the Air Force during the Korean War.高中毕业后,严守自己跨性身份秘密的斯万就读于麻省理工学院,并在那儿拿到了航天工程学位。之后,她参加了朝鲜战争,在空军役。In 1954, she went to work at Ryan Aeronautical, where one of her jobs included flying target drones over China during the Eisenhower administration. She became a member of the National Rifle Association, donated to numerous Republican candidates, married three different women, had two children, ran a hunting preserve and, in the ’90s, secretly edited a magazine for transvestites called “Our Way.”她于1954年加入了赖安航天公司。在那里,她的工作职责之一是在艾森豪威尔执政期间操控无人机在中国上空进行侦查。她是美国全国步协会的成员,给众多共和党候选人捐过款,先后与不同的女性结了三次婚,有两个孩子,管理着一个狩猎场。在九十年代,她秘密地编辑了一本给变装者看的名为《我行我素》(Our Way)的杂志。“I think it’s safe to say that the employment I had would prohibit any sign of cross-dressing or anything like that,” Ms. Swan said. “I would have lost my job. The main customer is the Department of Defense. It was totally out of order.”“我的工作禁止我露出一点易装或是诸如此类的苗头,这么说我想并不为过,”斯万女士说,“我会丢了工作。我们的主要客户是国防部。我根本不敢有任何非分之想。”But by 2000, she had retired. Her children were grown. Her parents were no longer alive. It was time, she decided, to make a change she had long dreamed of.到了2000年,斯万女士退了休。她的孩子们也已长大成人,父母也过了世。她决定,梦寐以求的做出改变的时机已到。So three years after Ms. Swan began taking hormones and dressing daily as female, she underwent gender reassignment surgery in Thailand. She paid for it mostly through a ,000 check sent by one her sons that came with a note from him that : “Sometimes the most important thing in life is finding oneself.”就这样,在斯万女士开始每天摄入荷尔蒙并按女性着装的三年后,她在泰国接受了变性手术。她两个儿子中的一个给了她一张5000美元的票,用来付了手术开销的大部分。儿子在票上写道:“有时生活中最重要的事情就是找到自我。”That level of acceptance can be the exception. Stephanie James, a 64-year-old trans woman in St. Louis, said she is pleased that she is no longer living a lie (“It’s been worth every penny,” Ms. James said), but the reaction from her three sons was dispiriting. She told her youngest two sons in 2007. “They were bewildered,” she said. Her oldest son found out a week later and stopped speaking to her.家人的这种接受程度并不常见。斯提芬妮·詹姆斯(Stephanie James)是一位住在圣路易斯的跨性女性,今年64岁。她说她很高兴自己不用再在欺骗中生活。(“能这样花出去的钱都值了,”詹姆斯女士说。)但是她的三个儿子的反应却令人失望。她在2007年向两个小儿子说出了实情。“他们根本不理解我,”詹姆斯女士说。她的大儿子一个星期后知道了真相,从此没有跟她说过话。They remain estranged. “I have not even met my grandbaby,” she said.直到现在他们的关系依旧疏远。“我甚至都没有见过我的儿孙,”詹姆斯女士说。In 2009, she was fired as a strategic account manager at Graybar Electric, where she had worked for five years, during which time she transitioned. (Carrie Johnson, director of corporate and marketing communications at Graybar, said Ms. James’s departure was an “individual personnel matter” and declined further comment, saying, “I’m sure you can understand.”)2009年的时候,她被Graybar Electric公司从战略客户经理的职位上解雇。她在公司工作了五年,并在其间开始变性。(凯莉·约翰逊[Carrie Johnson]是Graybar的企业与营销传播部主任。她说詹姆斯女士由于“个人原因”离开了公司。她拒绝进一步解释,“我想你能理解”,她说。)In her last two years at Graybar, Ms. James said, she earned 5,000 with benefits and bonuses. This year, working as a live-in caregiver to an 86-year-old woman, she earns 0 a week, plus health care. “You do the multiplication,” Ms. James said.在Graybar的最后两年里,詹姆斯女士说她连福利带奖金一共挣了125,000美元。今年,她给一位86岁的老太太做护工,每周的工资加上医保是480美元。“你自己做乘法吧,”詹姆斯女士说。Over time, Ms. James has come to a number of awakenings not just about transphobia, but about sexism in general — dynamics she did not understand during 50-plus years living outwardly as a man.这些年下来,詹姆斯女士不但对人们对跨性者的恐惧有了认识,她还对性别歧视有了新的看法。在之前做为男性生活的50多年里,她并没有觉得性别歧视是个问题。“The loss of a position in a white male society is subtle but omnipresent,” Ms. James said. “I remember, before I was let go, I was in a corporate meeting and one of the V.P.’s said, ‘Who brought the bagels?’ No one had. So the V.P. says, ‘Stephanie, would you mind running out to pick them up?’ It was pouring down rain! We could all see it. There were windows on three sides of the conference room. That kind of stuff never happened before I transitioned. It happened all the time after.”“在白人男性社会失去地位是一件微妙的事,但是你时刻都会感知到这个事实,”詹姆斯女士说,“我记得,在我被解雇前,我们在开一个公司会议。一个副总裁问:‘谁买了面包圈?’没有人买。于是这个副总裁说:‘斯提芬妮,你介意跑出去买一下吗?’外面下着瓢泼大雨。会议室三面都有窗户,我们都能看到。在我变性前,这种事是绝对不会发生的。我变性之后,就屡见不鲜了。”Gretchen Lintner, 58, lives in the San Francisco Bay Area. Shortly before she was laid off from her job at a commercial real estate firm, an executive there said to her, “Don’t you people just go somewhere new and start over?”58岁的格蕾馨·林特纳(Gretchen Lintner)居住在旧金山湾区。在她被一家商业地产公司解聘不久前,一位经理问她道:“像你们这样的人是不是都搬到一个新地方重新开始?”On a recent Friday, she was sitting in the lobby of a hotel near Union Square in San Francisco. She arrived wearing a Chanel-inspired blazer from Coldwater Creek, a Jones blouse, Gap jeans and a pair of alligator-patterned pumps. Her hair was long and blond and she wore silver hoop earrings. Nevertheless, as she walked in, the doorman greeted her by saying, “Hello, sir.”不久前的一个周五,她坐在位于旧金山联合广场附近的一个酒店大堂里。她穿着一件Coldwater Creek的仿香奈儿上装,Jones的衬衫,Gap的仔裤和一双鳄鱼皮的高跟鞋。她留着金色的长发,带着银色的大圈耳环。就是这样一幅装扮,在她走进酒店时,门卫对她的问候是:“先生,你好。”“That’s how I go through life,” she said. “It’s the small oppressions that you get that you just have to be able to deal with.”“这就是我的人生,”林特纳女士说:“我不得不应对生活中的这种小小苦闷。”“The hardest thing,” she continued, “is working for less money and being bumped off my career track because of being a woman, because of being a trans woman, because of the 2008 economic dislocation. I don’t blame anyone, but it’s a fact. And I’m over 50 and it’s hard for any individual over 50 to find employment.”她接着说道:“但是最艰难的是工作被减薪以及被迫终止我的职业。这些只不过是因为我是一个女人,一个跨性女性,当然还有2008年经济形势混乱的因素。我不责怪任何人,但这是事实。我已经50多岁。任何一个50多岁的人要想找工作都不容易。”Other things have changed as well. Today, Ms. Lintner dates both men and women. “For me, the parts are negotiable,” she said. “My sexual attraction was always toward women, and then as I transitioned I became more interested in men.”另外还有一些别的改变。现今,林特纳女士的约会对象有男有女。“对我来说,在两性关系里扮演哪个角色是可以商量的,”她说:“我从前一直对女性有性趣,在我变性后,男性对我更有吸引力。”For many, aspects of sexual identities shift. Language fails. There is a contingent of “transbien” relationships, the common term among LGBT types for what happens when two trans women get together. Straight men become straight women. Lesbians become gay men. This is what happened with Eugene Potchen-Webb, 60. He transitioned at 50 from female to male and, after having been a lesbian for many years, discovered he was into guys. “It was a surprise to me,” he said.许多人的性别身份都发生了改变。这些改变很难用语言描述。在同性恋和跨性者群体里,出现了许多所谓的“跨女同性恋”关系,指的是两位跨性女性之间的亲密关系。异性恋男性变性后成了异性恋女性。同性恋女性变性后成了同性恋男性,60岁的尤金·泼特琴·韦(Eugene Potchen-Webb)就是这样。他在50岁的时候从女性变成了男性。这之前他一直是位跨性女同性恋者,变性后却发现自己只对男性有性趣。“这真令我吃惊,”他说。Rachel Sorrow is a 64-year-old San Francisco-based architect and amateur stand-up comedian who remains married to her spouse, though they date other people and sleep in different bedrooms in the apartment they share in the Castro.64岁的蕾切尔·索罗(Rachel Sorrow)是旧金山的一位建筑师和业余滑稽说笑演员。变性后她没有和原配偶离婚。她们在卡斯特罗区共同拥有一处公寓。她们各自约会,睡在不同的卧室里。“When I’m having sex with a man, I feel 100 percent a woman, and when I have sex with women I slip back into male roles,” Ms. Sorrow said. “I always thought if you are a guy and you have a sex-change operation and you’re still dating women, you’re a lesbian, because you look like a woman and you’re dating them. It’s a relatively reasonable assumption unless you know a lot of trans people.“当我和男性做爱时,我觉得我百分百是个女人,而当我和女性做爱时,我就又回到了男性的角色,”索罗女士说:“我之前一直以为,如果你生来是男性,在你做了变性手术后还是和女性交往,那你就是一位女同性恋者。因为你有女性的外表,你也和女性约会。这种想法听上去很合理,但是如果你认识许多跨性者,你就不会这么认为了。”“In our case, I think it just doesn’t apply. I have way more flexibility than that. Trans means to move back and forth, like transportation, and I think that’s just part of it.”“这种观念对我来说就完全不适合。我要有灵活性得多。‘跨’(trans)这个词根的意思就是有进有退,就像‘交通’(transportation)这个词。我认为这是‘跨性’这个词含义的一部分。”But having a progressive attitude about sex and self-expression doesn’t preclude clinging to ideals that are anachronistic and even a little bit sexist. Many older trans women grew up in “Mad Men”-era houses where women were accessories and children were supposed to speak when spoken to. And sometimes these tendencies are absorbed and play out in ways feminists sometimes find disconcerting.对于性别身份问题,跨性人士的观念颇为进步,但这并不意味着那些老套甚至有点性别歧视的观点被完全摒弃。许多年长的跨性女性成长于《广告狂人》那个年代。在那个年代里的家庭里,女性是附属品,孩子们不能随便讲话。有时这些观念根深蒂固,并被带到了跨性者的日常行为中,这让女权主义者时常感到不安。“I do feel like sometimes I have to be more feminine than anyone else,” said Ms. Padgett, the onetime New York City Ballet dancer. “There have been so many times when I’ve been on the street and I realize I’m the only one in a dress and heels. I reach for those things that are more feminine than a genetic girl would go for. The stakes are higher for me because I wasn’t born female so I don’t take it for granted.”“确实,我有时觉得我必须得比别的女性更加有女人味儿一些,”曾经是纽约市芭蕾舞团成员的帕吉特女士说:“有好多次,我意识到我是街上唯一穿裙子和高跟鞋的。和普通的女性相比,我会选择那些更女性化的东西。我生来不是女性,现在的身份来之不易,所以我要比别人付出更多。”Ms. James of St. Louis agrees: “I feel naked if I don’t have eye makeup on. I’ve worked hard to get this far.”圣路易斯的詹姆斯女士也这么认为:“如果我不上眼妆的话,我就会觉得像没穿衣一样。能到今天这样,我付出了太多努力。”Nearly all older trans men have experienced oppression, but they had the advantage of growing up in an era when coveting manhood was somewhat understandable and tomboyishness was at least forgiven.几乎所有年长的跨性男性都受到过歧视和压制。但是他们却有一项优势——在他们成长的年代里,女孩子渴望做男生情有可原,而假小子的行为也至少会被原谅。Jeffrey Dickemann, an 85-year-old retired anthropology professor from Sonoma State University in California who transitioned in his 60s, recalls that when he was in college, there were rules against women wearing trousers. But he also had a dad who bonded with him over sports and clothes. “In high school, my father gave me his military boots, which I wore,” he said. “I didn’t even realize how much I stuck out.”85岁的杰弗瑞·迪克曼(Jeffrey Dickemann)是加州索诺玛州立大学的一位退休人类学教授。他在60多岁的时候开始变性。他回忆起当他上大学时,学校有规定不许女生穿裤子。但是他却有一位关系亲密的父亲,带他进行体育活动,并指导他着装。“高中时,父亲把他的军用靴子给了我,我穿上了它们,”迪克曼先生说,“我那会儿甚至都没有意识到我是多么与众不同。”Katherine Rachlin, a therapist who counsels trans people, said these themes come up frequently. “It’s much more difficult if you’re a woman that is 6-foot-3 than a man who is 5-foot-3,” she said. “We look at women differently.”凯瑟琳·拉切林(Katherine Rachlin)是一位给跨性人士做咨询的心理医师。她说她时常能在治疗中听到这类话题。“一位一米九的女性比一位一米五的男性相比,前者作为变性者要艰难得多,”她说,“人们看女人有另外的一套标准。”This also resonates with Vanessa Fabbre, an assistant professor at the Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis, and one of the few experts on the subject of late transitioners. “I hear a lot of older trans men say that they were tomboys and that it was acceptable,” she said. “But we don’t have an equivalent term for tomboy with people who are born male. We have yet to create a real option for young boys wanting to express an aspect of their female selves.”拉切林的观点和凡妮莎·法的看法一致。法是圣路易斯的华盛顿大学布朗社会工作学院的副教授,也是研究高龄变性人士为数不多的专家之一。“我听到许多年长的变性男性说他们年轻时是假小子,人们并没觉得这有什么,”她说,“但是对于那些生为男性却身份认同是女性的人群来说,并没有一个和‘假小子’相应的词来形容他们。我们必须给那些想表达他们女性一面的男孩们一个真正的选择。”Three years ago, Ms. Fabbre was studying for a doctoral degree in social sciences at the University of Chicago, when she decided to write her thesis on late-age transitioners. With Jess T. Dugan, 28, a photographer who is also her life partner, Ms. Fabbre has been documenting the lives of many of these people on a website called To Survive on This Shore. However ostracized and exoticized they are, perhaps the most shocking thing about their pictures on the site is how ordinary the people in them seem.三年前,法女士在芝加哥大学攻读社会科学士学位。她把她的士论文选题定为了高龄变性人士。她和她的伴侣、28岁的摄影师杰斯·T·杜根一起创建了一个名叫“此岸生存”的网站,记录了许多高龄变性人士的生活。这些人受到社会排斥,并被视为异类,网站上的照片可能最让人震惊的地方就是他们在其中看上去跟普通人并没有区别。A fair number of them have been following the news of Bruce Jenner with interest. So has Ms. Padgett, who said it was obvious to her what was going on well before People Magazine reported it had confirmed that Mr. Jenner was in transition.他们中的许多人都在密切地关注布鲁斯·詹纳的新闻。帕吉特女士也是。她说早在《人物》杂志核实詹纳先生确实在变性之前,她就知道是怎么回事了。“I could just tell,” she said. “I kept saying, ‘I think he’s transitioning.’ He was taking all the actions I took. But I can’t imagine what it must be like to be him. People have said to me over and over ‘What you’re doing is so brave.’ But I never felt it had anything to do with braveness. It was a need and a hunger, and when I saw the solution it was like a truckload of food coming at a starving person. Someone like Bruce Jenner has to do it in front of the entire world. That is brave.”“我一眼就看出来了,”她说,“我一直在说,‘我认为他在变性。’他经历的过程我都经历过。但是我不能想像如果我是他的话会是怎么样。人们反复跟我说‘你所做的真是太勇敢了’,但是我从来不觉得这和勇敢什么关系。这就像一种渴求,当我看到满足这种渴求的办法时,就好像一个挨饿的人看到一卡车食物冲他而来。像布鲁斯·詹纳这样的人却要在全世界面前做这件事,这才是勇敢。”Occasionally, she has noticed the sneering tone of some of the tabloid coverage, the incredulity that someone could have hidden this for so long and decided so late to take action. But that’s exactly why she thinks it will be a watershed moment.偶尔,她注意到一些小报报道采用了一种讥讽的口吻,质疑竟然会有人隐藏了这么多年,直到这么大年纪了才采取行动。但正因为如此,帕吉特女士认为詹纳出柜这件事会成为一个转折点。“It’s going to spotlight these issues to millions of Americans,” Ms. Padgett said. “It shows that whatever body you’re born into, being transgender doesn’t go away. I thought it wasn’t going to last, the desire to be female would go away. If anything, at 50 it got stronger. And then it was like ‘what the hell.’ I’ve only got a few more years. Why not do what I’ve always wanted to do?”“这件事让上百万的美国人注意到了这些问题,”她说:“这件事说明,不论你出生时的性别是什么,你是跨性者这个事实是不会改变的。我从前以为自己想变成女性的渴望不会持续,会随着时间的流逝而消失。但是,当我50岁时,这种愿望更加强烈。那时,我想:‘我就豁出去了。’我的余生之年屈指可数,是该做些自己一直想做的事了。” /201504/368568Fake Orca Summoned To Scare Astoria#39;s Sea Lions人造“虎鲸”被派来驱赶Astoria的海狮The Port of Astoria in Oregon is battling an unusual challenge - how to rid the area of the over 2,300 sealions that have taken up residence on the piers, without harming them. 俄勒冈州的Astoria港口正在经历一场非同寻常的挑战—在不伤害它们的情况下,怎样把2300多头占用船坞为家的海狮赶走。The ever increasing population of the animals has caused 100,000 USD in damages to utilities and docks, just this year. However, the biggest issue with the sea lions is the rate at which they are consuming salmon. In addition to hurting local fisheries it could decimate the area#39;s fish population if not stopped in time.成群结队的海狮仅在今年对港口的设施和码头的损坏,造成了百万美元的损失。然而,它们最大的威胁还是吃掉了大量村民赖以为生的鲑鱼,除了对当地渔业产生重创,如果不及时阻止的话,还可能让所有的鱼类都消失殆尽。To persuade the unwelcome guests to leave, port officials have removed a few docks and strung brightly colored surveying tape to stop them from leaping onto the two that still have boats tied to them. Unfortunately, the mats that have been effective in scaring sea lions perched on ocean oil rigs did not work as well here.为了赶走这些“不速之客”,港口官员已移走了几个码头,在仍有船只停靠的两个码头上装上亮色条带来阻止海狮跳过来。不幸的是,对栖息于海上油井的海狮有效的方法,在这却不管用。Astoria port officials are preparing to try a new low-tech technique - introducing a fake fiberglass ;Willy; to scare the sea lions away. In a few weeks, a 16-ft-long remote-controlled orca will be spotted traversing the area of the Columbia River the sea lions have taken over. Astoria港口的官员正打算换一个低技术含量的方法——搞一个仿真玻璃纤维制造的“鲸鱼”来赶走它们。几周之内,你就将看到一条长约16英尺,远程控制的“虎鲸”穿梭在被海狮们侵占的哥伦比亚河了。This is not the first time a fake whale has been summoned for this job. In 1996, a similar one was anchored in the waters of Puget Sound to scare the sea lions that were devouring the aly dwindling supply of steelhead at Seattle#39;s Ballard Locks fish ladder. However, the wily animals were smart enough to realize that the fiberglass structure was an impersonator and refused to budge. Will a slightly more sophisticated version - one that moves and sings like the real whale be more effective? Astoria#39;s officials and the fishermen and boat owners that reside in the region, sure hope so!这不是第一例动用假鲸鱼的事件了。1996年,普吉湾水域也用过同样方法来驱赶那些在西雅图百乐水闸鱼梯,贪婪吞吃所剩无几的硬头鳟的海狮。然而,这些狡猾的小东西很快明白这是人造的,一步也不挪走。不知道下个会模拟真鲸鱼游动和叫声,高级一点的人造虎鲸是否会有效呢?Astoria地区的的官员、渔民和船主希望是肯定的!译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201506/380328

The decision to ban Borat-style mankinis has helped a seaside town shed its #39;Wild West#39; image as a haven for stag and hen parties after cutting crime and drunken anti-social behaviour, police say。警察称,一个海边小镇禁穿波拉特风格(Borat-style)的男士比基尼泳衣后,犯罪及醉酒等反社会行为减少,摆脱了“狂野西部”、婚前单身派对天堂的形象。Figures show anti-social behaviour and criminal activity in the Cornish town of Newquay has fallen since 2009.相关数据显示,从2009年开始,纽基(Newquay)康沃尔镇的反社会行为和犯罪活动就开始减少。Officers say a determination to tackle excess drinking, public disorder and the wearing of inappropriate clothing such as mankinis - skimpy male bikini-style bathing costumes popularised by the comedy character Borat - has helped reduce crime。官员们指出,他们严厉打击酗酒、公共秩序混乱、衣着不当(比如穿着男士比基尼——因谐星波拉特而广为流传的紧身男士泳衣)等问题,从而降低了犯罪率。Devon and Cornwall Police inspector Dave Meredith, the town#39;s most senior policeman, said: #39;When you speak to anybody from patrol officers to PCSOs, partners in town, shop keepers, everybody says Newquay has made a miraculous improvement。德文郡和康沃尔郡警察局的检察官戴夫·梅雷迪斯(Dave Meredith)是镇里的最高级别警员,他说:“从巡警到社区务警察(PCSO),镇里的合伙人,商店的老板,人人都说纽基发生了神奇的变化。”Five or six years ago and more, Newquay was a little bit of a Wild West town. It had a bad reputation nationally。而在五六年前或更早,纽基有点像个狂野西部小镇,在全国臭名昭著。#39;People expected to come to Newquay to drink a lot, behave irresponsibly, a lot of really young people came to Newquay and knew they had a good chance of getting drunk. Certainly we have clamped down on that and the image of Newquay now has certainly curtailed some of that.#39;“人们希望来纽基豪饮,为所欲为。很多年轻人来到纽基,觉得这是肆无忌惮醉酒的机会。我们当然控制了这个苗头,而纽基现在的形象已有所好转。”Police and community leaders say the town now has more of a family-friendly image and that tourism is booming。警察以及社区领导人说,小镇现在有个更加居家的形象,同时旅游业也在迅猛发展。Reports of anti-social behaviour dropped every year from 937 in 2009/10 to 485 in 2012/13.关于反社会行为的报道从2009~2010年的937例下降到2012~2013年的485例。Overall crime in Newquay has also reduced significantly - from 1,823 incidents in 2012/13 down to 1,624 in 2014/15.纽基的整体犯罪率也大幅度下降——从2012~2013年的1,823例下降到2014~1015年的1,624例。Dave Sleeman, the town#39;s mayor, said the resort is #39;unrecognisable#39; now from its previous image。戴夫·斯利曼(Dave Sleeman)是这个镇的镇长,他说这个度假圣地跟之前的形象有天壤之别。He said: #39;I remember back in the 2000s you couldn#39;t walk the streets on a Saturday without seeing someone wearing a mankini or what have you。他说:“我还记得2000年左右的时候,星期六在大街上走一定会看到有人穿着男士比基尼或诸如此类衣。#39;But now they#39;re not allowed in Newquay. The police will tell them to go home and get changed if they see them wearing one, and the guest houses and camp sites are pretty good at warning their guests about what#39;s acceptable。“但是现在这在纽基是禁止的。警察如果看到他们穿着这些,会勒令他们回家换衣。而且招待所和露营地的人都会好好告诫他们的客人,告诉他们如何穿着妥当。“#39;I think we have turned the corner here.#39;“我觉得,我们逆袭了。” /201506/379190An eight-year-old girl from Australia is well on her way to building a successful business empire after it was revealed that her playful s, featuring her easy-to-follow confectionery recipes, are bringing in around 7,000 a month in ad revenue alone.有一个8岁的澳大利亚小女孩,已经在她通往成功商业帝国的路上了。她发布在网上的糖果糕点简易做法视频非常有趣,其带来的广告收入每月就达12.7万美元(约人民币79万元)。The mini-Martha Stewart, who is known simply as Charli, has turned her popular channel, CharlisCraftyKitchen into YouTube#39;s largest food channel in less than three years - beating household names such as celebrity chef Jamie Oliver to claim the prestigious– and lucrative– title.这个迷你版的玛莎·斯图尔特(美国女性财富人物)名叫查莉,她用不到3年的时间就把自己的人气频道《查莉奇巧厨房》做成了YouTube上最大的美食频道,完败名厨杰米·奥利弗这样的品牌,名利双收。Meanwhile, Charli and her five-year-old sister Ashlee, who serves as the channel#39;s #39;chief taste tester#39;, are raking in an average of 29 million views per month for their crafty how-to s.同时,查莉和她5岁的阿什莉拍摄的“怎么做……”系列视频每月的搜索点击量达2900万次。阿什莉在视频中扮演“首席美食品鉴师”的角色。The tutorials even have their own short opening credits featuring Charli and Ashlee#39;s cartoon likenesses, with one of the girl#39;s singing: #39;Welcome to Charli#39;s Crafty Kitchen where you can eat what you make#39;.这两位小导师还有自己的特色开场白,由两个以查莉和阿什莉为原型的卡通人物带出。开场白中,俩有一个会这样唱:“欢迎来到查莉精巧厨房,在这里你可以吃你所做。”Many of clips are inspired by the holidays, with a demonstration on how to make a Kit Kat Christmas cake receiving more than two million views since it was posted in December.她们的很多视频是受到节假日的启发,比如“如何制作奇巧圣诞蛋糕”自12月发布以来就达到了200万点击量。Charli started CharlisCraftyKitchen in 2012 when she was only six-years-old according to her channel#39;s description, which notes that she #39;has always been passionate about her craft and being in front of a camera#39;.据节目频道介绍,查莉在2012年自己仅仅6岁的时候创办了《查莉奇巧厨房》,节目介绍中还强调:“查莉总是对在镜头前展示自己的厨艺充满了。” /201504/371858

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