时间:2019年10月17日 08:54:35

As Robert Palmer sang in the mid 80s,“You might as well faceit, youre addicted to love.”80年代中期的罗伯特帕尔默曾经唱道:“承认吧,你已坠入爱河。”While that may or may not be truedepending on who you are, its no secret that addiction is acommon phenomenon.虽然,这句歌词的意思因人而异,但我们都知道,沉迷某事物或某人是个普遍现象。Apart from serious addictions to drugs and alcohol, how many times have you heard someoneclaim that theyre absolutely addicted to chocolate? Or diet Coke.除了严重的毒瘾和酒瘾意外,你有多少次曾听到有人说他们对巧克力十分上瘾?或者说无糖可乐,Or broccoli?或是花椰菜?Well, maybe not broccoli, but you get the point.也许不是花椰菜,但你知道我想说的是什么。But is it really possible to be a chocolate addict in the same waythat someone might be addicted to drugs?对巧克力上瘾真的会跟毒瘾一样吗?To answer that question we need to know what addiction is.要解答这个问题,我们需要知道什么是上瘾。Although the precise science ofaddiction is unclear, we do know that it involves the brain;虽然对上瘾还没有确切的定义,但我们都知道它跟大脑有关;addictive substances alter brainchemistry in such a way as to make the body crave more.上瘾的东西会以某种方式改变脑化学,从而使人体产生对该物的渴望。But what about chocolate?但怎么解释巧克力呢?Several studies indicate that chocolate addiction is for real.一些研究表明,对巧克力上瘾确实是存在的。Chocolatecontains a number of addictive substances, including caffeine and cannabinoids, chemicals similarto the ones that make marijuana a potent drug.巧克力包含很多容易上瘾的物质,如咖啡因、大麻类物质(其化学成分很像将大麻制成特效药的物质)。Further studies found not only that chocolatefats trigger the release of pleasure-causing substances in the brain, but that chocolate contains achemical similar to amphetamine, a highly addictive drug.进一步研究发现,不仅巧克力脂肪能够促使大脑释放出使人体愉悦的物质,巧克力还含有一种和苯内胺(一种极易上瘾的药物)很相似的化学物质。Does this mean that anyone who eats enough chocolate will become addicted?难道说任何吃过多巧克力的人都会上瘾吗?No. Some peoplecan eat all the chocolate they want and never get hooked.不是的。有些人可以想吃多少巧克力就吃多少而不上瘾。But chocolate does cause chemicalchanges in the brain that can result in a powerful craving.但巧克力确实会引起大脑的化学变化,从而产生一种强烈的渴望。Chocolate addiction is nowhere near aspotent or harmful as alcohol and drug addiction, of course.对巧克力上瘾可不是像毒瘾和酒瘾那样对人体有害。But if you find yourself unable to gothrough the day without at least one Hersheys Kiss, its not just in your mind. Youre hooked.但如果你发现自己一天不吃上一块好时巧克力就不自在的话,不止是你脑中会这样想,而是你确实是染上巧克力瘾了。201412/347326

The USS Conestoga departed San Francisco Bay for Pearl Harbor in March 1921 and vanished , the boat never made it to Hawaii, and the 56-man crew was declared lost.1921年3月,Conetoga号战船在离开旧金山湾前往夏威夷的途中消失,船只没有抵达夏威夷,56名船员宣布失踪。however it recently has been found by a team of government researchers off the San Francisco coast. 然而最近一组政府研究人员在旧金山海岸发现了它。The discovery process began in when a coastal survey documented a possible shipwreck near the islands. 发现过程始于年,一岸线测量在岛屿附近记录了可能失事船只。In October 2015, a joint NOAA and Navy mission confirmed the Conestogas identity.2015年十月,美国国家海洋大气局和海军代表团确认了Conestoga的身份。译文属。201603/433119

There is not a DJ that can say they are not like Justin Bieber几乎所有的DJ都喜欢Justin Bieberand he won people over,Wow that was nice man他可以把人吸引过来 唱的不错 小伙子Justin Biber do not forget us Bro Dont forget usJustin Bieber 苟富贵 勿相忘He started twittering,Im gonna be at this radio station,I will leave this radion station他开始玩微 我会去这个电台 我要离开这个电台First 20 kids then 40 kids then 100 kids then a couple hundreds kids started lining outside these radio stations一开始只有20个孩子 后来40个 100个 然后成百上千个孩子开始在电台外面排队等候just to get a glimpse of him and they started to play his record只是为了看上他一眼 于是他们开始播放他的唱片Thats a clip from the movie Never Say Never which I can tell you enough to go see Never Say Never这是电影《永不言弃》中的一个片段 我要告诉大家 一定要去看《永不言弃》Youll love this film and its so inspiring and youve won so many awards你会爱上这部电影的 非常励志 你已经拿奖拿到手软了Now you are nominated for two grammies this year,Congratulations你今年获得了两项格莱美提名 恭喜Thank you so much,Thank you guys,Its been a crazy two years,Ive always dreamed of winning a Grammy谢谢 谢谢大家 这两年很疯狂 赢得格莱美是我的梦想Just be nominated this year for two Grammies being 16 years old is amazing,Yeah well you are amazing, as I say作为16岁就获得两项格莱美提名本身就很不可思议 就像我说的你很不可思议So as if hes not busy enough promoting this movie and working即使他忙着宣传他的电影和工作Theres a fan that wrote to me and I want to let him know about it你的一个粉丝写信给我 我想让他知道这件事Well see in a minute what he did,It says dear Ellen I watch your show all the time,You are hilarious我们马上会看到他为此所做的事 信上说 亲爱的Ellen 我是你节目的忠实观众 你很滑稽 /201606/451334

Bank regulation监管Capital punishment死刑The latest global capital rules to make banks safer are sensible. Much else that regulators are doing is not为了更加安全而最新设立的全球资金规则是合理的。监管机构做得许多其他事却并不合理。GIVEN how many things went wrong at banks during the financial crisis, it is not surprising that regulators have come up with several new rules to set them to rights. On November 10th the Financial Stability Board (FSB), an international body charged with avoiding future crises, unveiled yet another test banks will have to pass—the fifth so far. At the same time Mark Carney, the head of the FSB and governor of the Bank of England, declared that these measures, if taken together and implemented properly, would “substantially complete the job” of “fixing the faultlines” that led to the crash.考虑到金融危机时期有多少出现问题,监管者们提出几个新的规则让归位也不足为奇。11月10日,金融稳定委员会,一个防止未来危机发生的国际组织,推出了另一项必须通过的测试—迄今为止第五项测试。同时,金融稳定委员会会长兼英格兰总裁马克·坎尼宣布,这些措施如果同时采取并且合理执行将会“基本完成”修复导致崩溃的错误这一职能。Broadly speaking, he is right. The alphabet soup of rules devised in recent years makes it much harder for banks to be run in the risky manner that was all too common before 2007. New liquidity requirements prevent them from borrowing money on fickle overnight markets while lending it on for 30 years, the practice that felled Northern Rock, the first British bank to fail during the crisis. New rules on capital, including the one unveiled by Mr Carney this week, will force banks to have a decent safety buffer so that tiny changes in the value of their assets do not cast them automatically into the arms of the state.广泛意义来讲,他是正确的。近年来,逐条修改的规则使得更难以危险的方式运行,这些方式在2007年以前是非常常见的。新的现金储备防止向瞬息万变的隔夜市场借款,再向外贷出为期的30年贷款。 那个做法使得英国首家北岩在危机中倒闭了。现金方面的新规则包括坎尼本周推出的迫使拥有可靠的安全缓冲,这样其资产的微小变化将不会自动使他们处于备战状态。Better yet, the latest measure ensures that if a banks shareholders are wiped out there will in future be an additional tier of investors standing between failure and a taxpayer-funded bail-out. “Total loss-absorbing capacity”, in the regulatory argot, will soon include not just the money invested by shareholders, but also that lent by bondholders, most of whom avoided any losses during the crisis thanks to government bail-outs. It is the centrepiece of the FSBs efforts to make sure that no bank is “too big to fail” (see article).更好的是,最新的措施确保如果的股东在那儿倒下,从今以后会成为站在失败和纳税人资助的紧急财政援助之间的投资者的一个额外联系。“总的吸收损失能力”,监管体系的行话,不就将不仅仅包括股东投资的钱,还将包括债券持有人借出的部分,多亏了政府的紧急财政援助,大多数在危机时避免了损失。这是金融稳定委会努力确保没有“大而不倒”的重点。(另见文章)This extra capital is all-important. Before 2007, some banks had such a thin loss-absorbing cushion that a 2% fall in the value of their assets put them out of business. Imposing losses on their creditors involved long and uncertain lawsuits, and so was seldom attempted during moments of crisis. Instead, to stop the panic sping, governments resorted to bail-outs. Under the new dispensation, however, “systemically important” banks should be able to endure a 20% fall in the value of their assets before placing panicky calls to the central bank.这笔额外的资金是非常重要的。2007年以前,一些只有极小的吸收亏损的缓冲,这样他们资产只要下降2%,他们就要歇业了。将损失强加在债权人身上涉及冗长而又不确定的诉讼,所以在危机时候很少实施。相反,为了阻止恐慌扩散,政府采取紧急援助。但是在新的法律下,“系统性重要”在向中央发出恐慌警报前,应该可以承受20%的资产减少。The need to hold more capital makes banks less profitable—but that is no bad thing: the mammoth profits they made in the boom years were predicated on the subsidy they were receiving in the form of implicit government backing. It may also make them shrink, since one way to raise capital relative to assets is to hold fewer assets. That, too, is for the best, as long as people and businesses can find other ways to borrow. Relying more on stock- and bond-issuance would enable the economy to be financed at much less risk to the taxpayer.需要持有更多的资本使得获益更难——但那不是件坏事:他们在蓬勃年代获得的巨大收益基于他们以秘密的政府持形式所收到的津贴。它也会导致他们缩水,因为一个增加资产资本的方法是持有更少的资产。那也是好的,只要人们和公司能够找到其他方式借钱。更多地依赖股票和债券会使经济对纳税人来讲风险更小。If they want to stay in business, banks will also have to ask shareholders and the bond markets for more money. Attracting the capital that will make banking safer will be hard, with profit forecasts so anaemic. However it will also be made unnecessarily difficult by capricious behaviour from the very watchdogs who are ordering banks to raise the funds.如果他们想要继续做生意,还要问股东和债券市场要更多钱。吸引使得更加安全的资本将会更困难,因为利润预见很贫乏。但是,命令增加资金的监察机构多变的行为也未必会使更困难。One problem is the endless tinkering with the rules. For all Mr Carneys talk of finishing the job, global regulators have yet to set the minimum level for several of their new capital requirements. National regulators are just as bad. No bank can be certain how much capital it will need in a few years time. Pension funds and insurance companies rightly fret that even a tiny tweak in any of the new regulatory tests is enough to send a banks share price plummeting (or, less often, rocketing).一个问题是无止境的修补规则。对于坎尼关于结束这项工作的讲话,全球监管机构还没有设置几项最低资本需求。国家监管机构情况也一样糟糕。没有能确定几年后需要多少资本。养老基金和保险公司有理由烦恼,新的管理测试里一个极小的变化就足以使得的股价骤降(或者极少情况下剧增)。The dark side of banker-bashing家谴责的阴暗面The other problem is the multi-billion-dollar fines levied by regulators in America and Europe, seemingly calibrated not to the scale of the alleged wrongdoing but to banks ability to pay. This week six big international banks agreed to hand over billions for manipulating foreign-exchange markets, with little explanation of how the penalties were calculated. New edicts unrelated to capital, such as Americas assaults on money-laundering and tax-dodging, add yet more obligations.另一个问题是美国和欧洲监管机构征收的好几十亿的罚款,似乎不是以据称的不法行为为衡量标准,而是以付能力为准的。本周,6家大型国际同意上交几十亿,理由是操纵外汇市场,没有解释惩罚是怎么计算的。新的与资本不相关的法令,如美国打击洗钱和逃税的法令,增加了更多的义务。Banks can hardly be surprised that regulators have rewritten the rule-book and then thrown it at them. But, for the health of the system, the rules need to be predictable, transparent and consistent. Incredibly, the regulations emanating from Americas Dodd-Frank financial reforms are still being written, more than four years after the law was passed. Europe is scarcely better. Impose demanding capital rules, but stop adding more red tape: that should be the mantra of bank regulators just about everywhere.毫不怀疑,监管机构已经重写了规则,然后扔向他们。但是,为了这个体系的健康,这些规则必须可预测、透明并且一致。难以置信的,源自美国多德弗兰克金融改革的监管机构还在写,而该项法案通过已经有4年了。欧洲情况也没有更好。强加的资本规则,但是不再增加更多的繁文缛节:那是世界各地监管者的咒语。译者:王丹培 译文属译生译世 /201411/344788

Nuts, botanically speaking, are made up of both the seed itself and a hard outer layer that is the fruit, which does not split open when ripe.从植物学角度上讲,坚果是由坚硬果皮和内含种子组成的果实。成熟时外壳也不会开裂。Some examples of true nuts are acorns, hazelnuts and chestnuts.比如橡果,榛子和栗子等就是这样的坚果。Walnuts, pecans and almonds, in contrast, are edible seeds from a bigger fruit.相比之下,核桃、胡桃和杏仁则是种子可以食用更大一点的水果。Most of the inedible fruit is removed at harvest so when you buy walnuts and almonds in the shell, youre buying the seeds enclosed in woody endocarp, which is the remaining layer of the fruit wall.大多数不宜食用的水果会在收获时被剔除,因此当你购买到带壳的核桃和杏仁,你实际上买的是仍然在果皮层,封装在木质、坚硬内果皮里面的种子。Brazil nuts are also seeds.同样巴西坚果也是种子。They come from a capsule like fruit, in which several of the triangular seeds grow inside, arranged like the segments of an orange.巴西坚果有类似水果的荚,内部是三角形形状的种子,就像橙子瓣一样排列。Peanuts are the seeds of a legume, or member of the bean family.花生是豆类的种子,或者豆家族的成员。Pistachios, cashews, macadamias and pine nuts are all seeds rather than nuts.开心果、腰果、夏威夷果、松子都是种子,而非坚果。 201411/343414

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