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2018年01月20日 11:14:10 | 作者:美分类 | 来源:新华社
Angola安哥拉Still much too oily依然很油腻Angola badly needs to diversify its one-dimensional economy安国急需多样化经济以取代单一经济体系FROM the top of the Fortaleza de Sao Miguel, a 16th-century Portuguese citadel that once dominated the Angolan capital, you see an army of cranes erecting high-rise offices, fancy hotels and blocks of smart flats. Luandas traffic zooms below on an eight-lane highway, as pedestrians amble among palm trees or play basketball on the Marginal, a renovated, spotless promenade. “You almost forget you are in sub-Saharan Africa,” says a foreign businessman well acquainted with the region.在Fortaleza de Sao Miguel这座曾统治安哥拉首都的城堡上面,你可以看到一队起重机大军正在建造高大的办公厅、奢华的酒店和一幢幢精致的公寓。首都罗安达的交通在一条八车道的高速公路上尤为繁忙,行人们在Marginal这条新修筑的几乎完美地大街上的棕榈树下信步、打篮球。“差点忘了自己是在撒哈拉以南的非洲。”一位对该地区十分熟悉的外国商人如是说。Such a view would have been unimaginable only 12 years ago when Angolas devastating 27-year civil war had just ended, leaving it a basket case. The economy and infrastructure were in tatters. Health and education systems barely existed.如此的景象在十二年前是无法想象的,那时安哥拉刚刚结束持续了27年的毁灭性内战,留下了一堆烂摊子。国民经济和基础设施破坏殆尽。医疗系统教育系统几乎等于没有。Since then the former Portuguese colony has grown rapidly thanks to oil. Crude production increased from 800,000 barrels a day (b/d) in 2003 to almost 2m b/d in 2008. The economy expanded by more than 10% a year, making it seem one of the most buoyant in the world. Today Angolas GDP is the fifth-biggest in Africa.从那时开始,这个曾经为葡萄牙殖民地的国家在石油的帮助下迅速发展。原油产量从2003年的每天八十万桶增至2008年的约每天两百万桶。每年的经济增幅超过百分之十,这使安哥拉成为全世界经济增长最快的国家。如今安哥拉的GDP排名全非第五。The pace of economic activity is frenetic. In downtown Luanda developers plan to put up still more skyscrapers and in July the first grand shopping mall is set to open its doors and tempt shoppers with Armani, Hugo Boss and Prada. In the rest of the country, the government is spending billions of dollars on roads, railways, airports and energy projects.安哥拉的经济活力强大到狂热。在卢安达市区开发商们计划将更多地天大楼计划提上议案,而在七月份全市第一个超级市场即将开业,里面的阿玛尼、雨果斯和普拉达等奢侈品品牌吸引着消费者们。在这个国家的其他地方,政府斥资数十亿美元修建公路、铁路、机场及能源设施。Yet the days of sky-high growth are coming to an end. During and after a downturn in and 2010, caused by a crash in oil prices, Angolan policymakers were confident that the economy would quickly regain its swagger. But with oil output more or less stagnant since , when it dropped to 1.8m b/d, the government has been forced to lower its expectations. Jose Eduardo dos Santos, the president since 1979, said in October that growth in 2013 would be 5.1%, well below the target of 7.1%. In fact it will end up at 4.1%, reckons the IMF.不过,经济高增长的好日子即将到头。由于受到了、2010年油价大跌的影响,安哥拉进入了经济低迷期,而这个国家的决策者们自信本国的经济将很快重回正轨。然而年原油产量输出并不景气,所以当产量跌至每天一百八十万桶时,政府不得不降低它的预期。Jose Eduardo dos Santos这位自1979年连任至今的国家总统,在十月声明说2013年的增幅为百分之五点一,明显低于目标的百分之七点一。实际上据国际货币基金组织测算增幅仅仅为百分之四点一。Nor is it expected to speed up again in the next few years. Most foreign analysts reckon that predictions by Sonangol, the state oil company, that production will return to 2m b/d next year are unrealistic. Many think 5% GDP growth will be Angolas lot for the time being.安哥拉的经济也并不被期待能在近几年内再次崛起。国有石油公司Sonangol公司预测明年原油产量将恢复每天两百万桶,而此举被大多数国外分析家认为是不现实的。他们中许多人认为百分之五的GDP增幅将成为安哥拉现今的救命稻草。This could herald big changes for the country. Crucially, it will press the ruling Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (known by its Portuguese acronym, MPLA) to do more to diversify the economy. Oil accounts for 97% of exports and almost 80% of state revenues. Last year the government posted its first budget deficit since .这也许预示了这个国家即将发生改变。最重要的是,这将迫使执政党——安哥拉人民解放运动(即为人所熟知的MPLA,葡文首字母缩写)采取更多手段来使经济多样化。石油产业产生了百分之九十七的出口贸易额和约百分之八十的国家税收收入。去年是政府自年首次公开预算赤字。All the same, parts of the non-oil sector are thriving. The banking, telecoms, construction, drinks and retail industries are doing well, fuelled by the rise of a new (though still small) middle class. Manufacturing is picking up, from a very low base. The effects are beginning to be felt on the ground. Luanda, which ranks alongside Tokyo and London as one of the worlds most expensive cities for expatriates, is becoming slightly cheaper. “I bought sliced mangoes in a supermarket for the equivalent of .50 the other day,” says a foreign banker. “Not long ago, they would have cost me .”同样的,部分非石油行业也十分繁荣。业,电信业,建筑业,酿酒业和零售业均发展势头良好,因为这个国家新兴的中产阶级正在崛起(虽然数量不多)。制造业正在从非常低的基础开始发展。它们所产生的影响正在扩大。卢安达这座可以与世界上移民花费最贵的东京和伦敦比肩的城市正在变得越来越廉价。“有一天我在超市里买了价值1.5美元的芒果片,”一个外籍柜员说。“不久前,这些芒果片的价格是5美元。”Greasy palms油棕榈Yet Angola remains a difficult place for investors and entrepreneurs. In the World Banks latest “ease of doing business” survey, the country ranks 179th out of 189. Enforcing a contract through Angolas inefficient and sometimes corrupt courts can take years. Getting a visa is a hassle. A dire shortage of electricity means local firms struggle to compete with imported goods.不过安哥拉依然是个对于投资者和企业家来说十分艰难的地方。在世界最近发起的“经商容易度”调查中,安哥拉从第189位上升至第179位。在安哥拉全国强制执行一项合同相率十分低下,而一件腐败案的审理有时能耗费数年。申请一纸签困难重重。一次可怕的电力短缺意味着当地公司正在努力与进口商品进行竞争。Moreover, a rentier culture forces many businesses to “partner” with members of the political and military elite. That the presidents daughter, Isabel dos Santos, is Africas first female billionaire is seen by human-rights groups as an indictment of the system.此外,特有的食利者文化迫使许多商务活动者与许多政治、军方精英达成所谓的“合作关系”。比如总统的女儿Isabel dos Santos是非洲第一位女性百万富翁,而人权组织因此对该国体制发起控诉。Oil provides few jobs for locals and Angola is horribly unequal. The quality of life of people in rural areas and slums, such as Luandas Chicala, has barely improved since 2002. Most Angolans lack running water or electricity.石油产业几乎并没有为当地居民提供任何工作机会并且安哥拉内部存在着严重的不平等。人民的生活水平自2002以来鲜有提升,尤其是像Luandas Chicala这样的郊区和贫民窟。大多数安哥拉人缺乏新鲜水源和电力。Many within the MPLA privately admit to its failure to develop the non-oil economy. Since 2012 the government has talked more about improving social conditions, health care and education.安哥拉人民解放运动内部许多官员承认他们发展非石油产业经济的举措失败了。自2012年,政府讨论的更多是改善社会环境、医疗水平和教育水平。Yet there is little sign of large-scale political or social unrest. Protests in Luanda, including one in November when the police detained 300 people and shot dead an opposition activist, are sporadic. The MPLA controls almost all of the media, while the two main opposition parties lack mass appeal. A smooth transition is generally expected when or if the 71-year-old president steps down as he has hinted, probably between now and 2017, when the next national elections are to be held.不过仍有微弱迹象表明安哥拉存在着大规模的政治波动和社会动荡问题。在卢安达的示威抗议不时发生,例如在十一月那次抗议活动警察拘押了300多人并射杀了一名激进分子。安哥拉人民解放运动几乎控制了所有媒体,这使另外两个主要反对党缺少广泛的吸引力。在71岁高龄的总统如他所暗示的那样辞职之后,和平过渡被大众所期待,虽然那不知道何时甚至不知道是否会发生,有可能是在2017年的下次全国大选举行之前。There was talk of his son, Jose Filomeno de Sousa dos Santos, who is chairman of Angolas sovereign-wealth fund, being lined up as a successor. But it has died down. Instead, the president is thought to favour his business-minded vice-president, Manuel Vicente, who ran Sonangol from 1999-2012. He cannot be guaranteed to tilt the country away from oil.有传言说总统的任职安哥拉主权财富基金会主席的儿子Jose Filomeno de Sousa dos Santos被列为胜选者。但这种传言已经消失。相反地,总统被认为非常中意他非常有商业头脑的副总统Manuel Vicente,此人在1999年至2012年掌管Sonangol公司。他不可能保让这个国家不向石油倾斜。But a new generation of Angolans is coming of age; about 60% of the countrys 21m people are under 25. Unlike their parents, they will not be satisfied solely with the MPLAs achievement in making peace earlier this century. What they need is jobs. And oil alone will not provide them.新一代的安哥拉人达到了法定年龄,大约占这个国家人口百分之六十的两千一百万人低于25岁。他们将不会像他们的父母那样仅仅满足于安哥拉人民解放运动在新世纪开始时在和平方面的成就。他们需要工作,而光是石油是没法满足这种需求的。译者:许宝明 译文属译生译世 /201507/385104Raine Island has the biggest concentration of wildlife on the Barrier Reef, but many of its animals are visitors and at departure time they leave behind the sanctuary of one of the worlds largest marine parks.雷恩岛是大堡礁上最大野生动物集中区,但是许多动物都是访客,在离别时刻它们要离开,这个世界上最大的海洋公园之一的避难所。The migrants cross international borders travelling to places where animals are not protected.候鸟穿过国境线,飞到保护区之外。It means their survival is linked very much to events in other parts of the world.这意味着它们的生存与世界其他部分的状况,紧密相连。The Great Barrier Reef is still an amazing place.大堡礁仍然是一个令人惊异的地方。Its a magical, underwater world, stunningly beautiful and a never-ending source of wonder.这是一个不可思议的水下世界,美丽的让人目瞪口呆,一个永无止境的奇观。But how will it be when our turtles return?但是当海龟回来说它又会变成什么样子?The reef has proved to be resilient in the past,surviving great natural changes.珊瑚礁被明过去有自我恢复能力,从而能够在自然界的变化中生存下去。But nothing like the pace of man-made change today,especially the pace of climate change.但是这个变化不像今天人类产生的环境变化速度之快,尤其是气候变化的速度。Weve seen how the Great Barrier Reef is connected to the rest of the world, in many ways.我们已经看到大堡礁很多方面,跟世界其他地方紧密相连。It means were all, no matter how remote, involved in its future.它意味着无论我们有多遥远,都与大堡礁的未来息息相关。Now, only we can decide what that future will be.现在只有我们能够决定大堡礁的未来是什么样子。Whether it remains the glorious marine spectacle of today,one of the richest and most diverse of all environments and the largest biological structure on the planet or whether it become something much poorer.或者保持它今天这样的美丽海洋景观,这个地球上最富饶最多变的环境之一,也是地球上最大的生物组织,或者变成贫瘠的东西。Its a future that is entirely in our hands.它的未来完全掌握在我们手中。 译文属201512/416055

This week, NFL commissioner Roger Goodell announced that the Rams would be allowed to move from St. Louis back to Los Angeles. I realize you might not care, but you should, because were the ones paying for it—again. Two weeks ago, three NFL teams—the San Diego Chargers, the Oakland Raiders and the St. Louis Rams —all bid to move their teams to Los Angeles. The nations second-biggest city hasnt had a team since the Rams left for St. Louis in 1995, while Green Bay has supported its team since 1919. That should tell you how much Los Angeles really needs an NFL team. Not at all.After Goodell set up a shameless contest designed to make Oakland, San Diego and St. Louis dance like rummies for quarters to keep their teams, he announced the St. Louis Rams were the lucky winners of the L.A. sweepstakes.Now, when multimillionaires threaten to move their toys across the country, who cares? And, honestly, I dont. After all, the Oakland Raiders have aly moved to L.A. and back. The Cardinals moved from Chicago to St. Louis to Arizona. The Cleveland Browns moved to Baltimore, so now Cleveland has a bunch of guys who dress up like football players and call themselves the Browns. (The only major league American city that has never lost a team is, yes, Detroit. The Lions might be the only NFL team to miss the Super Bowl every single year, but the Fords have never threatened to move the team.)None of this makes sense unless youre a shameless, greedy owner trying to make a buck—or trying to get a bunch of broke cities to give you one. So why does it matter? Because were subsidizing their game, by the billions—a game theyve rigged so only they can win. According to Judith Grant Long, a professor at the University of Michigan, the ed States is home to more than 120 major league baseball, football, basketball, and hockey rinks, arenas, parks, and stadiums. The teams that play there have received taxpayer subsidies totaling .3 billion. Thats billion, with a b—and only two of those stadiums have made a profit for those taxpayers. The taxpayers willingness to pay those subsidies helps explain why 99 of those stadiums have been built since 1990. Americans—and only Americans – have entered the era of the disposable stadium.It doesnt have to be this way. And in Canada, it isnt. Canadians dont pay for their stadiums. The teams do, which kind of makes sense. Canadian taxpayers instead pay for their schools, which also makes sense. Guess whose students are ranked in the top five, way ahead of American students? Taking candy from a baby may be immoral, but taking money from students and giving it to billionaire franchise owners should be illegal.Who orchestrates this fraud? Why, Roger Goodell, of course, who made million in 2014. Not bad for the leader of a non-profit organization.Yes, you heard me correctly. The NFL shamelessly filed for non-profit status back in 1942. More amazingly, the government granted it—which makes you wonder who, exactly, would not qualify as a non-profit?The NFL finally dropped its non-profit status last year, but not due to some long dormant sense of decency. They were simply tired of reporting Goodells ungodly salary every year. If you need proof that an organization wasnt really a non-profit in the first place, watching them drop their non-profit status to hide their unseemly salaries is all the proof you need.So, what now? L.A. will roll out the red carpet for its latest NFL team, while San Diego and Oakland will hi-jack their cities for stadiums they dont need, and cant afford. The money will come out of the pockets of schoolchildren.Why should fans be loyal to teams that clearly arent loyal to them? If those taxpayers build stadiums for owners who have no reservation about leaving them behind, the taxpayers need to admit theyre in an abusive relationship.But that seems to be the NFLs specialty. 201601/423804

Chinas defense ministry announced Thursday in the latest sign of the powers growing maritime ambitions,it is building a second aircraft carrier using domestic design and technology.据日益增长的海上雄心,中国国防部宣布正在使用国内设计和技术建造第二艘航母。Ministry spokesman Col. Yang Yujun told reporters at a news conference,the 50,000-ton vessel is being built in the northern port of Dalian and will be conventionally, rather than nuclear, powered.外交部发言人杨宇军上校在新闻发布会上告诉记者,航母正在大连北部港口建造,5吨排水量并采用常规动力。Currently, China operates one aircraft carrier that was purchased as an incomplete hull from Ukraine more than a decade ago and then armed and equipped in China before being commissioned in 2013.目前中国已经拥有一艘航母,是十多年前从乌克兰手中购买的不完整船体,武装和装备后在2013年役。The defense ministry said in a statement,;China has a long coastline and a vast maritime area under its jurisdiction. To safeguard our maritime sovereignty, interests and rights is the sacred mission of Chinas armed forces.;国防部在声明中表示,“中国有着漫长的海岸线和广阔的海域。维护我国的海洋主权、利益和权利是中国武装力量的神圣使命。”The defense ministry said in a statement, the department has begun research and production of a second aircraft carrier and is in the process of independent design and construction.国防部在声明中称,部门已经开始研究和生产第二艘航母,并在独立设计和建造的过程中。译文属。201601/419237

Although audio tapes and tapes look different, theyre based on the same principles.尽管磁带和录像带看起来不同,但二者都基于同样的原理。Each has a roll of magnetic material which slides past the so-called “playback head” in the VCR or cassette deck (cassette decks have one playback head, VCRs have two or more).录像机或盒式录音机(盒式录音机有一个放音磁头,录象机有两个或更多)都有能够滑过被称为“放音磁头”的磁性材料。In both machines, these heads detect changes in magnetism as the tape moves by.这两种机器的磁头都会随着本身媒体的运动检测磁性的变化。The changing magnetic signal is translated into music on your tape deck, or both and sound on your VCR.磁信号的改变转化为你录音机中的音乐,或录像机的视频和声音。Without a changing magnetic signal over a playback head, youd get no sound, no picture.如果放音磁头没有磁信号的变化,你就得不到声音和图像。201501/355345

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