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合川区妇幼保健医院整形美容科重庆第十人民医院纹眉毛多少钱Companies are increasingly adding vitamins and minerals to juices, sports drinks and bottled water, responding to a growing consumer demand for these products. Even though the amounts of added nutrients in these drinks are typically small, some nutrition scientists are concerned that through their overall diets, many people may be ingesting levels of vitamins and other nutrients that are not only unnecessary, but potentially harmful.饮料公司在果汁、运动饮料和瓶装水中添加了愈来愈多的维生素和矿物质,以满足顾客对这些东西日益增长的要求。尽管这些饮料中添加的营养素大多比较少,但是有些营养科学家担心,从总体饮食来看,很多人额外摄入的维生素和其他营养素不仅没必要,而且可能有害。“You have vitamins and minerals that occur naturally in foods, and then you have people taking supplements, and then you have all these fortified foods,” said Mridul Datta, an assistant professor in the department of nutrition science at Purdue University. “It adds up to quite an excess. There’s the potential for people to get a lot more of these vitamins than they need.”“食物中本来就含有维生素和矿物质,还有人用补充剂,还有这些营养强化食品,”普渡大学营养科学系助理教授姆里杜尔·达塔(Mridul Datta)说,“所有这些加起来,就太多了。人们摄取的维生素可能比他们需要的多很多。”Today more than ever, studies show, the average person is exposed to unusually high levels of vitamins and minerals. Aly, more than half of all adults in the ed States take a multivitamin or dietary supplement. B, milk and other foods are often fortified with folic acid, niacin and vitamins A and D.很多研究表明,如今维生素和矿物质的人均摄入量明显高于以往任何时候。美国半数以上的成年人用多种维生素片或膳食补充剂。面包、牛奶和其他食物通常都添加叶酸、烟酸,以及维生素A和D。A study published in July found that many people are exceeding the safe limits of nutrient intakes established by the Institute of Medicine. And research shows that people who take dietary supplements are often the ones who need them the least.7月份发表的一项研究发现,很多人摄入的营养素超出美国医学研究所确定的安全限量。研究表明,用膳食补充剂的人往往是那些最不需要补充的人。Particularly concerning, experts say, is the explosion of beverages marketed specifically for their high levels of antioxidants, like Vitaminwater, POM Wonderful, Naked Juice and many others. The body requires antioxidants to neutralize free radicals that can damage cells and their DNA. But it also uses free radicals to fight off infections and cancer cells, experts say, and when antioxidants are present in excess, it can throw things out of balance.专家称,最令人忧虑的是,市场上出现了大量专门以高含量抗氧化剂为噱头的饮料,比如维他命水(Vitaminwater)、POM Wonderful石榴汁和裸汁果汁(Naked Juice)等。人体需要用抗氧化剂来中和自由基,因为自由基会破坏细胞和DNA。但是专家说,人体也用自由基来对抗传染病和癌细胞,如果抗氧化剂过多,会打破身体平衡。A study published this month analyzed 46 beverages — both with and without sugar — sold in supermarkets alongside bottled water. It found that many of these drinks contained vitamins B6, B12, niacin and vitamin C in quantities “well in excess” of the average daily requirements for young adults.本月发表的一项研究分析了在超市里和瓶装水一起售卖的46种(含糖或不含糖的)饮料。研究发现,其中很多饮料的维生素B6、B12、烟酸和维生素C含量“远远超过”年轻成年人的日均所需。Eighteen of these drinks contained more than triple the daily requirement for B6. Eleven had more than three times the requirement for B12. And a half dozen had more than three times the requirement for niacin or riboflavin. Some of these products promised improvements in energy and immune function, while others promoted “performance and emotional benefits related to nutrient formulations that go beyond conventional nutritional science,” the researchers said.其中18种饮料添加的B6含量超过日均所需的三倍。11种饮料的B12含量超过日均所需的三倍。六种饮料的烟酸或B2含量超过日均所需的三倍。研究人员说,有些产品承诺能提高活力和免疫力,还有些声称“其营养素配方超越传统饮食科学,能改善身体机能和情绪”。The most common nutrients added were vitamins that are aly plentiful in the average person’s diet, so their widesp inclusion in these drinks is almost completely unnecessary, said Valerie Tarasuk, the lead author of the study and a nutrition science professor in the faculty of medicine at the University of Toronto.这项研究的主要作者、多伦多大学营养科学教授瓦莱丽·塔拉苏克(Valerie Tarasuk)说,饮料中最常添加的营养素是人们日常饮食中大量存在的维生素,所以在饮料中普遍添加这些营养素几乎毫无必要。“It’s very hard to figure out the logic the manufacturers are using to do this fortification,” she said. “There’s no way that the things that are being added are things that anybody needs or stands to benefit from.”“很难理解生产厂家进行这种营养素强化的逻辑是什么,”她说,“这些添加剂不是所有人都需要的,也不能给所有人带来益处。”Sugary drinks were just as likely to be concentrated with vitamins as those that were sugar-free. Dr. Tarasuk said that as sugar has become the focus of public health concerns about beverage consumption, “this extreme micronutrient addition has fallen under the radar.”和无糖饮料一样,含糖饮料中也可能添加了很多维生素。塔拉苏克说,因为人们对饮料引发的公众健康忧虑集中在糖上,所以“这种添加微量营养素的极端行为没有引起人们的注意。”In nature, there are checks and balances that prevent overconsumption of vitamins and antioxidants, she said. It is hard to ingest too much niacin, for example, by eating whole foods like mushrooms, fish or avocados, which are natural sources of niacin that come bundled with fiber, protein and fat. But someone can easily exceed the daily recommendation for niacin with a single bottle of “formula 50” Vitaminwater, which contains 120 percent of the daily value for it (along with 120 percent of the values for vitamins C, B6, B12 and pantothenic acid).她说,大自然会相互制衡,防止人体过量摄入维生素和抗氧化剂。比如,食用蘑菇、鱼或鳄梨等天然食物,难以让人摄取过量烟酸,因为烟酸的这些天然来源中含有大量纤维、蛋白质和脂肪。但是,一瓶“50配方”维他命水就足以让你过量摄入,因为它的烟酸含量是每日推荐摄入量的120%(同时,它添加的维生素C、B6、B12和泛酸含量也是推荐摄入量的120%)。“You couldn’t possibly get that much from any natural foods,” Dr. Tarasuk said. “That’s concerning to me as a nutrition scientist because we don’t know what the effects of chronic exposure may be. With these products, we’ve embarked on a national experiment.”“你从任何天然食物中都不可能摄入那么多营养素,”塔拉苏克说,“作为一名营养科学家,这让我感到忧虑,因为我们不知道长期过量摄入营养素会带来哪些危害。这些产品让我们开始了一场全国性的实验。”A nationwide study carried out by the National Institutes of Health in 2012 found that Americans who take vitamins and supplements were aly getting large amounts of nutrients from their food, and on top of that they had the lowest prevalence of vitamin deficiencies to begin with. The study found that supplement use put these people at increased risk of potentially excessive consumption of folic acid, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium and vitamins A, C and B6.2012年,美国国家健康研究所进行的一项全国性研究发现,用维生素和补充剂的美国人本来已经从食物中获得了大量营养素,而且他们本来就极少患有维生素缺乏症。这项研究发现,用补充剂增加了这些人过量摄入叶酸、钙、铁、锌、镁、维生素A、C和B6的风险。Added vitamins may clearly aid some people, including women who are pregnant or lactating, or those with specific nutritional deficiencies. But for much of the general population today, there is no scientific justification for a high intake of vitamins and minerals, said Mara Z. Vitolins, a registered dietitian and professor of epidemiology and prevention at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.添加维生素无疑可以帮助某些人,包括期或哺乳期妇女,以及那些的确缺乏营养的人。但是韦克福里斯特浸礼会医疗中心的注册营养师、传染病预防教授玛拉·Z·维托林(Mara Z. Vitolins)说,对如今的大部分普通人来说,没有科学依据明需要摄入这么多维生素和矿物质。When consumed in excess, some water-soluble vitamins like B and C are excreted in the urine. But fat soluble-vitamins – including A, D, E and K – accumulate in tissues, posing potential risks.过量摄入后,有些水溶性维生素,比如维生素B和C,会随尿液排出。但是脂溶性维生素,包括维生素A、D、E和K,会积聚在组织里,带来潜在风险。“These fat soluble vitamins are very stable,” she said. “They’re not released in the urine. If you are over-consuming them, you can raise your levels gradually over time and get into trouble with liver function. You have to be very careful with them.”“这些脂溶性维生素非常稳定,”她说,“它们不会随尿液排出。如果过量摄入,它们在体内的含量会越来越高,导致肝功能失常。你必须对它们格外小心。”Data from clinical trials have highlighted clear risks from excess. A large study published in JAMA in 2009, for example, looked at clinical trial data on more than 6,000 heart disease patients who were treated daily with either B vitamins or placebo over a seven year period. The study found that those who were given folic acid and B12 had higher mortality and cancer rates.临床试验数据突显出过量用的风险。例如,2009年发表在《美国医学会杂志》上的一项大型研究分析了6000多名心脏病患者的临床试验数据,这些病人在七年时间里每天用B族维生素或安慰剂。结果发现,用叶酸和B12的研究对象死亡率和患癌比率更高。In 2012, a review of 78 clinical trials involving 300,000 people that was published in the Cochrane Database found that antioxidant supplements like beta carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E actually increased mortality. A year later, the ed States Preventive Services Task Force concluded that there was “limited evidence” that taking vitamins and minerals could prevent cancer and cardiovascular disease.2012年发表在《科克伦数据库》(Cochrane Database)上的一项研究回顾了涉及30万人的78个临床试验。这项研究发现,β-胡萝卜素、维生素A和E等抗氧化补充剂实际上提高了死亡率。一年后,美国预防务工作组断定,用维生素和矿物质能预防癌症和心血管疾病的“据有限”。The task force noted that two clinical trials had found “small, borderline” reductions in cancer incidence in men who took multivitamins. But the group also said there was good evidence that high doses of antioxidants could cause harm.该工作组提到,两个临床试验发现,用多种维生素的人患癌几率的降低幅度“小而不明显”。但是这一组人也说,有明显迹象表明,高剂量抗氧化剂能造成伤害。The federal food fortification program in the ed States began in the early 1900s with the goal of addressing urgent and established nutrient deficiencies. Research showed, for example, that women in their childbearing years were not getting enough folic acid. Since b and cereal were staples of their diets, folic acid was added to these foods – and as a result the rate of neural tube defects in infants has fallen significantly.美国的联邦食物强化项目始于20世纪初,目标是解决紧急、明显的营养缺乏问题。比如,研究表明,当时的育龄妇女叶酸摄入不足。因为面包和谷物是她们的主食,所以在这些食物中添加了叶酸,结果,婴儿神经管缺陷的比率显著下降。Before 1920, iodine deficiencies were common in some parts of the country. A lack of iodine can lead to goiters, miscarriage, congenital abnormalities and severe learning disabilities. So the widesp fortification of salt with iodine was started in 1924. In the 1930s, vitamin D deficiency was linked to rickets. That discovery led in 1933 to the fortification of milk with vitamin D.1920年之前,美国有些地方普遍存在碘缺乏症。缺碘会导致甲状腺肿大、流产、先天性畸形和严重学习障碍。所以从1924年起开始普遍推广加碘盐。20世纪30年代,人们发现佝偻病与维生素D缺乏有关,所以从1933年起开始在牛奶中添加维生素D。Other foods were enriched with additional nutrients – niacin and iron were added to flour, for example – in the decades that followed.在之后的几十年里,其他食物也添加了营养素,比如在面粉中添加烟酸和铁。But in most if not all of these cases, there was a compelling scientific reason for doing so.但是,这些案例几乎都有确切的科学依据。“The reason behind the fortification program was to bring our nutrient intake to a reasonable place, and it targeted nutrients that we were lacking,” Dr. Vitolins said.“食物强化项目的目的是把营养素摄入提高到合理水平,针对的是人们当时缺乏的营养素,”维托林士说。Early on, fortification was limited to a few select foods, in part so the program would not create nutritional imbalances. In an attempt to prevent indiscriminate fortification, the Food and Drug Administration proposed restricting the number of foods that could be fortified to eight, and it specified which nutrients could be added.在早期,营养强化仅限于几种精选的食物,部分目的在于防止该项目造成营养失衡。为了防止任意强化,美国食品和药物提议将能强化营养的食物限制在八种以内,还具体指明可以添加哪些营养素。But that proposal was shot down in the 1970s, and over the years Congress went on to restrict the F.D.A.’s authority over fortification and dietary supplements. This helped open the door to the eventual explosion of vitamin enhanced beverages and sports drinks, which today account for sales of more than billion a year in the ed States alone.但是该提议在20世纪70年代被否决,这些年国会进一步限制食品和药物对营养强化和膳食补充剂的管辖权。这最终导致维了生素强化饮料和运动饮料的激增。如今,这些饮料单在美国的年销售额就达180多亿美元。 /201502/359382重庆瘦脸针多少钱一支 Financial Questions to Settle Before You Get Married婚前搞定钱,婚后更轻松There are only two kinds of people in this world, spenders and savers, and for better or worse they tend to marry each other.这个世界上只存在两类人:花钱篓子和存钱罐子。好巧不巧的是,这两类人结合在一起的概率往往很大。So says longtime financial writer Terry Savage, who has co-written a new book on how to discuss and negotiate key money issues with your spouse-to-be, to give your relationship the best chance for success (#39;The New Love Deal: Everything You Must Know Before Marrying, Moving In, or Moving On!#39;)资深财经作家特里·萨维奇(Terry Savage)如是说道。她与人合作撰写了一本新书,讨论如何与准配偶讨论并协商处理一些重要的金钱问题,为双方的结合创造更大的成功机会。(新书名为《爱情新论:在结婚、同居或分手前必须知道的一切!》(The New Love Deal: Everything You Must Know Before Marrying, Moving In, or Moving On!))While you probably can#39;t change your mate#39;s basic money personality, you can avoid arguments and hidden resentments by talking honestly about your finances and putting certain plans in place before you head down the aisle. With wedding season around the corner, here#39;s an Investing Basics checklist for people about to tie the knot:虽然你可能无法改变伴侣对金钱的基本态度,但在步入红毯前,坦诚讨论彼此的财务状况并提前制定一些合理的财务计划,可能帮助你们避免日后的一些争吵和隐怨。在婚庆旺季即将到来之际,本文总结了一份供准新人们参考的投资常识(Investing Basics)清单:Take inventory盘点资产#39;The most important thing is to talk about your debts and to take an inventory of what assets each of you has, #39; says Holly Kylen, a financial adviser with Voya Financial in Lititz, Pa.宾夕法尼亚州提兹市(Lititz) Voya Financial公司的财务顾问霍利·凯伦(Holly Kylen)表示:“重中之重是讲明各自的债务,对各自名下的各项资产都盘点清楚。”One way to start the conversation is to swap credit reports, preferably over a nice bottle of wine, says Ms. Savage. If your spouse-to-be is on the hook for student loans or child support, discuss whether and to what extent you#39;re willing to help bear the cost.萨维奇表示,切入这个话题的一个办法是相互交换信用报告,最好是在有美酒相伴的气氛下。如果另一方需要偿还学生贷款或付子女抚养费,与之坦诚相告你是否愿意以及在多大程度上愿意与对方分担这些义务。Credit scores are a source of stress in one in five marriages, but spouses who discuss credit scores before marriage are more likely to agree on how to use credit as a couple, according to a study about to be released by Experian Consumer Services.Experian Consumer Services即将发布的一项研究报告显示,在各种婚姻危机中,信用记录导致的压力占到了两成。而婚前讨论过信用记录问题的夫妻,更容易就如何使用信用达成共识。Systematize制度固化Next, decide how you#39;re going to handle the money. While it#39;s understandable that some couples, particularly older ones, prefer to keep separate accounts, at least at first, many financial advisers recommend working toward paying all joint expenses out of a joint account.下一步,需要确定今后如何处理财务问题。有些夫妇尤其是大龄的夫妇,至少在最初的时候更倾向于保持各自独立的资金账户,这种做法当然是可以理解的,但很多财务顾问的建议是,最好是能设一个联名账户,通过它付应当共同承担的费用。#39;Marriage is complicated anyway, #39; says Michael Eisenberg, an accountant and financial adviser in Los Angeles. #39;This is one easy way to simplify things.#39;洛杉矶会计师兼财务顾问迈克尔·艾森伯格(Michael Eisenberg)说:“婚姻毕竟是很复杂的,这么做可以轻松简化一些事情。”If you each earn an income, consider having your paychecks direct-deposited into separate accounts, then automatically transferring a certain amount--perhaps proportional to your income or to other obligations--into a joint checking account from which you pay your bills online, recommends Ms. Savage.萨维奇建议,如果双方都有收入,可以依旧将工资打入各自的账户,然后设置自动转账,以收入或其他义务为参考设定一定的比例,固定将一笔钱转到两人的活期联名账户,再通过这个联名账户在线付家庭费用。Set common goals设定共同目标From there you might set up additional joint accounts for short-term (one to two years) and medium-term (three to five) goals, such as saving to buy a car or a house. This requires doing a little budgeting.接下来,可以根据一两年的短期目标或三五年的中期目标,另外设立几个联名账户,例如为了买车或买房而进行的储蓄。这需要小小地合计一下。#39;Both people need to be flexible, #39; Mr. Eisenberg adds. Say you#39;re used to saving 0 a paycheck for a rainy-day fund, but your partner thinks that#39;s overkill. You might agree to instead save 0 plus part of any tax refunds or bonuses that come along. #39;The key to this is dialogue, #39; he says.艾森伯格补充道:“双方都需要适当变通。”例如,你习惯从工资中拿出200美元存作应急资金,但你的另一半觉得这笔钱有点多。或许你可以同意减到100美元,外加今后可能获得的退税或奖金的一部分作为备用金。艾森伯格说:“关键在于沟通。”Save for retirement存钱养老#39;Make sure no one makes a dime without putting something away for retirement, #39; says Ms. Kylen. You and your partner don#39;t necessarily have to save identical amounts. #39;Equal is not synonymous with fair, #39; says Ms. Savage.凯伦说:“要确保花销不会影响退休计划。”夫妻双方不一定非要按对半的比例存钱。萨维奇指出:“均等不一定意味着公平。”But you should coordinate how much you#39;re going to save and what savings vehicles you#39;re going to use. If one partner#39;s employer offers a 401(k) matching contribution, it probably makes sense for that person to contribute at least enough to qualify for the employer match.但双方应当就储蓄金额以及计划使用的储蓄工具进行沟通协调。如果一方的雇主提供401(k)匹配缴费计划,这一方最好能够提存足够多的钱,以达到这个计划的标准。Manage risk控制风险Consider whether you#39;ll need insurance, and if so factor the premiums into your budget. #39;If you#39;re buying a home together you need life insurance, #39; says Ms. Savage. Disability insurance can#39;t hurt either, says Mr. Eisenberg.考虑是否需要购买保险,如果是肯定的,则需要把保费合计到预算中。萨维奇说:“如果双方要组建家庭,就需要考虑购买寿险。”艾森伯格表示,买份伤残险也没什么坏处。And don#39;t forget to change the beneficiaries on any existing insurance policies, as well as retirement accounts and so-called pay-on-death accounts, which supersede your will and go directly to the named beneficiaries.此外,别忘记更新现有保单、退休账户或所谓“生后取”账户的受益人,因为这些账户安排可以无需遗嘱,在既定条件满足的情况下直接付给指定受益人。Gay married couples need to be especially careful when naming their spouse beneficiary of an annuity. Since insurance is state-regulated, #39;same-sex couples today should not assume a spousal benefit [known as a #39;spousal lifetime income benefit rider#39;] will work, #39; says Ms. Kylen, who recently married her partner of 20 years. #39;It would be best to have it in writing or to see same-sex language in your document just to cross your T#39;s.#39;同性夫妇在指定配偶作为年金保险受益人时需要特别留意。最近与其相处了20年的同性伴侣完婚的凯伦指出,在美国,保险业的监管职责是由各州承担的,“因此在目前,同性夫妇不能想当然地认为配偶津贴(即‘配偶终生收入给付附加条款’)政策对他们也有效。审慎起见,最好以书面形式写入文件,或者确保有关文件中有对‘同性’进行说明的条款”。Consider a prenuptial考虑婚前协议If neither you nor your partner is equipped to talk about financial matters, enlist the help of a close friend, relative, financial adviser or lawyer, says Mr. Eisenberg.如果两位准新人都不擅长讨论财务问题,艾森伯格建议可以向某位亲近的朋友、亲戚、财务顾问或律师求助。 /201412/349153永川区祛痣多少钱

长寿区妇幼保健院线路泸州激光祛痘价格 HONG KONG — Hong Kong health officials have slaughtered thousands of chickens from mainland China, closed one wholesale market and banned imports of live poultry after tests found some birds were infected with a strain of bird flu.香港——在检测发现有些鸡感染了一种禽流感后,香港的卫生官员屠宰了成千上万只来自中国内地的鸡,还关闭了一处批发市场,并禁止进口活禽。The city’s secretary for food and health, Ko Wing-man, said that sales of all live chickens in Hong Kong might be banned if wholesalers do not step up measures to control bird flu, The South China Morning Post reported Friday. Earlier this week, the H7N9 strain of the avian influenza virus was found in some birds from a farm in Huizhou, in Guangdong Province in southern China.《南华早报》(The South China Morning Post)周五报道称,香港食物及卫生局局长高永文(Ko Wing-man)表示,如果批发商不加强控制禽流感的措施,香港所有的活鸡交易都可能被禁。本周早些时候,来自广东省惠州一家养殖场的部分鸡只检出了H7N9禽流感菌株。Many people in Hong Kong buy pork and poultry from wet markets, unrefrigerated open-air shops that sell freshly slaughtered animals. Much of the city’s food supply comes from farms in mainland China, though in the case of chickens, the supply is segregated from birds bound for mainland markets.很多香港人在菜市场购买猪肉和家禽肉。菜市场是由处于室温状态的露天店铺组成的,这些店铺出售新鲜宰杀的家禽肉。在香港,很多的食物供应来自内地的农场,不过在活鸡供应方面,面向香港的供货与面向内地市场的供货是分开的。Avian influenza outbreaks have not been confined to China. In recent weeks, Hong Kong has banned poultry imports from certain regions of Japan, Germany, Italy and Canada after bird flu strains were detected there. Last month one woman in Hong Kong became infected with the virus after she traveled to a wet market in mainland China. In 2013 an outbreak of the H7N9 strain near Shanghai infected 131 people, killing 26 of them.禽流感疫情并非仅限于中国。最近几周,在日本、德国、意大利和加拿大某些地区检测出了禽流感后,香港针对那些地区发出了家禽进口禁令。上月,香港一名女性在去了内地的菜市场后感染禽流感。2013年,上海附近爆发的H7N9禽流感感染了131人,并导致其中26人死亡。Wholesalers are threatening to protest the inspection measures on Saturday by releasing live chickens on some of Hong Kong’s busiest streets, The Morning Post reported.《南华早报》报道称,批发商威胁要在周六抗议相关检查措施,方式是将活鸡放到香港部分最繁忙的街道上。 /201501/352421重庆市第四人民医院电话周末有上班吗

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