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青岛去下眼袋服务分享青岛诺德医院激光去胎记多少钱

来源:爱咨询    发布时间:2019年10月20日 15:27:01    编辑:admin         

HONG KONG — The smartphone tells the story of a kiwi fruit in China.香港——在中国,智能手机能够呈现一颗猕猴桃的完整故事。With a quick scan of a code, shoppers can look up the fruit’s complete thousand-mile journey from a vine in a lush valley along the upper Yangtze River to a bin in a Beijing supermarket. The smartphone feature, which also details soil and water tests from the farm, is intended to ensure that the kiwi has not been contaminated anywhere along the way.通过快速扫描代码,购物者可以查询这种水果从长江上游苍翠山谷的藤蔓上到北京超市箱子里的千里之旅。用于智能手机的这项功能还能提供有关农田土壤和水质检测的详细信息。它的目的是确保猕猴桃在这整套流程中不受污染。“I have scanned some electronic products before, but never any food,” said Xu Guillin, who recently tested the tracking function at the supermarket while shopping with her 3-year-old grandson. “We pay lots of attention to food safety. Most families with young kids would.”“我以前扫描过一些电子产品,但从来没有试过食物,”最近带着3岁的孙子在超市购物的许桂林在尝试了手机追踪功能后说。“我们非常关注食品安全。大多数有小孩的家庭都会关注。”Controlling China’s sprawling food supply chain has proved a frustrating endeavor. Government regulators and state-owned agriculture companies have tried to tackle the problem in a number of ways — increasing factory inspections, conducting mass laboratory tests, enhancing enforcement procedures, even with prosecutions and executions — but food safety scandals still emerge too often.事实明,控制中国庞大的食品供应链是一项令人沮丧的工作。政府监管部门和国有农产品公司一直在设法通过多种方式来应对这一问题,比如加强工厂检查、进行大规模的实验室检测、强化执法程序,乃至起诉和处决违法人员,但食品安全丑闻仍旧时有发生。Chinese technology companies believe they can do it better. From the farm to the table, the country’s biggest players are looking to upgrade archaic systems with robust data collection, smartphone apps, online marketplaces and fancy gadgetry.中国的科技企业相信自己可以做得更好。从农场到餐桌,中国的科技业巨头期待利用强大的数据搜集能力、智能手机应用程序、网上市场和酷炫的电子设备来升级过时的旧系统。The founder of the computer maker Lenovo started Joyvio, the agricultural company that tracks kiwis and other fruit from planting to delivery. The Internet giant Alibaba directly connects consumers with farmers via an online produce-delivery service. A gaming entrepreneur is running a pig farm on the side. And Baidu, the country’s leading search engine, is developing a “smart” chopstick that tests whether food is contaminated.电脑生产商联想的创始人后来创立了农业公司佳沃。它会追踪记录猕猴桃等水果从种植到运送的各种细节。网络巨头阿里巴巴通过从生产到配送的一条龙在线务将消费者与农民直接连接起来。一名掌管游戏公司的企业家另外还经营了一家养猪场。中国主要的搜索引擎公司百度则是正在研发一款可以检测食品是否受到污染的“智能”筷子。“In the food production and agriculture industry, transparency is fundamental,” said Chen Shaopeng, chief executive of Joyvio. “But in China this is not the case.”“在食品生产和农业产业里,保持透明是基本原则,”佳沃集团总裁陈绍鹏说。“但是在中国,情况并非如此。”While technology companies may not have the scandal-tainted past of the traditional food industry, they will still have to earn customers’ trust. A shopper at another Beijing supermarket, BHG Market Place, tested the trackable kiwi and was intrigued, although not enough to buy it.虽然科技公司可能不像传统食品行业那样承受着丑闻迭出的历史负担,但它们仍然需要赢得消费者的信任。在北京的另一家超市——华联高级食品超市,一名顾客试着了解了一下这种可追踪的猕猴桃,而且很感兴趣,但这并不足以让她购买。“This looks impressive. But the thing is, I don’t really trust any certificate,” said Ms. Jiang, who declined to give her full name, looking closely at a three-page report on the fruit. “We all know that certificates can be faked.”“让人印象深刻。但问题是,我其实不相信任何认,”拒绝透露全名的姜女士说。她仔细查看着一份有关这种水果的长达三页的报告。“我们都知道书可以造假。”The size of the problem alone is daunting. With more than a billion mouths to feed, China has one of the world’s most complex food chains. At almost every link, there have been problems.单是食品问题的规模就会令人气馁。中国有十几亿人要吃饭,拥有世界上最复杂的食品供应链。几乎每一个环节都存在问题。In one of the country’s biggest food scares, in 2008 dairy producers sold milk formula laced with melamine, which put 300,000 babies in the hospital and killed six. Last year, a supplier to McDonald’s and KFC was caught putting rotten and expired meat into products. Penny-pinching chefs cook with waste oil from fryers and sewers, a toxic ingredient known as gutter oil that generally goes unnoticed until diners get sick.2008年,中国曝出了一桩巨大的食品丑闻:多家乳制品生产商出售掺有三聚氰胺的配方奶粉,致使30万名婴儿入院治疗,六人死亡。去年,麦当劳(McDonald’s)和肯德基(KFC)的一家供应商被发现向产品中掺入腐烂和过期的肉。吝啬的厨师会用从油炸锅及下水道中回收的废油做菜,而这种名为“地沟油”的有毒原料通常不会被注意到,直到食用者患病。Such food scandals have shaken consumer trust and spurred outcries and protests. The cynicism is so visceral that jokes about food contamination are standard fare on social media and online shows.此类食品丑闻动摇了消费者的信心,引发了强烈的不满和抗议。人们出于本能地对此冷嘲热讽,在社交媒体和在线视频中,拿食品污染开玩笑已经成为一种惯例。Baidu’s smart chopsticks were supposed to be a joke for April Fools’ Day. The search engine giant published a fake advertisement for a set of chopsticks that would determine whether food had been cooked with gutter oil. The ad struck a chord, and it quickly went viral on Chinese social media sites.百度的智能筷子本来是愚人节的一个玩笑。这家搜索引擎巨头发布了一则假广告,称有一种筷子能判别食物是不是由地沟油烹饪的。广告引发了共鸣,迅速在中国的社交媒体上火了起来。With such a strong response, Baidu decided to create a real product. Embedded with sensors, the chopsticks primarily test for gutter oil, but they also indicate pH levels and temperature. The product’s charger allows consumers to identify different fruits and vegetables as well as where they were grown and the calories they contain. The company is debating whether to add a feature that would indicate salinity, allowing users to determine whether mineral water is fake.由于反响极为强烈,百度决定创造出实物。这种装有传感器的筷子主要用于检测地沟油,但也能够显示酸碱度和温度。它的充电器能让消费者识别不同的水果和蔬菜,以及它们的产地和所含热量。公司正在讨论是否加入显示盐度的功能,使得消费者能够据此判断矿泉水是不是假冒产品。Baidu is currently manufacturing a small batch of prototypes for testing. The company says it has not yet decided when to release the product or how much it will cost. Even so, it has aly generated interest.百度目前正在生产一小批用于测试的样品。公司表示尚未决定这款产品的发布时间和价格。即便如此,它已经激起了人们的兴趣。“With Baidu smart chopsticks, I don’t have to worry about gutter oil any more,” one person recently commented on Weibo, a Chinese microblog. “I will definitely buy one once it is on shelves.”“有了百度的智能筷子,我就不用再担心地沟油了,”新浪微上的一名用户前不久道。“一旦上架,我肯定会买一副。”City dwellers can buy directly from farmers through Jutudi, a pilot program created by Alibaba that has about 10,000 users. An e-commerce twist on the “buy local” movement, Jutudi lets users buy regular deliveries of vegetables and fruits from farms across China. Consumers can even pick their own plots in a sort of virtual farming, although deliveries may come from multiple places.通过阿里巴巴创立的试点项目“聚土地”,城市居民可以直接从农民那里购买产品。该项目目前拥有大约一万名用户。它是电子商务特色的“当地消费”运动,能让用户从全国各地的农场购买定期配送的蔬菜和水果。消费者甚至还能在某种虚拟农场中挑选自己的地盘,不过配送的产品可能来自多个地方。Alibaba is tapping into consumers’ nostalgia for their rural roots with a heavy dose of marketing. The site features a Socialist Realist illustration of two women in a field of golden grain — harking back to the days of Mao Zedong, when farmers were lionized by propaganda. With images of shiny, red tomatoes, well-groomed pigs and other succulent fruits and vegetables, the program also promotes quality. Higher-end packages include tours of the farms.阿里巴巴正在通过大举营销来挖掘消费者对他们根在农村的怀念之情。在聚土地网站的突出位置上,是一幅社会主义现实主义风格的图画,表现的是两名女子站在一片金黄的麦田中,让人想起了农民被宣传成了名人的毛泽东时代。网站还对产品质量进行了宣传,张贴了很多图片,上面是红得闪闪发亮的西红柿、皮毛干净的猪以及其他一些鲜美的水果和蔬菜。较为高端的套餐中包括参观农场的选项。The idea of having one’s own plot of land is attractive to Jiang Hui, a 27-year-old web editor. Typical for her generation, Ms. Jiang goes online to buy just about everything, so produce was an easy next step.自己有块地这个概念,对27岁的网站编辑蒋慧颇具吸引力。她几乎什么都是网购的。对她这一代人来说,这种情况很典型。因此,农产品顺理成章地成为了她的网购对象。“The increasing number of food scandals is turning everyone into a food safety expert,” said Ms. Jiang, who lives with her parents in Beijing. “The more we , the more scared we are and the more careful we are.”“食品丑闻越来越多,把大家都变成了食品安全专家,”和父母生活在北京的蒋女士说。“我们看的文章越多,就越害怕,越谨慎。”Alibaba has set ground rules for farmers. Farmers are required to separate the crops and treat them with lower amounts of pesticides.阿里巴巴为农民制定了基本规则,要求他们分开种植农作物,并减少农药的用量。“I am only allowed to spray pesticide on that piece of land once for every harvest. So I hire workers to pick pests by hand,” said Zhang Zhaohui, a 38-year-old farmer in the program. Samples of the mangoes are also independently tested before being shipped, he added.“那块地我每一季收成只能喷一次农药。所以我请了工人用手捉虫,”参加该项目的37岁农民张朝晖说。他还表示,装运前芒果样品还要接受独立检测。Despite the extra costs, Mr. Zhang says he makes more on the mangoes he sells to Jutudi. “To me, they all seem really rich,” Mr. Zhang said of the customers.尽管会产生额外的成本,但张朝晖称,卖给聚土地的芒果会让他赚得更多。谈到消费者,他表示,“要我说,他们好像都真的很有钱。”Joyvio is taking on a bigger challenge: the entire food chain.佳沃集团则在应对更大的挑战:整个食品供应链。Started in 2009, it is now the largest provider of kiwis and blueberries in China. It controls everything, picking what seeds are planted, then tracking and collecting data each step of the way.佳沃集团创立于2009年,现在是中国最大的猕猴桃和蓝莓供应商。它控制着一切工序,从挑选种子,到追踪和搜集整个过程中每一步的数据。Its nurseries are the stuff of science fiction. The room temperature and irrigation schedules are automatic and can be controlled remotely via a mobile phone or a computer. Seeds are grown in greenhouses, and plant tissue is cultivated in research labs.它的育苗室像是来自科幻小说。室温和灌溉计划都是自动的,并且能通过移动电话或电脑远程控制。种子播撒在温室里,植物组织则是在研究实验室里培育。Taking a similar approach to Lenovo’s, Joyvio focused on acquiring technology and know-how to build its business.佳沃采取了与联想类似的方式,把精力主要放在了获取技术和实践来打造自己的业务上。Executives studied foreign agriculture businesses. Joyvio hired a top American agronomist who specialized in the development of preservatives and microorganisms that work as natural pesticides. The company bought farms in Chile and Australia and partnered with two large Chilean fruit companies.企业高管对外国农业企业进行了研究。佳沃聘请了一名顶尖的美国农学家。此人专门研发防腐剂,以及能有天然杀虫剂功效的微生物。公司在智利和澳大利亚购买了农场,并与智利两家大型水果公司开展了合作。“We’ve leveraged our global capacity to bring a lot of new technology to China,” said Mr. Chen. “We continue to eye buying companies or farms in other countries, and also in China to give more scale to our ability to provide high-quality products and goods.”“我们利用在全球的实力,将大量新技术引入中国,”陈绍鹏说。“我们会继续着眼于收购其他国家及中国的公司和农场,进一步提升我们提供高质量产品和商品的能力。” /201503/362175。

Major Styles of Traditional Chinese Residences raditional Chinese residences reflect the national culture,the sub-culture of a specific region and that of the ethnic group within it.中国传统民居的主要风格传统的中国民居反映了民族文化、一个特定地区的亚文化以及居住其中的族群的亚文化。The traditional domestic architecture of China has five major styles. There is the compound with a courtyard(Si He Yuan)to be seen in northern China,Farmers#39; Caves(Yao Dong) in Northern Shaanxi Province and Earthen Buildings(Tu Lou ) in southeast China#39;s Fujian Province,Stilt Houses that may be on steep inclines or projetting over water(Diao Jiao Lou)in southern China and the Seal-like Compound (Yi Ke Yin)in Yunnan province.中国传统的国内建筑分为五种主要风格。在中国北方有四合院,陕西省北部有窑洞,中国东南的福建省有土楼,中国南方有耸立在陡峭的斜坡或伸向水面的吊脚楼以及云南省的一颗印。Traditional residences tend to conform to their environment and to become integrated with it. They are expelled to blend with the surrounding rivers and mountains, thus complementing but never spoiling the natural beauty.传统的民居一般遵循其环境的特点并与其融为一体。它们要与周围的山川河流融合在一起,因此要突出而绝不能破坏自然的美感。Our ancestors made use of local materials and took the natural factors into consideration whenever they built a house.我们的祖先在建造房屋时都要使用当地的材料并考虑到自然因素。The Si He Yuan in northern China features a thick roof and walls and a wide courtyard to draw in maximum sunlight while ventilation is a prime feature of the diao jiao lou in the much warmer tropical climate of southern China.中国北方的四合院的特点是厚顶、厚墙和宽敞的院子,这样可以最大限度地进行采光,而对于地处中国南方温暖的热带气候中的吊脚楼来说,通风条件则是它的主要特点。The Si He Yuan in Beijing reflects the formal royal ambiance with its symmetrical style while garden-residences such as the famous Garden of the Master of the Nets in Suzhou,Jiangsu Province,gives priority to a harmonious blend with nature.Prince Gong#39;s Mansion in Beijing is the world#39;s largest Si He Yuan.北京的四合院通过其对称的风格体现出正式的皇家氛围,而园林住宅则注重与自然的和谐统一,诸如江苏省苏州著名的网师园。北京的恭王府则是世界上最大的四合院。In calligraphy,the Chinese characters with a roof-like component relate to various houses. For example,with。pig , it is。home; with。cow, it is。prison;with a combination of iwo mouths it means #39;many houses’一it is palace. Such characters combined with that for‘woman’imply peace and safely. The logic behind this is based on two layers of meaning. Frstly,when a woman sits peacefully at home,it means there is no war. Secondly, when they lived in simple caves in open air, our ancestors faced the hazards of rough weather, wild animals and hostile tribes. By building houses,they were better protected,thus there was safety.在书法中,带有宝盖头的汉字都与各种房屋有关。例如“占”加上猪之后就成了“家”,加上牛之后就成了牢,加上两个口之后就表示“许多房屋”—也就是宫。而和“女”字旁组合在一起的汉字则表示和平与安全。这其中的逻辑建立在两层含义之上。首先,当一名女子安全地坐在家中时,这就意味着没有战争。其次,当我们的祖先住在野外简单的洞穴中时,他们面对的是恶劣天气、野生动物以及敌对,落的危险。通过建造房屋,他们便获得了更好的保护,因而就得到了安全。Chinese Residence — Earliest Form of Architectural Art中国住宅——最早的建筑艺术形式Before the Qin Dynasty,the residential houses both for emperors and folks were all called palace. The term palace became a specific title for emperors#39; residente since the Qin and Han dynasties(221一220AD ).In modern times, all the other residential houses except palace and official buildings are called folk residente.在秦朝以前,皇帝和老百姓的住房都被称作宫殿。“宫”这个称谓是从秦朝和汉朝时才开始专门指皇帝的住居。在现代,除了宫殿和官方建筑之外的所有住房都被称作民居。The Chinese wooden framework house first appeared in the late Neolithic Age.The Hemudu Culture Site (5 OOO一3 300) in Yuyao County, Zhejiang Province reflected the wood construction techniques of this period. The Banpo Site in Xi#39;an and Yangshao Culture Site in Jiong village, Lintong, Shaanxi Province revealed the overall layout of villages and constructions of this period. Chinese residences can be divided roughly into nine kinds:中国的木质框架房屋最早出现在新石器时代晚期。浙江省余姚县的河姆渡文化遗址(公元前5000一公元前3300年)表现了当时的木质建筑艺术。西安的半坡遗址和陕西省临撞姜寨的仰韶文化遗址都反映出当时村落与建筑的整体布局。中国的民居可以大致分为九种类型:Beijing#39;s Siheyuan北京的四合院This is the most important form of Chinese traditional residential house.It is great in number and wide in distribution,popular among the Han,Manchu,Bai, and some of other minority groups.Most of the houses are of wood framework. The principal room is built on the southnorth axis, and iwo wing rooms are located on both sides of it. The family elders live in the principal room and wings are the bedrooms for the younger generations. Women live in the inner yard. Guests and male servants live in the outer yard. This distribution is in accordance with the feudal regulations. 5i He Yuan sps over towns and villages throughout China,but each developed its own characteristics as a result of respective natural conditions and different way of life. 5i He Yuan in Beijing is the most tive.这是中国传统民居中最重要的形式。它的数量多、分布广,并且在汉族、满族、白族以及其他少数民族中一十分流行。大多数房屋采用木质框架。主屋建在南北走向的轴线,而厢房则位于四合院的两侧。家庭中的长者住在主屋中,而两翼则由年轻一代居住。妇女住在内院。客人和男仆住在外院。这种分布符合封建礼制。四合院遍布全国的城乡,但由于各地自然条件和生活方式各有不同,因此发展出各自的特征。北京的四合院是最具代表性的。Jiangsu Residence江苏民居Residential houses distributed in areas south of the Yangtze River have a lot of names, but the overall arrangement is generally the same with Si He Yuan. The difference between the two is that houses in the south have smaller yards(or tianlin9 ),with only two functions; drainage and daylighting. The principal room in the first yard is usually a big hall. The yards in the back are usually smaller, mostly with storied buildings. Roof covered with small tiles and floor with flagstones help to adapt the rainy climate in the south. Houses in watery regions are usually built along rivers,with the front door leading to the alley and backdoor facing the river.Every household has a small dock where they do the washing, bailing and getting on boats.长江以南的地区所分布的房屋有很多名称,但是整体安排通常与四合院是相同的。两者的不同就在于南方房屋的院子(或称为天井)更小而且只有两个功能:排水和采光。第一间院子中的主屋通常是一间大厅。后面的院子则通常小一些,而且大部分都带有楼房。房顶盖_L小瓦而地面则铺上了石板,这有助于适应南方的多雨气候。在雨水充沛的地区,房屋通常是沿着河流建造的,而且前门通向小巷而后门面向河流。家家户户都有一个小型码头,以便在这里洗衣、取水、乘船。U-Shaped Houses of South China中国南方的U形房屋The houses in Yunnan Province in southwest China can be a good representative of this kind of building,and they could also be found in southern provinces like Hunan. The overall structure arrangement is more or less the same with Si He Yuan,but the houses are all connected together at every comer, forming the shape of U. The houses are made of wood truss with earth walls, on which are color I paintings.在中国西南部的云南省,那里的房屋可以很好地代表这一类建筑,在湖南等南方省份也可以见到这种建筑。它的整体结构安排多少与四合院比较相似,但是所有的房屋的每个角落都连在一起,因此就形成了U形。这些房屋是由木质析架和土墙建造的,上面还有色图画。Lingnan Hakka Group Houses岭南客家房屋群Tu Lou is a traditional dwelling for Hakkas in west Fujian Province. There are three to four floors in average, and the tallest can have up to six floors. Including the houses in the yard,Tu lou can usually hold more than 50 families. Halls,storage houses, domestic animal houses,wells and other public houses are in the yard. The Hakkas created this special defensive building to protect themselves, and it#39;s still in use now.土楼是福建省西部的客家传统住宅。它平均为三至四层,最高达六层。包括院子里的房屋在内,土楼通常可以容纳50多个家庭。大厅、储藏室、牲口圈、水井以及其他公共房屋都位于院子中。客家人建造这种特殊的防御性建筑的目的是为了保护自己,而且现在依然在使用这种建筑。Cave Dwelling of Northwest China中国西北的窑洞Cave dwellings are mainly distributed in central and west provinces like Henan,Shanxi,Shaanxi,where the loess is of great depth.The loess has little seepage and a very strong vertical nature,which provides a very good precondition for the development of cave dwellings. The cliff cave dwelling is an earth cave dug horizontally along the vertical earth cliff. Residence built in this way saves raw materials and requires less complicated technology.The cave dwelling is cool in summer and warm in winter.窑洞主要分布在河南、山西、陕西、甘肃以及青海等中西部地区,那里的黄土十分深。黄土的性质不容易渗水而且垂直方向强度很大,因此为窑洞的发展提供了极好的先决条件。悬崖上的窑洞是沿着垂直土崖水平挖成的土洞。通过这种方式建造的民居节省了原材料而且不需要复杂的技术。窑洞冬暖夏凉。Ganlan干栏Ganlan(a wood or bamboo storied house)are mainly distributed in the southwest provinces of China,such as Yunnan,Guizhou,Guangdong and Guangxi. It is the residence for Dai,Jingpo,Zhuang and other minority groups.干栏(木质或竹质多层房屋)主要分布在中国的西南省份,例如云南、贵州、广东以及广西。它是傣、景颇、壮以及其他少数民族的民居。A Ganlan usually stands alone, seporated from other Ganlan houses.Supported by poles,the living sector of GanIan is usually on the second floor high above the ground,while the first storey is retained for raising domestic animals and storing;in this way Ganlan can ward off moisture,as well as the attack of insects,snakes and other animals.干栏通常是与其他千栏建筑分开的独立建筑。通过撑杆的撑,干栏的居住部分通常位于较高的第二层,而第一层则用于饲养家畜和储物,这样干栏不仅可以防潮,而且可以防止昆虫、蛇以及动物的袭击。Diaofang碉房Diaofang(Stone Chamber) is the most popular kind of dwellings in Tibet and some areas in Inner Mongolia. According to rh,} Hi.}cory of Later Harp HmZa.sry,this stone and earth dwellings existed before 111 AD. The height of the dwellings varies from two to three storeys. Built mostly of stone and earth,they look like Diaolou (blockhouse),and hence got the name of Diaofang. The origin of its name can be traced back to 1736 in the era of Qianlong Reign of the Qing Dynasty.碉房是西藏和内蒙古部分地区最普遍的民居。根据《后汉书》记载,这种土石民居早在公元111年之前便存在了。这种民居的高度为两层或三层。它们主要用土石建造,外观像碉楼,因此便被叫做碉房。它这个名称的由来可以追溯到清朝乾隆年间的1736年。The first floor is often used for livestock and poultry,and the second is retained as bedrooms,living rooms,kitchen and storehouse. Some have a third floor for the family sutra hall and the balcony.第一层经常用于饲养家畜和家禽,而第二层则留作卧室、客厅、厨房以及储藏室。有些碉房还有第三层,这用作家庭藏经室和阳台。The nomadic Mongolians and Tibetans also live in tents,which are convenient to assemble and unassembled.从事游牧的蒙古族和藏族人也住在帐篷中,这十分便于拆卸。Mongolian yurts蒙古包The Mongolian felt tent in northwest China is called Mongolian yurts.The wooden wattles are fastened with leather thongs and studs to form a fence-like structure. Each part of the yurt is ingenious and quite convenient to dissemble and carry. The diameter of a small yurt is about four to six meters,with no pillar inside, while the bigger one needs two to four poles to support the yurt. There are thick felts on the ground of yurts. Every yurt has an opening on the top,and there#39;s usually a stove under it.中国西北部蒙古族人的毡帐被称作蒙古包。它的木条用皮带和钉子固定而形成类似于篱笆的结构。蒙古包的每一个部分都十分精巧并且十分便于拆装。小型蒙古包的直径大约为四至六米,里面没有柱子,而较大的蒙古包则需要两至四根杆子来撑。蒙古包的地面有厚毡。每个蒙古包的顶部都有开口,而且这下面通常还有一个炉子。Ayiwang阿以旺Ayiwang is the Uygur residence. The houses are all connected together, with yard around them. The front room with a skylight is called Ayiwang,also known as summer room,which serves as the living room as well as reception room. The back house called winter room is the bedroom,usually without a skylight. The plane arrangement is very ingenious.阿以旺是维吾尔族的民居。所有的房屋都连成一片,周围还有院子。前面带天窗的房间被称作阿以旺,又叫夏室,它是用来当客厅和会客室的;后室称作冬室,它通常没有天窗。其平面布局非常精巧。There are also some other special residential houses such as the boat house. Nowadays,as a result of economic development, population increase and modernization,people in the cities usually live in storied buildings, which have increasingly diversified styles and a tendency of height rise.还有诸如船屋等一些特殊的民居。如今由于经济的发展、人口的增加以及现代化程度提高,城市里的人们通常住在楼房里,楼房的风格日益多样化且高度得以增加。 /201506/379728。

The most popular private jet route in the world is a flight from Moscow to Nice/Cote d’Azur in France, according to a new report.最新公布的一份报告显示,从莫斯科到法国尼斯蔚蓝海岸是全球最热门的私人飞机航线。Rounding out the top five, according to the so-called “Wealth Report,” an annual survey produced by the real estate consultancy Knight Frank, are Miami to New York, New York to Los Angeles, New York to West Palm Beach and London to New York. The frequency of flights are based on data from 2013.国际性物业顾问公司莱坊根据年度调查发布了全球最热门的五条私人飞机航线。调查,除了第一条之外,另外四条分别为迈阿密到纽约、纽约到洛杉矶、纽约到佛罗里达西棕榈滩以及伦敦到纽约。该报告根据2013年数据估算航线的航班飞行频率。While the Russia-France route is the most popular for the world’s richest, the U.S. “remains the world’s most important private jet market,” Knight Frank says. That’s because 60% of the world’s private jet traffic starts and ends in the ed States.莱坊上述报告指出,虽然世界上身家最高的那些富豪最喜欢飞俄罗斯到法国的航线,但美国“仍是全球最重要的私人飞机市场”,因为全球60%的私人飞机航线始发与终点站都在美国境内。There’s also a gender divide among travelers who use private planes: More than 80% of private jet passengers are men, the report says. And the most common travelers are in the 40-55 age range, with private entrepreneurs being the most frequent flyers.该报告还指出,男性和女性使用私人飞机的差异很大。80%以上的私人飞机乘客都是男性。私人飞机的乘客大多年龄在40-55岁,私人企业家使用私人飞机的频率最高。 /201504/368003。

Available in varying lengths, styles and fabrics, a skirt can work on any occasion, whether it’s a date or a weekend trip. For girls, skirts change your look, keep everyone’s eyes on you and can boost your confidence. But with fashion trends always changing, choosing the right skirt for you is tricky.裙装以其不同的长度、多样的风格以及多元的材质,得以适应各种场合,不论是去约会还是周末去旅行都没有问题。对女孩而言,裙装不仅能一改你的整体风格,吸引众人眼球,而且还能增强自信。不过,时尚潮流变幻莫测,选对裙子并非易事。Here we run through this summer’s hot skirt trends so you can add new pieces to your wardrobe.下面就为大家奉上今夏最热的裙装时尚趋势,新装添起!Vintage 70s A-line maxi skirt70年代复古风A字长裙A-line skirts are versatile and look good on any woman. Its flattering cut cinches at the waist but gracefully glides away from the hips and thigh area. With 70s-style fashion sweeping the fashion world this year, A-line skirts, especially those with a slit up the front filled with patchwork or an insert, are popular, fashion magazine Vogue notes. Whether they are made with suede or denim, they give you a folksy feel. You can match them with a pair of knee-length boots to fully embrace the 70s vibe, Vogue suggests. If you still feel the maxi fit is hard to handle, shorter mid-length versions are also available.百搭的A字长裙似乎适合所有女性。腰部系带的设计十分讨巧,臀部到大腿的流畅线条则令它更显优雅。今年,上世纪70年代的时尚风格再次席卷全球。如时尚杂志《Vogue》所言:通过拼接或是内嵌设计将裙装上下分开的A字裙尤为流行。不论它们的材质是翻毛皮革还是牛仔布,都能让你更接地气。《Vogue》还建议想要完全走70年代复古风的人士搭配一双及膝长靴。如果你觉得长裙太难驾驭,中长裙也是不错的选择。 /201506/379989。

Q. Sakamaki has lived his life as an outsider.Q. Sakamaki在生活中就是一个局外人。As a Japanese photographer based in New York City since 1986, Mr. Sakamaki has spent nearly the last 30 years far from home, documenting wars, conflict and demonstrations. Even growing up in Japan, he moved from place to place, becoming an outsider in his native land.他是一名日本摄影师,自1986年起常驻纽约,远离家乡30年。他拍摄过战争、冲突、游行示威。即使是在日本长大期间,他也曾多次搬离居住地点,成为家乡的局外人。Now, Mr. Sakamaki has turned to China’s fringe provinces — Xinjian, Yunnan, Liaoning and others — where his project, “China’s Outer Lands,” catalogs marginalized minority groups that are rapidly becoming strangers in the territories they call home. The work is on display at The Half King in Manhattan until May 24.现在,Sakamaki来到中国的新疆、云南、辽宁等边远省份,拍摄他的摄影项目“中国的边远地带”。这个项目纪录了中国边远地区的少数族群,正在迅速变为那片他们称之为故乡的土地的局外人。Sakamaki的作品正在曼哈顿The Half King展出,直至5月24日。“#8202;‘China’s Outer Lands’ is about people instinctively looking for their own identity, between conformity or originality or autonomy or dependence,” Mr. Sakamaki said. “It’s natural, it’s happening in not only China, it’s everywhere.”This project is part of a larger, global story Mr. Sakamaki wants to tell. While “China’s Outer Lands” shows the clash between modernity and tradition in China, Mr. Sakamaki says that this conflict, along with wars and migration, has existed in other places and eras, such as during the campaigns of Genghis Khan.“‘中国的边远地带’是关于人们在遵从和独创、自治与依赖之间,本能地寻找自己的身份认同,”Sakamaki说,“这是很自然的,不仅发生在中国,也发生在世界的每个地方。” 这个项目是Sakamaki想要讲述的一个更大的、全球性故事的一部分。Sakamaki说,“中国的边远地带”表现出中国的现代化与传统之间的冲突。这种冲突,随着战争和迁徙的发生,也存在在其他的地方和年代,例如在成吉思汗时代的战役。“Behind the scenes, it’s not a romantic story,” he said. “It’s actually more like blood, blood, blood in history. One small change-up of power creates a huge wave of migration, often with new, bloody war. History shows that.”“在镜头的背后,不是浪漫的故事,”他说,“实际上它更像是历史中的血腥、血腥、血腥。一次小型的权力交替都会制造出新的血腥战争以及大规模的移居潮。历史已经明了这一点。”Chinese development in Xinjiang Province has attracted a rush of Han migrant workers, and Mr. Sakamaki says the native Uighur population, which practices Islam, is being marginalized. The juxtaposition drawn between the Uighur inhabitants of the region and the migrant Han workers is stark.Sakamaki说,中国新疆地区的发展吸引了一大批汉族打工者前来,而本土信奉伊斯兰教的维吾尔族人被边缘化了。这种维吾尔族居民与汉族打工者的并存很突兀。A Han couple poses in a field, dressed in traditional Western wedding clothes, as newly installed wind turbines tower over the countryside. Other signs of China’s new industrialism dominate the landscape.一对汉族夫妇身穿传统西式婚纱在田野间拍照,身后是新安装的风力涡轮机塔架。其他中国新工业化的标志占据了整幅风景。But in the same province, the silhouette of a Uighur boy is shown as he looks at the rubble of a demolished building in a Uighur neighborhood. The Chinese government says it is taking down buildings to build earthquake-resistant structures, but Mr. Sakamaki insists the government is posturing.Mr. Sakamaki works as an outsider, and his photos offer glimpses of indecision and unease.而同样是在新疆,一个维吾尔族男孩站在一个被拆毁的维吾尔族社区中,看着地上的碎石瓦砾。中国政府称拆毁这些建筑是为了修建抗震房屋,但Sakamaki认为政府只是在做样子。作为一个局外人,Sakamaki的照片展现了迟疑与忧虑。Mongolian men riding a motorbike fleck an immense field. The face of a polar bear pelt looms before the uniforms of China’s last emperor, Puyi. An unemployed man, close and out of focus, partly obscures high-rise buildings being erected around a memorial square, dedicated to the region’s iron industry.蒙古人骑着托车驶过巨大的田野。北极熊熊皮的背后隐约可见中国末代皇帝溥仪的皇。一个近景而虚焦的工人肖像,部分遮挡了在纪念广场附近林立的高楼。他曾为这个地区的钢铁行业做出贡献,现在已经下岗。This work is Japanese in style, Mr. Sakamaki says, and much more personal than traditional photojournalism. He sees China’s struggle for identity within himself and says that while the project takes place in China, the same ideas of independence and conformity are universal.“Japanese culture is very personal,” he said. “So I felt maybe I put my personality, my identity, my own Japanese history, and also my own identity as a human being, combined.”Sakamaki说,这组照片很日式,与传统摄影报道相比,带有强烈的个人风格。他在自己身上看到中国对于身份认同的努力与挣扎。他说,虽然这组照片在中国拍摄,但对于自主与遵从的想法是全球性的。”日本文化是非常个人化的,所以我认为也许我应该在作品中融入更多我的个性,我的身份,我自己的日本历史,我自己作为人类的身份认同。” /201505/375331。

Eileen Burbidge, one of London’s most influential venture capitalists, is an American who built her career by going against convention. A software engineer by training, she earned her chops in Silicon Valley working for some of the world’s most prestigious tech companies, including Apple, Yahoo and Sun Microsystems. But then, she moved to London in 2004 to “push my comfort zone,” becoming one of Skype’s earliest employees.艾琳o比奇是伦敦最具影响力的风险投资家之一。这位来自美国的女性开创了一条有违常规的职业发展道路。她是一名训练有素的软件工程师,在硅谷积累了丰富的技术经验,曾经先后供职于多家世界最知名的科技公司,其中包括苹果、雅虎和太阳微系统公司。但在2004年,为了“迫使自己走出舒适区”,比奇毅然前往伦敦,成为Skype最早的一批员工之一。From there, she and two partners launched Passion Capital, a venture capital firm. It became one of London’s top VC firms — despite the fact that none of the cofounders have a traditional finance background. As a VC, Burbidge has taken a somewhat maverick approach, declaring she won’t invest in “jerks” and backing Lulu, a controversial dating app that allows women to rate men. She recently spoke to Fortune.com about her professional journey, her approach to investment and why she values passion above all else.后来,她与两位合伙人一起成立了Passion Capital公司。它现已成为伦敦顶级的风险投资公司之一,但三位创始人其实都没有传统的金融业背景。作为一名风险投资家,比奇采用了一种特立独行的做法,宣称她不会给“ 令人讨厌的人”投资,她还为颇具争议的约会应用Lulu(这款应用允许女性对男性评分)提供巨额资金持。日前在接受《财富》官网采访时,她畅谈了自己的职业历程、投资方式,以及她为何最看重创业者的。Q: What inspired you to move to London and become a venture capitalist there?问:是什么激励你前往伦敦,成为一名风险投资家?The ten years I was in Silicon Valley were phenomenal. However, Silicon Valley began to feel very insular to me. I thought it would be useful to get out “into the real world” or at least the wider world and I looked towards London. I was fortunate enough to secure job offers from both Skype and Shazam, and I went for Skype. I wanted to work with people who were crazy visionaries.我在硅谷度过了不平凡的十年。但我却感觉硅谷正在变得越来越封闭。我认为,自己或许应该进入“真实的世界”,或至少更广阔的世界,于是我把目光投向伦敦。我很幸运地收到了Skype和音乐识别软件Shazam的工作邀请,我选择了Skype。我希望与疯狂的梦想家一起共事。I became an “accidental” VC in that I started working with the former Skype engineers who founded Ambient Sound Investments. We made four investments in London, three of which ended up being with Stefan Glaenzer [who became one of her Passion Capital partners.] Stefan and I realized we probably identify and value similar traits in founders/teams/startups, and so we started talking about working together and raising our own micro VC fund in London.后来,我开始与几位创建Ambient Sound Investments投资公司的原Skype工程师们合作,就这样,我“一不小心”就成为一名风险投资家。我们在伦敦进行了四笔投资,其中有三笔是与斯蒂芬o格莱恩泽尔(他后来成为Passion Capital的合伙人之一)合作的。斯蒂芬和我意识到,我们或许可以在创业者/团队/初创公司身上找到类似的特质,并为其估值,于是我们开始谈论合作,并在伦敦成立了一家小型风投基金。Q: Given that you and your cofounders, Robert Dighero and Stefan Glaenzer, all have startup experience, how has that shaped your approach as VCs?问:你和另外两位创始人罗伯特o迪哥希罗与斯蒂芬o格莱恩泽尔都有创业经历,这些经历对于你的投资方式有何影响?We’d like to think that we’re able to assess and relate better to entrepreneurs and are better equipped to add operational and strategic value.我们认为,我们可以更好地评估和理解创业者,有能力为创业者增添运营和战略价值。We basically conduct ourselves [as the kind of company] we’d like to partner with if we were still operators ourselves. We started by establishing a co-working space in 2009 and then we were able to raise, close, and launch our million fund, Passion Capital, in April 2011.在进行投资时,我们总是会考虑假如我们还是经营者,希望与什么样的风险投资者合作。我们在2009年建立了一个联合办公场所,然后开始融资,最终于2011年3月份启动价值6000万美元的风险投资基金Passion Capital。At that time, we were the only London-based VC firm in East London (where the entrepreneurs are, now sometimes referred to as “Tech City”) as opposed to Mayfair or the other areas of London which is where financiers were historically located. And we were the only London VC with a co-working space — an open plan that we share with ten to twelve teams at any given time.当时,我们是东伦敦(创业者聚集的地区,现在被称为“科技城”)唯一的风投公司。因为在历史上,金融家们大多集中在梅菲尔区或伦敦的其他地区。我们也是唯一一家在联合办公场所运营的伦敦风险投资公司——我们与另外十个或十二个团队共同使用这个开放空间。We were also the first VC in the world to use a Plain English term sheet and to not re-charge any legal fees to our companies (no fees to a cap, literally no fees whatsoever).我们也是全世界第一家使用简明英语风险投资协议的公司,并且我们不向投资公司重复收取任何法律费用,其实几乎没有任何费用。Q: Can you explain the criteria you use when deciding whether to back an entrepreneur?问:你能否解释一下在确定符合投资条件的创业者时所遵循的标准?Of course we look to validate the proposition they’re planning, the problem they’re trying to solve, and their ability to understand the requirements to execute a plan. But we also look for even softer skills such as the motivation behind their ambition.我们当然会验他们的创业计划,他们希望解决的问题,以及他们是否理解执行计划所需的能力。但我们也会关注一些软性技能,比如万丈雄心背后的动机。What I’ve found is that every great entrepreneur has some driving ambition that fuels them. There will be extreme hardships. It’s super stressful to hire people, fire people, build a team, push through challenges and barriers, compete with larger players. So there has to be something that is emotionally anchored, deep-rooted and which will drive that founder through their most difficult days.我发现,每一位优秀的创业者都心怀抱负,这让他们充满干劲。他们可能会遭遇极端的困难。招聘、解雇、组建团队、应对挑战和障碍、与更大的竞争对手竞争等,会让他们承受巨大的压力。因此,创业者必须拥有百折不挠的意志力,才能度过最艰难的阶段。Q: Is that why you invested in Lulu?问:这是你投资Lulu的原因吗?Like most of our other investments, we invested in Lulu based on the strength, ambition and vision of its founder, Alexandra Chong, who is an absolute tour de force. Her original vision was to create a platform and “safe and private place online for women” to connect and interact with one another — whether it be about relationships, finances, education, work or any other topics.与我们的大多数投资一样,我们之所以投资Lulu,是基于其创始人亚历山德拉o庄的实力、雄心和愿景。她真的很杰出。最初,她希望为女性创建一个“安全私密的在线平台”,彼此之间进行交际和互动,谈论人际关系、财务、教育、工作或其他任何话题。The key conclusion after its initial launch was that nearly all of the content and interactions focused exclusively on dating and guys. So as a consequence and like any genius founder, Alexandra seized on that user feedback and whittled the proposition down to offer the best user experience to address that demand — and that’s led to the massively popular app we have today.但这个平台正式推出后,所有内容和互动几乎都集中在与男性约会这个话题上。于是,与其他天才创始人一样,亚历山德罗根据用户的反馈,对最初的计划进行了修改,致力于针对这一特定需求提供最佳用户体验,于是便有了这款极受欢迎的应用。Now used by one out of every four college women in the US, Lulu is on its way to becoming a platform for providing content, transactions and services around a broad-range of topics, products and subject areas — coming full circle back to delivering on Alexandra’s vision which I’ll be excited to see.现在美国几乎四分之一的女大学生都在使用Lulu,它也在努力成为涉及不同话题、产品和主题的平台,提供与这些话题相关的内容、交易和务——最终又回到了亚历山德罗当初的愿景,我很期待她的愿景实现的那一天。Q: You’ve said that you’d rather not invest in “jerks.” How do you determine jerkiness?问:你曾说过自己不会为“令人讨厌的人”投资。你如何确定什么样的人是“令人讨厌的”?It’s true and therefore dangerous that “jerk” is largely subjective. However, my partners and I are all at points in our lives where we’ve the luxury to decide that life’s just too short to work with people who we find objectionable, offensive or even plainly rude. We want to work with people with whom we enjoy spending time.确实如此,但很大程度上,“令人讨厌”是一个主观概念,因此这种观念其实很危险。但在经历了人生的风风雨雨之后,我和我的合伙人得出结论:人生太短暂,不应该在那些令人讨厌的、无礼的甚至粗鲁的人身上浪费时间。我们希望与那些我们愿意与之共处的人合作。To discern this, we’ll employ techniques that anyone uses when they’re trying to interview/recruit candidates to hire. We’ll ask questions to probe and try to get a reaction about professional and situational matters. We’re also paying attention to how founders behave even when we’re not in the room or out of earshot. So if they’re rude or dismissive of other people (no matter who they are), that’s pretty much a non-starter.为此,我们采用了人们在面试或招聘时使用的技巧。我们会问一些问题进行试探,尽量获得他们对专业问题和情景化问题的反应。我们还会观察当我们不在房间里或在听力范围之外时,创始人有何表现。对其他人(不论是谁)很粗鲁或不屑一顾的人,会被我们淘汰。Q: But don’t some jerks build successful companies?问:但有些“令人讨厌的人”确实建立了成功的公司,不是吗?There is indeed a theory that jerks or assholes make the most successful founders/CEOs. It might be idealistic and naive of me, but I’d like to think that as successful as those types of individuals have been, perhaps they could have been even more successful had they not been jerks.确实有一种理论认为,“令人讨厌的人”或“混蛋”可以成为最成功的创始人和CEO。或许我有些理想主义,过于天真,我认为虽然这些人取得了成功,但如果他们没有这么令人讨厌,或许会更加成功。I very simplistically believe that one can be more successful at hiring and attracting great team members, partners and customers if they’re not off-putting, offensive or objectionable. Those small successes in theory contribute to building a more valuable business.我的看法非常简单:一个不令人反感的人,在招聘和吸引优秀的团队成员方面可以做得更成功。而从理论上来说,这些小的成功有助于建立一家更有价值的公司。Q: As an investor, which industries currently excite you the most?问:作为投资者,你目前对哪些行业最感兴趣?At the moment, I’m really excited about three specific sectors: fintech [companies that build technology for financial firms], cyber/infosecurity and healthtech/medtech. Conveniently, I also genuinely believe that startups in London/UK have an advantage in these specific sectors.目前,我最感兴趣的有三个领域:金融技术(为金融公司提供技术的公司)、网络/信息安全和健康科技/医疗科技。并且我真心认为,伦敦/英国的初创公司在这些领域占有优势。London has always been one of the financial capitals of the world. Similarly, the UK has a long-standing heritage and deep expertise in cyber/infosecurity and intelligence with GCHQ and other intelligence agencies and strong universities, and finally for all its good and bad aspects, the UK also has the NHS [National Health Service] as a centralized “platform” to leverage or make more efficient.伦敦一直是世界金融中心。英国有政府通信总部(GCHQ)和其他情报机构以及顶尖的大学,在网络/信息安全与情报领域有悠久的历史和深厚的专业知识,此外,尽管人们对英国的国民卫生务体系褒贬不一,但作为一个集中的“平台”,它可以更有效地利用或开发健康/医疗科技。Q: Are you making a special effort to fund women entrepreneurs?问:你是否在资助女性创业者方面做过特殊的努力?I actively seek out strong entrepreneurs — regardless of gender or demographic. For obvious reasons, I take a great interest in women entrepreneurs in particular. Therefore I try to make myself available to anyone who is interested in connecting, getting feedback — or pitching. Over the years I’ve seen more women entrepreneurs emerging and I look forward to this trend continuing.我一直在积极寻找有实力的创业者——不会去考虑性别或其他人口特征。由于众所周知的原因,我对女性创业者尤其感兴趣。因此,如果有女同胞愿意与我联系、寻求反馈或者兜售她们的创业理念,我都会尽量提供机会。最近这几年,我发现女性创业者越来越多,希望这种趋势能够继续下去。 /201503/361601。

Lenore Skenazy, a New York City mother of two, earned the sobriquet “America’s Worst Mom” after reporting in a newspaper column that she had allowed her younger son, then 9, to ride the subway alone.家住纽约市的莉诺·斯科纳兹(Lenore Skenazy)是两个孩子的母亲,自从报纸专栏报道了她让9岁的小儿子独自乘坐地铁的事情之后,“美国最差妈妈”的绰号就落在了她的头上。The damning criticism she endured, including a threat of arrest for child endangerment, intensified her desire to encourage anxious parents to give their children the freedom they need to develop the self-confidence and resilience to cope effectively with life’s many challenges.她承受了严厉的谴责,甚至面临着因危害儿童罪而受到逮捕的威胁,但这一切反而令她的信念更加坚定,她期望能通过自己的努力,鼓励焦虑的家长们放手,给孩子更多自由,让孩子们有机会建立自信心和适应力,从而更有效地应对生活中的诸多挑战。One result was the publication in 2009 of her book “Free Range Kids: How to Raise Safe, Self-Reliant Children (Without Going Nuts With Worry).” A second result is the Free Range Kids Project and a 13-part series, starting Thursday on Discovery Life Channel, called “World’s Worst Mom.” In it, Ms. Skenazy intervenes to rescue bubble-wrapped kids from their overprotective parents by guiding the children safely through a sequence of once-forbidden activities and showing their anxious parents how well the children perform and how proud they are of what they accomplished.为此,她在2009年出版了一本书,名为《放养孩子》(Free Range Kids: How to Raise Safe, Self-Reliant Children [Without Going Nuts With Worry])。此外她还建立了“放养孩子计划”(Free Range Kids Project),并拍摄了名为《世界上最糟糕的妈妈》(‘World’s Worst Mom’)的13集系列片,从周四开始在探索生活频道(Discovery Life Channel)播出。在这个节目里,斯科纳兹试图通过干预将受到过度保护的“花骨朵”们从父母手中解放出来,指导他们安全地完成一系列一度被父母严格禁止的活动,向那些总是忧心忡忡的父母们显示,他们的孩子有多棒,以及他们的孩子对自己的成就有多么感到自豪。The term “helicopter parents” applies to far more than those who hover relentlessly over their children’s academic and musical development. As depicted in the first episode of the series, it applies to 10-year-old Sam’s very loving mother who wouldn’t let him ride a bike (“she’s afraid I’ll fall and get hurt”), cut up his own meat (“Mom thinks I’ll cut my fingers off”), or play “rough sports” like skating. The plea from a stressed-out, thwarted Sam: “I just want to do things by myself.”“直升机父母”这个词常形容的是那些每分每秒都悬在孩子头顶,督促他们在学业和音乐上不断进步的父母,但其实这个词的适用范围远远不止于此。斯科纳兹系列片的第一集中介绍的、10岁男孩山姆的母亲就是典型的“直升机父母”。她对自己的儿子过分爱护,以至于不允许他骑自行车(“她怕我会跌倒受伤”),不许他自己用餐刀切碎盘中肉食(“妈妈认为我肯定会切到手指头”),更不许参加滑冰之类“粗野的运动”。压力山大且倍受挫折的山姆恳求道:“我想要的,不过是自己的事情自己做而已。”In an interview, Ms. Skenazy said, “Having been brainwashed by all the stories we hear, there’s a prevailing fear that any time you’re not directly supervising your child, you’re putting the child in danger.” The widesp publicity now given to crimes has created an exaggerated fear of the dangers children face if left to navigate and play on their own.斯科纳兹女士在一次采访中说:“被道听途说的传闻洗脑之后,人们普遍存在这么一种忧虑:只要没有紧紧盯着自己孩子的一举一动,就是将孩子置于险境。”现如今对犯罪行为的广泛宣传,也大大夸大了让儿童独立行动和玩耍时可能遇到的危险。Yet, according to Peter Gray, a research psychologist at Boston College, “the actual rate of strangers abducting or molesting children is very small. It’s more likely to happen at the hands of a relative or family friend. The statistics show no increase in childhood dangers. If anything, there’s been a decrease.”然而,美国波士顿学院(Boston College)的研究心理学家彼得·格雷(Peter Gray)指出:“实际上,陌生人拐骗或猥亵儿童的案发率非常低,亲戚或家庭友人作案的机率反而更大。而且,统计数据并未显示儿童面临的危险增加,实情是此类事件是呈下降趋势的。”Experts say there is no more crime against children by strangers today — and probably significantly less — than when I was growing up in the 1940s and ’50s, a time when I walked to school alone and played outdoors with friends unsupervised by adults. “The world is not perfect — it never was — but we used to trust our children in it, and they learned to be resourceful,” Ms. Skenazy said. “The message these anxious parents are giving to their children is ‘I love you, but I don’t believe in you. I don’t believe you’re as competent as I am.’ ”专家们表示,与我小时候,也就是20世纪40年代和50年代相比,今天由陌生人实施的针对儿童的犯罪非但没有增加,很可能还显著减少了。要知道,我们那时候是自己步行上学,还在户外跟朋友玩耍,旁边都没有成年人的监管。“世界不是完美的——从来就不是,但过去我们一直相信孩子们自己能行,相信他们可以从中学会随机应变,”斯科纳兹女士说。“而如今的这些焦虑的父母传达给子女们的信息却是:‘我爱你,但我不信任你。我不相信你像我一样能干。’ ”Dr. Gray, author of “Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life,” said in an interview, “If children are not allowed to take routine risks, they’ll be less likely to be able to handle real risks when they do occur.”格雷士撰写了《会玩才会学——当野孩子有什么不好?》(Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life)一书。他在接受采访时说,“如果孩子们从没有机会面对日常风险,那么,当真正的危险降临时,他们越不可能有能力应对。”Case in point: His college’s counseling office has seen a doubling in the rate of emergency calls in the last five years, “mainly for problems kids used to solve on their own,” like being called a bad name by a roommate or finding a mouse in the room. “Students are prepared academically, but they’re not prepared to deal with day-to-day life, which comes from a lack of opportunity to deal with ordinary problems,” Dr. Gray said. “Over the past 60 years, there’s been a huge change, well documented by social scientists, in the hours a day children play outdoors — less than half as much as parents did at their children’s ages,” he said.举例为:在过去五年内,他所在学院的辅导办公室接到的紧急求助电话翻了一番,“基本上都是为了一些以往孩子们可以独立解决的问题”,比如被室友起了个难听的昵称或是在房间里发现一只老鼠等等。“学生们只准备好了如何搞定学业上的困难,却并没有准备好要如何应对日常生活,因为他们一直没什么机会去处理那些寻常的问题,”格雷士说。“社会科学家的资料显示,在过去的60年里发生了巨大的变化——现在孩子们每天在户外玩耍的时间还不到他们父母当初的一半,”他说。In decades past, children made up their own games and acquired important life skills in the process. “In pickup games,” Dr. Gray said, “children make the rules, negotiate, and figure out what’s fair to keep everyone happy. They develop creativity, empathy and the ability to the minds of other players, instead of having adults make the rules and solve all the problems.”几十年前,孩子们自创游戏,并从这一过程中习得重要的生活技能。格雷士说:“在临时组织的比赛中,孩子们自己制定规则并相互协商,最后确定下来让每个人都满意的最公平的玩法。由此他们的创造力得到了开发,也学会了揣度和体谅其他玩家的心理,而不是任由成年人给他们定下规矩并大包大揽地解决所有问题。”Dr. Gray links the astronomical rise in childhood depression and anxiety disorders, which are five to eight times more common than they were in the 1950s, to the decline in free play among young children. “Young people today are less likely to have a sense of control over their own lives and more likely to feel they are the victims of circumstances, which is predictive of anxiety and depression,” he said.格雷士认为,今天儿童抑郁症和焦虑症会飙升至20世纪50年代的五到八倍,与儿童自由玩耍时间的减少有关。他说:“如今的年轻人对生活的掌控力较弱,相反,他们更容易觉得自己不过是客观环境下的牺牲品,这当然会产生焦虑和抑郁情绪。”There are also physical consequences to restricting children’s outdoor play because there are no adults available to supervise it. Children today spend many more hours indoors than in years past, which in part accounts for the rise in childhood obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Many elementary schools have even canceled recess, believing it is time better spent cramming children’s heads with facts and figures.由于成年人没有足够的时间和精力来监管,就限制孩子们能在户外玩耍的时间,这对他们的身体也会造成影响。与以前相比,如今的孩子们待在室内的时间大大增加,从某种程度上导致了儿童肥胖和2型糖尿病的多发。很多小学甚至把课间休息也取消了,他们认为与其休息,还不如抓紧这些时间把资料和数字塞进孩子们的脑袋里。“Childhood should be a time of freedom and play, not building a résumé for college,” Dr. Gray said.格雷士说:“童年本就应该自由玩耍,这段时光不是用来打造漂亮的大学入学简历的。”As Ms. Skenazy put it, “if parents truly believe children must be supervised every second of the day, then they can’t walk to school, play in the park, or wake up Saturday morning, get on their bikes and go have an adventure.”正如斯科纳兹女士所说的那样:“如果家长真的认为自己的子女每分每秒都离不开照管,那么孩子们就不能自己走路去上学或是在公园玩耍,更不能在星期六早上起床后骑上自行车出门去探索新天地。”Some 2,000 families were screened by the Discovery Life Channel to find 13 families crippled by anxiety yet willing to have an intervention. “The parents weren’t easy pushovers,” Ms. Skenazy said. “Some were very unhappy to see me at first. But once pride in what their children achieved replaced their fears, they were ecstatic — relaxed and happy instead of crippled with fear.”探索生活频道筛查了约2000个家庭,从中找到了13个深受焦虑困扰却愿意尝试接受干预的家庭。“要说父母们可不是件容易的事,”斯科纳兹说。“有些人一开始根本不想见到我。但当他们对孩子成就的自豪感冲淡了恐惧,每个人都欣喜若狂,变得又轻松又快乐。”Ms. Skenazy spent four days with each family, introducing a different challenge each day. Sam learned to cut cheese and slice a tomato with a sharp knife and then made sandwiches for his parents. He also learned to ride a two-wheeler.斯科纳兹与每个家庭都共处了四天,每一天都给他们提出不同的挑战课题。山姆学会了用锋利的餐刀将奶酪和西红柿切片,然后给父母做三明治。他还学会了骑两轮脚踏车。“I don’t guarantee I’ll take away all their worry, just give them the confidence to loosen the reins on their kids,” she said. “Kids need roots and wings. Parents give them roots. I give them wings.”“我无法保我可以解除他们所有的忧虑,我只是给了他们一点信心,让他们放松对孩子们的束缚而已,”斯科纳兹说。“孩子们需要根基和翅膀。如果说父母给了他们根基,那么,就让我来给他们翅膀吧。” /201503/367277。