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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月17日 15:00:40
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This is the story of a country whose music has seduced the outside world and taken on an importance that goes far beyond entertainments.这是一个本国的音乐已经俘获了外面的世界,而且其重要性远远超出范畴的故事。You want to learn about Brazilian history without going through the books?你想了解巴西历史而无需通过书本吗?You can just listen to the music and you’ll understand everything.只要听音乐,你就会明白一切。Brazilian music is having a very enormous effect, Brazilian music, art…巴西音乐有着非凡的效应,巴西音乐,艺术…In Brazil, music is a national passion.在巴西,音乐拥有全国性的。Wildly varied styles from Bossa Nova to distinctively Brazilian forms of Reggae, hip-hop have projected rival views of how the country should see itself and be regarded abroad while politicians have used music to try to bring unity to the largest state in South America.从巴萨诺瓦极为多变的风格到独特的巴西形式雷格,嘻哈已经完全洞悉对手的观点,这个国家应如何看待自己及被认为海外所认同,而政客们利用音乐来试图让这个南美洲最大的国家团结一致。注:听力文本来源于普特201211/209562

They used to call her the Muse, but thats wrong, shes not the muse. 他们经常称她为艺术女神,但,这是错误的,她不是艺术女神。She was a musician. 她是一位音乐家。She could play, she could sing. 她可以演奏,她可以唱歌。The left-wingers championed what they saw as authentic Brazilian music, music of the people, that came from the city slums, the favelas, or the countryside, and had no foreign influences. 左翼持他们认为正宗的巴西音乐,音乐人都是来自这个城市贫民窟,贫民窟,还有乡村,没有受到外国影响。During the 60s, these favelas doubled in size, as more migrants moved from the countryside to the increasingly industrialised city.在60年代,随着越来越多的移民者离开农村到越来越发达的城市,这些贫民窟翻了一番。注:听力文本来源于普特201302/224437

  

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  s-.X;6yDDVyp@1IO7%edjF+MDEThe Osage orange seeds were carried far across the plains,[qh]桑橙种子在平原上被带的很远,[qh]before being deposited, pre-packed in their fertilizer growbags, y to take root.[qh]它们在重新觅得肥沃的居所之前就已经做好了生根发芽的准备F9USLM!FkCnv。[qh]As the ice age waned, the milder climate and the mixed vegetation[qh]伴随着冰河时代的消逝而来的是更加温和的气候和繁多的植被,[qh]meant the plains were able to support a range of wild life as diverse as Africa Serengeti today.[qh]这意味着该平原已经拥有了像今日的塞伦盖蒂平原一样的野生动物承载力lKRcgDGZG#@0w.Tb!。[qh]There were at least five kinds of horse, including a wild ass,[qh]那里生存至少五种马类,包括野驴[qh]and another that resembled modern zebra, and North Americas very own antelope—the pronghorn. [qh]和其他与现代斑马形似的物种,以及北美独有的羚羊和叉角羚D7f4_CA~-~z[[o-B;。[qh]13,000 years ago, several different species roamed the plains.[qh]一万三千年前,这个平原上奔驰着许多不同的物种;Gfe[8W]F(YdAf)Mj。[qh]The pronghorn lived alongside other grazers still around today, including bison.[qh]叉角羚曾经与像今日仍旧存活的野牛那样的其他食草动物共伴而生N9P,3|u+。[qh]This animal was common, too. But now it would seem very out of place.[qh]野牛在过去也很普遍,只是与今日的有很大差别8hfD0K8Z42;。[qh]Bigger than its modern relatives, the ice age camel was extremely hardy,[qh]冰河时代的骆驼也与现代骆驼不同,它们体格较大,[qh]able to eat almost any kind of food.[qh]几乎能吃任何食物~a(_C7MT2IX|k8|。[qh]Elk, like many ice age animals, survive almost unchanged.[qh]和其他冰河时代动物一样,麋鹿几乎没太大变化]w5FKB|wKw。[qh]The rich parkland was ideal for these large deer.[qh]肥美的操场是这些大型鹿类的理想居所IS3xx(DNccQr]Xf]2S。[qh]But one creature more than any other has remained a constant symbol[qh]但有一个物种比该平原在人类驻足之后[qh]of the plain since people first set foot here, the bison.[qh]仍存活至今的其他物种都更具代表性,那就是野牛1o5lN1.lVyw#_j9[4^,N。[qh]Adult bison are formidable, two meters tall and weighing more than a ton.[qh]成年野牛非常健壮,有两米高,体重超过一吨fCO1IQ08Dm~e。[qh]They too sheltered near the trees in winter,[qh]在冬季,他们也藏身于树丛,[qh]taking to the plains again in spring when new grass started sprouting.[qh]在青草再次抽芽的春季重新现身于平原之中+yp!XcNUQtC~.wj。[qh]a~sv@85UgZ,ym|_CRS,ty!l1f@(Q7uD)3xQO#9JJ(@201304/233854

  Hey everyone, today on Help Desk, we’re talking about good ways to help pick student loans that are the right fit for you. With me to help us to do that, Stacy Francis and Lynnette Khalfani-Cox. Well, let’s take a listen to this question.大家好,欢迎来到今天的帮助台。今天我们将要讨论一些能够帮助学生挑选适合自己贷款的方法。与我一起完成这一任务的,有 Stacy Francis 和 Lynnette Khalfani-Cox先生。现在,我们来听一听这个问题?Whats the best way to choose my student loans?选择学生贷款的最好方法是什么?So consider who thats coming from, pretty young guy, may be just going into college or in college. You know, hes probably looking at, you know, federal loans versus private.我们得考虑这些可能正要上大学或已在大家的年青人们来自于哪里。你知道,他可能自已正在考虑这些因素,联邦贷款和私人贷款的不同。Right. And beyond the shadow of doubt, he should absolutely look at federal loans first before he even thinks about private student loans. The reason is that federal student loans have lower interest rates, 3.4% right now for the Stafford Loan. They have loan forgiveness options, they have better deferment and forbearance options as well. So, anybody would tell you that you really should go to the federal loan market first. The problem is that a lot of students and their families, they’re behind the eight balls, so to speak, they fill out application there, they get accepted to the college of their choice, they just think I wanna be able to pay for school and theyll just go for private loan immediately.是的。 毫无疑问,在考虑私人学生贷款之前,绝对应当首先考虑联邦贷款。原因是联邦学生贷款的利率较低,斯坦福大学的贷款利率目前为3.4% 。联邦贷款拥有贷款宽恕选项,以及更优惠的延期和延缓还款选项。因此,许多机构会告诉你,你首先应当去联邦贷款市场。问题在于许多学生和他们的家庭,他们处于不利地位,也就是说,他们只填手头有的表格,接受他们所能选择的大学的贷款条件。他们仅仅认为,我(家长)能够付得起学费,他们(孩子们)很快就有能力还款。Yeah.是的。You really should not do that.其实,真的不应该这么做。One of the things I would add my tongue. Look at work-study program as well. I actually did that and at work while I was studying at college. And it helps pay for a good amount of my tuition and also gave me some extra money too. So therere other ways you can think about that, looking at you know other grants in financial. Its amazing the number of grants and opportunities out there. They go on fulfilled that free money sitting there. So loan is not the first thought that should be the last resort.我可以用其中一件事情补充我的看法。也可以利用工作+学习的方法。当我在大学学习的时候,我就边读书打工,它帮我付了相当大一部分学费,而且还让我有余钱可花。还有一些你可以想到的其他办法,比如寻找其他金融助学金之类的。助学金的金额和机会可能会让你大吃一惊。学生一边完成学业,一边享受免费的助学金。因此,贷款应该不是优先选择的,而是万不得已的办法。Very good point. Look at when youre going to school to look at any instant options that are good all states think that is a propensity.非常好的主意。当你要上大学时,除了所有州所倾向性的作法,想一想其他的选择。That’s right.是这样的。We have really good schools. Thank you both. If you got a question you want our experts to tackle, just upload a 30-second with your helpdesk question at iReport.com.我们有许多非常好的学校。谢谢二位。如果你们有问题想让我们的专家帮助解决,请在iReport.com上传30秒的关于你的问题的视频。 201211/210932Science and Technolgy科技Polio小儿麻痹症A Rotary engine扶轮社计划Can a businessmens club eradicate polio from the world?商人组织能否根除世界各地的小儿麻痹症?IT IS a year since the last case of polio was diagnosed in India. That is not enough to pronounce the country polio-free-three clear years are the conventional period required for that to happen. But it is a good start. And if India really is clear, then what was once a global scourge will now be endemic to a mere three countries: Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan. The number of people infected, meanwhile, has dropped from 350,000 in 1988 to 650 last year.距印度最后一例小儿麻痹症患者被确诊到现在已经1年。那不足以宣布这个国家脱离了小儿麻痹症——人们习惯上将三年不出现小儿麻痹症病例作为一个国家宣布脱离小儿麻痹症的周期。但这已经是一个好的开始。如果印度摆脱了小儿麻痹症,那么曾经风靡全球的灾难在现在将仅存于三个国家:阿富汗、尼日利亚和巴基斯坦。于此同时,感染小儿麻痹症的人的数量已经从1988年的350,000降低到了去年的650.All this is in large part thanks to the efforts of Rotary International. In 1985, after a successful pilot study in the Philippines, this businessmens club cum global charity announced a plan to eradicate polio by vaccinating every child under five at risk of catching it. The estimate then was that it would cost 0m. Some 0m of Rotary money later (plus a lot from other sources), the virus is still out there, but its remaining hidey-holes tell their own story: where civil disorder is rife, medicine is hard.所有这一切很大程度上得益于扶轮国际。1985年,一个在菲律宾进行的初步研究成功之后,商人组织和全球慈善团体宣布了一项计划,这项计划通过给有患小儿麻痹症风险的五岁以下儿童接种疫苗来根除小儿麻痹症。预计这个计划将耗资一亿两千万美元。其后要花费扶轮社八亿美元(加上许多通过其他途径获得的钱),病毒仍然还会存在,但是那些剩余的隐藏的地点发出自己的心声:越是内乱盛行的地方,医疗就越发的困难。On January 17th Rotary announced it had raised yet another 0m. The Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation will contribute a further 5m, and the pressure will thus be kept up. John Germ, one of Rotarys trustees, thinks that if all goes well 2016 might be the first year when no new cases are reported. That would, though, mean spending more than billion a year between now and then.1月17日,扶轮社宣布已经另外募集了两亿美元的资金。比尔及梅林达?盖茨基金会将另外捐献四亿零五百万美元,即便如此还是会有压力。扶轮社的理事之一约翰泽恩认为如果一切进行顺利,那么2016年可能是第一年没有新的病例被报道的一年。尽管那将意味着从此时到彼时每年要花费至少10亿美元。The inspiration for Rotarys campaign against polio came from the eradication of smallpox. Like polio, smallpox was a viral disease for which effective, easily administered vaccines existed. And crucially, like polio, smallpox had only one animal host: Homo sapiens. In principle, then, extermination should be possible. The practice, however, has turned out rather different.扶轮社遏制小儿麻痹症的启发来自天花的根除。和小儿麻痹症一样,天花是一种可以被存活的疫苗简单有效的治理的病毒性疾病。关键是天花像小儿麻痹症一样仅有一个动物寄主:人类。一般而言根除应该是可能的。然而时间明却是恰恰相反的。First, unlike smallpox, polio viruses can survive for long periods outside a host-for instance in sewage. Second, when the campaign began in earnest there were three main varieties of polio, each of which required a specially tailored vaccine. Focusing effort on one of these strains often led to the resurgence of another. Third, besides the inevitable difficulties of working in places that have poor medical infrastructure, the campaign ran into some specific human problems. The most notorious of these was the rumour, sp in 2003 by certain religious leaders in Nigeria, that the vaccine would sterilise girls and was part of an American plot to rid the world of Muslims. This helps explain why polio persists in Nigeria.第一,与天花不同的是,小儿麻痹症病毒在寄主之外可以长时间的存活—例如在下水道。第二,当此项活动开始正儿八经的进展的时候已经存在三类主要的小儿麻痹症,每一类都需要一种特别定做的疫苗。集中对其中一类小儿麻痹症下功夫经常会导致另一类病毒的死灰复燃。第三,除了这些不可避免的医疗设备落后的工作困难之外,此项活动偶尔还会遇到人类问题。其中最臭名昭著的就是在2003年尼日利亚的某一宗教领导人散布的谣言,谣言称疫苗将会使女孩绝育并且是一个消灭世界上伊斯兰教徒的美国阴谋的一部分。这帮助解释了尼日利亚的小儿麻痹症得不到遏制的原因。That polio can actually be eradicated is suggested by the elimination, in 1999, of one of the three strains. Whether the resources needed to do so might be better spent elsewhere, though, is a matter of debate. Some would prefer to see a shift to policies that improve overall health, including investing in decent sanitation and clean water.1999年,三类小儿麻痹症之一的消除明了小儿麻痹症实际上可以根除。但是根治小儿麻痹所需要的资源财力是否可以在别处更好的配是一个值得讨论的问题。一些人更希望看到一个改善全民健康的政策的转变,包括像样的环境卫生和干净的水。The response to that is that if you remove the specific pressure on polio it will simply bounce back. Moreover, in practice, a synthesis between the two positions is emerging. According to Mr Germ there is aly a debate within Rotary about what to do next. Providing clean water and improving maternal and child health are popular options.对于此观点的回应是如果你对小儿麻痹症疏忽大意它将会轻易的恢复活力。此外,实际上两种立场已经显现出达成一致的势头。据泽恩先生说,早就已经在扶轮社内部召开了关于接下来该怎么做的讨论会。提供干净的水和改善母婴健康是符合大众的选择。One thing everyone wants to avoid, though, is what happened after smallpox was eliminated. Then, the infrastructure of health workers and clinics that had been created to detect and fight the disease was allowed to evaporate. Had it been used instead to focus on polio, that illness, too, might have been vanquished by now.不过,每个人都想避免的一件事是天花被消除以后发生的事。此外,已经制造的用于检测和治疗疾病的保健人员和诊所的医疗设施是可以消除疾病的。至于这些设备是否也已经用于治疗小儿麻痹症这样的疾病到目前为止可能已经可行了。 /201210/202551Obituary;Robert Byrd讣告;罗伯特·伯德Robert C. Byrd, doyen of the ed States Senate, died on June 28th, aged 92罗伯特·C·伯德,资深美国参议院议员,逝世于6月28日,享年92岁WHENEVER Robert Byrd walked the corridors and chambers of the Senate, he went in a crowd of people. Some were his constituents, in camouflage caps and T-shirts, gape-mouthed among the gilt and marble, come to talk to him about the problems of Marsh Fork Elementary School or their uncles black lung. But he also saw Henry Foote of Mississippi wielding his pistol, Sam Houston of Texas whittling wooden hearts for the ladies, and little John Randolph of Virginia strutting past with his hunting dogs; and Cicero in the shadows, and just behind him Cato the younger, whispering “I would not be beholden to a tyrant.”无论什么时候罗伯特·伯德行走在参议院的走廊和房间里,总有一群人相伴而行。一些是他的选民,戴着迷帽,穿着T恤,瞠目于参议员的金碧辉煌,他们是来找他谈马什福克小学或者他们叔叔的黑肺之类的问题。但他也见过密西西比的亨利·富特挥舞手,萨姆·休斯顿为女士们制作木心,还见过矮小的约翰·伦道夫昂首阔步走过参议院;还有阴影中的西塞罗,和他身后的小卡图,喃喃:“我不沾暴君的光。”The Roman Senate fascinated Mr Byrd almost as much as the American. When it declined, the Republic fell. And why had it declined? Because it had become passive, failed to raise its voice; and especially because it had handed meekly to Caesar and Sulla the power of the pursestrings. Mr Byrd therefore spent his career—the longest Senate service in American history, incorporating six years as majority whip, 12 years as majority or minority leader and 20 years as chairman or ranking minority member of the Appropriations Committee—learning, describing and expertly applying the rules that kept the Senate a force in government. He was constantly alert both to executive overreach and to weakness in his own beloved chamber, “the anchor of the Republic, the morning and evening star in the American constitutional constellation”.伯德对罗马元老院的着迷不亚于美国参议院。随着元老院的衰退,罗马共和国也灭亡了。它为什么会衰退?因为它变得消极,不再高声疾呼;特别是因为对于凯撒与苏拉,它将财政拱手相让。因此,伯德终其一生——美国历史上任期最长的参议员,包括6年的多数党党鞭,12年多数党或少数党领袖以及20年拨款委员会主席或高级少数党成员——学习,描述,而且巧妙地应用这些规则,使得参议院仍旧是政府的一股力量。他时刻警惕滥用职权和自己受爱戴的内阁的弱点,“共和国之栋梁,美国宪法星座中的启明星和长庚星。”Dignity was his byword: three-piece suits, velvet waistcoats and the rolling oratory of a man who had been a fine lay preacher before he left West Virginia. His courtesy was instinctive, his thank-you notes reliably there the next day. The point of all this, though, was to uphold the worth of the Senate. At meetings with the president he insisted on taking a staff person, because the president had one, and the branches were equal. He kept laptops out of the chamber, but voted for televised proceedings, so that the Senate would be visible to the people to whom it belonged. The constitution, as he reminded listeners, pulling it from his left breast pocket where he kept it over his heart, had made the American people sovereign and mentioned their Congress first. Now, like him, they had to revere and defend it.高雅是他的座右铭:3件套装西,天鹅绒马甲和圆熟的口才——他离开西弗吉尼亚前曾是一个优秀的非神职布道者。他的礼节毫不做作,他的感谢信从不迟到。然而,这一切的意义都在与维护参议院的形象。会见总统时,他坚持要带上一名工作人员,因为三权领导等级相同,而总统带了一个。他不允许在会议室里用笔记本电脑,但却持电视直播议程,好让该看见的人看见参议院的样子。宪法让美国成为一个主权国家,它把国会放在第一位,他在提醒听众时,从左胸口袋里拿出了他一直保存在心上的宪法。现在,像伯德一样,他们也要尊重和维护它。He grappled masterfully with 11 presidents, and liked them less as he got older. George Bush junior he detested, a reckless and arrogant man who, on Iraq, overrode the war-declaring powers of Congress while the Senate stood pitifully by. “In this terrible show of weakness”, Mr Byrd wrote, “the Senate left an indelible stain upon its own escutcheon.” Some Democrats pleased him little better. Though most of his 18,500 votes went with his party, he had an old southerners conservative streak, besides a West Virginians tenderness for coal-mining and steel-making; and party ran second to the Senate, in any case. Bill Clintons bid to seize the pursestrings from Congress in the 1990s with the line-item budget veto was opposed by Mr Byrd in 14 separate one-hour speeches, learned by heart, to slow up debate. He had filibustered before, the old-fashioned way: in 1964 for a straight 14 hours 13 minutes, to try to kill the Civil Rights Act.他巧妙地与11任总统周旋,并且随着年长,越来越不喜欢他们。他憎恶小布什,在伊拉克问题上,布什越过了国会的宣战权,而参议院还在可怜地等待。“在这次严重的示弱行为后,”伯德写道,“参议院在自己的盾上留下了不可磨灭的污点。”有些民主党人也讨不得他的欢喜。虽然他的18500票中,党内人士居多,但他有着老南方的保守性格,和西弗吉尼亚人对炼钢和煤矿的温柔;而且在任何情况下,参议院优先于党。九十年代,比尔·克林顿曾企图通过项目预算否决权,从国会那里接管财政,被伯德反对,并以分别的14个一小时演讲,全部脱稿,拖延了议程。他以前也曾以老式的方式阻挠议事:1964年,一次长达14小时13分钟的演讲,试图遏止人权法案。This he later regretted. He was sorry, too, that he found himself slipping into talk of “white niggers” and “race mongrels”, and that he was exposed as an active member of the Ku Klux Klan, charging 150 friends and colleagues membership and robe-and-hood hire to form a chapter in 1943 in Crab Orchard, West Virginia. He had briefly joined the Klan for its anticommunism, he explained, and for the platform it gave him, a mere butcher and fiddle-player, to organise people locally. This, with his spirited playing of “Rye Whiskey” and “Turkey in the Straw”, soon got him elected to the state House of Delegates in 1946, the US House of Representatives in 1952 and, by 1958, at 40, the Senate, which through almost nine terms he never left.之后他也对此感到后悔。他也对自己不知不觉开始大谈“白黑鬼”和“黑白杂种”,还有他被揭穿是3K党的活跃成员,1943年在西弗吉尼亚州的螃蟹果园。曾向150个朋友和同事收取10美元的会费以及会员必备的绳子和兜帽的3美元租金,表示抱歉。他解释说,他曾经短暂的加入3K党,因为他们的反共和他们提供给他召集本地群众的平台,即屠夫和小提琴手。随着他动人的曲目《黑麦威士忌》和《草丛中的火鸡》,这个平台很快让他在1946年被选入州参议院,1952年被选入美国众议员,而且到了1958年,他40岁的时候,到达了参议院,并且几乎任满9期从未离开。Yet his heart was in West Virginia, a poor and backward state of mountains and coal mines, where foster-parents had brought him up without power or running water and he had finished college, in a decade of night classes, five years after he joined the Senate. His years on Appropriations were spent not just juggling favours and nitpicking on procedure, but also proudly channelling money to the hills and hollows: making gravel tracks into Robert C. Byrd Freeways, turning fetid lock-ups into Robert C. Byrd Correctional Institutions, setting up the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to look at the stars. This, too, was what the Senate was for.然而他的心仍在西弗吉尼亚,一个多山,多煤矿的,贫穷落后的州,在那里,他的养父母在没有电和自来水的情况下把他养大,而在他进入参议院5年后,他为期10年的夜校课程,才算读完了。他在拨款委员会的几年,不只是尽力帮人的忙和挑剔手续,他还把资金送到了丘陵和洼地:让石子路变成了罗伯特·C·伯德高速公路,把恶臭的拘留所变成了罗伯特·C·伯德惩教所,设立罗伯特·C·伯德绿堤望远镜用来观星。这些,也都是参议员存在的意义。On the mountain top在山巅上In one of his weekly online columns he mused on the beauty of mountains, where God had revealed himself to Moses and Elijah had challenged the false prophets of Baal. A blogger or two pointed out that the lopped-off, naked mountains in the south of his state owed much to Mr Byrds votes for uninhibited mining. He was unrepentant. Mining brought jobs, and burning coal kept America going. The people powered America; the Senate was the peoples house; and the man who preserved the Senate, in all its glory and prodigality and arcane complexity, was Robert C. Byrd, King of Pork and senator senatorum.有一次,在他的每周线上论坛上,他赞叹山的壮丽,上帝就是在山上向西展示真身,而以利亚也是在山上挑战巴力神的假先知的。几位客作家指出,他们南方家乡的斑驳光秃的山都归咎于伯德对无限制采矿的持。他却并不后悔。采矿带来工作,而燃煤保障美国的前进。人民赋予美国力量;参议院是人民的议院;而保护参议院所有的荣光,奢侈和深不可测的那个人,正是猪肉王,参议员中的参议员,罗伯特·C·伯德。 201207/192861

  Science and technology科学技术Animal behaviour动物行为Drip-feeding滴定进食Ecology raids the techniques of chemistry生态学里应用上了化学技术。Time to change restaurant该换家馆子了。BIOLOGISTS are sometimes accused of physics envy—and there is truth in this accusation.生物学家们常常被认为非常嫉妒研究物理学的人。The essential fuzziness of biological systems can never be captured by the precise, mathematically based experiments of something like the Large Hadron Collider.他们永远不可能通过像大型强子加速碰撞那样精确、量化的实验来揭示生物学里的一些关键性的奥秘。Between physics and biology on the spectrum of fuzziness, though, lies chemistry.但是在这种奥秘的“两极”—物理学和生物学之间还有化学。And a group of researchers led by Carolyn Nersesian of the University of Sydney has just borrowed one of chemistry’s most elegant techniques, titration, to answer a pressing ecological question: how do animals choose where to feed?最近由悉尼大学的卡洛琳·涅尔谢相带领的一组研究人员借用化学里一种非常精妙的技术—滴定法来解决一个迫待回答的问题:动物们如何选择觅食场所。Titration, to remind those who dozed through their chemistry lessons, is a way of working out the concentration of a substance in a solution.滴定法是一种计算溶质在溶液中的浓度的方法。A reagent of known concentration is dripped into the unknown solution in the presence of an appropriate indicator molecule.在某种特定的指示分子的参与下,将一种已知浓度的溶液滴到未知溶液中。When the tipping point comes, and all of the unknown reagent has reacted, the solution changes colour.当滴定终点到来时,所有的未知溶液全都完成了化学反应,溶液的颜色就会发生变化。The unknown concentration can then be calculated from the amount of known reagent used.然后未知溶液的浓度就可以通过被消耗掉的已知溶液的体积计算出来。In Dr Nersesian’s titration the litmus was a species called the brushtail possum. The two reagents were predators and poisons.涅尔谢相士的滴定实验中的“石蕊指示剂”是一种叫帚尾袋貂的动物。那两种溶液是“猎食者”和“有毒物”。In the wild, possums feed mainly on eucalyptus trees.在野生环境下,袋貂主要以桉树叶为食。Feeding in trees this way also keeps them safe from ground-based predators, such as foxes.生活在树上也能让它们安全地远离地面上的那些猎食者—例如狐狸。They frequently have to shift from tree to tree in search of non-poisonous leaves, though, because a tree that is being browsed starts manufacturing toxins.但是他们还得经常从一棵树上换到另一棵树上去寻找那些没有毒的叶子。因为一颗树如果被它们吃久了就会自动分泌毒素。Dr Nersesian reasoned that there is probably a measurable point at which a plant becomes so toxic that possums prefer to take their chances with the predators on the ground—and she realised this was a perfect opportunity to do an ecological titration.涅尔谢相士认为可能当植物中的毒素达到一个量值的时候,袋貂会选择冒着被猎食的风险,然后她就意识到这是一个应用生态滴定法绝好的机会。As she reports in the Journal of Animal Ecology, she attempted to imitate the distinction between trees and ground by giving eight possums the opportunity to feed in either of two enclosures.她发表在动物生态学报上报告中写道:她通过给8只袋貂两种桉树来选择觅食来模拟树上和地面的区别。In one, cover was created with eucalyptus branches and light levels were kept low, mimicking an arboreal habitat.一棵桉树上,有特意放置的桉树枝来遮挡,光照强度也很低,模拟出适合树栖动物习性的环境。Here, the food was sometimes spiked with cineole—a poison often found in eucalyptus leaves.但是,这种树上的叶子有时含有桉树脑—桉树叶中常见的毒素。In the other enclosure, the food was always untarnished.另一棵桉树上,叶子总是无毒的,但是,没有树枝的遮挡。However, no cover was provided and fox scent, in the form of faeces and urine, was scattered liberally around, mimicking conditions on the ground.而且通过将一些狐狸的“踪迹”,例如狐狸的脸谱尿液随意四散在周围,来模拟地面环境。To start with, when the level of cineole was low, possums preferred the first enclosure.开始桉树脑的浓度很低,袋貂都喜欢第一棵桉树。But as the drip of the titration went up, from 0% to 1% to 2% to 5% and ultimately to 10% of the food being cineole, their behaviour changed.但是随着滴定程度的上升,食物中的桉树脑含量从0%到1%到2%到5% 到最终的10%,它们的行为开始出现变化。It was not quite the sudden shift from litmus red to blue of an acid being neutralised by an alkali, but it was not far off.虽然不是完全像酸溶液完全被碱溶液中和时石蕊试剂突然从红变蓝那样迅速,但是也差不太多。When the food was toxin-free, the possums spent an average of 40 minutes of every hour eating safely under treelike cover and only 20 minutes in the risky, ground-like enclosure, and that scarcely changed for 1% and 2% cineole.当叶子无毒时,袋貂们每小时用平均40分钟的时间在树枝状的遮蔽物下安全的进食。而在危险的类地面的桉树上只待20分钟,这时的桉树脑含量变化在1%到2%之间。The switch began at 5%, and by the time the cineole level had reached 10% the ratio of time the animals spent in the two enclosures had reversed itself—presumably reflecting, though this remains to be tested, the point at which they change trees in the wild.分界点出现在5%,当桉树脑含量达到10%,这些小动物们呆在这两颗桉树上的时间比完全颠倒过来了——这大致上能反映在野外环境下它们换树进食时的毒素量值,当然这还有待验。Though foxes are of recent introduction in Australia, many marsupial predators, now extinct, were present before the arrival of man in both his Aboriginal and his European forms, so the ecological system of plants, herbivores and carnivores in the eucalyptus forests would probably not have been that different in the evolutionary past.虽然狐狸是很晚才被引进到澳大利亚的,但是在原始人或者欧洲人到来之前还有很多其他的有袋动物的猎食者。所以桉树林生态系统中的那些植物,素食动物肉食动物,与进化史中较早的生态系统相比,差别可能也没有那么大。A neat illustration, then, of co-evolution between three different parts of an ecosystem—and of the value, even in biology, of precise measurement.这样一来生态系统中的三个不同角色的协同进化的一张清晰的图表呈现出来。在生物学里也能进行精确的量化计算,这种尝试的价值是巨大的。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/231322

  

  Why Dogs Bark?犬吠为何?Have you ever wondered why do dogs bark?你可曾想过犬缘何而吠呢?In terms of evolution, there has to be a reason for barking, or it probably wouldn’t be there. Is it to warn of predators? But dogs bark when there are no predators around. Is it play? Some dogs play without barking. In fact, people who study canine behavior find there isn’t much of a pattern to barking–it seems to be an all-purpose noise.从进化的角度来说,汪汪叫肯定是有理由的,要不这叫声肯定在漫长的进化过程中给淘汰掉了。那么这叫声是为了警告捕食者么?但是周围没有捕食者的时候也会汪汪叫。那么它只是在玩耍么?有些玩的时候也没有发出叫声呀。事实上,研究类行为的专家告诉我们,的叫声并没有固定的形式。它只是是一种多用途的响声。Now here’s another fascinating thing: adult wolves don’t bark. They growl, and they whine, but no barking. And dogs evolved from wolves. So where did the bark come in?另一件让人着迷的事情是:成年的狼并不会吠叫。它们只是嚎叫、哀鸣,但并不吠叫。但是是从狼进化而来的,那么,的这种吠叫声是从何而来的呢?Mark Feinstein and Ray Coppinger of Hampshire College in Massachusetts have a theory. These biologists have noted that while adult wolves don’t bark, adolescents do. Wolf pup barking seems to be an intermediate noise you grow out of.对此,来自马萨诸塞州罕布什尔学院的马克·范斯坦和雷·科平杰提出了一个理论。这两位生物学家注意到,虽然成年的狼不会吠叫,但是狼崽会。狼崽的吠声就好比是在它成长发声过程中的一个中间产物。(译者注:就好比我们在学习一门新的语言时产生的中介语)Now, a few tens of thousands of years ago, wolves and people started becoming friendly species. You can imagine a person tossing a bone to a friendly wolf from time to time. But “friendly” is the key. Nobody ever gets close to a hostile wolf. So over many thousands of years we would have been gradually selecting for certain behavioral traits–playfulness, low hostility, the ability to bond. Very puppy-like behaviors!现在我们来谈谈人的因素,数万年前,狼和人便开始进化成为可以友好相处的物种。你可以想象人们会时不时地向一只温顺的狼扔块骨头,但是“温顺”二字是关键,没人会靠近一只充满敌意的狼。因此,实际上,成千上万年以来,人类都在渐渐地、有意识地进行着选择,选择具有特定行为特征的狼群。这些特征包括爱嬉戏玩闹,温顺,合群。这些行为难道不像小吗?See what’s happening? A species that resembles a wolf puppy that never grows up may have slowly evolved in this way. That species would retain its puppy-like behaviors, such as barking, but never grow into growling, howling adult wolves. That species we would now call “dogs.”现在明白这是怎么回事了吗?就像这样,一种类似于狼崽的物种开始慢慢的进化着。这一物种保留了那些幼崽般的行为特征,比如吠叫,它们也不会进化为嚎叫的成年狼。这一物种便是我们现在把它称之为“”的动物。 /201302/227544。

  Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;Paul Volcker保罗·沃尔克Tall tale伟人传奇The most influential central banker of the modern era当代最具影响力的央行行长Volcker: The Triumph of Persistence. By William Silber. Bloomsbury;《沃尔克:金石为开》威廉·希尔伯著;ALAN GREENSPAN may be the most famous central banker of the modern era, but Paul Volcker has been the most influential. He played a crucial diplomatic role during the death of the Bretton Woods financial system in the early 1970s, which severed the link between money and gold and ushered in floating exchange rates. As head of the Federal Reserve from 1979, Mr Volcker then tamed the inflation that ensued, bringing monetary stability in the face of political opposition to the very high interest rates required. In doing so, he set the template for modern economic management, built around an independent central bank with an implicit, or explicit, inflation target.历任当代央行行长中,或许最知名的是艾伦·格林斯潘(ALAN GREENSPAN),但最有影响力的则是保罗·沃尔克。他于二十世纪七十年代初扮演着至关重要的外交角色,期间货币与黄金脱钩、浮动汇率制被引入、布雷顿森林体系走向瓦解。1979年,沃尔克出任美联储主席。为了控制随之而来的通货膨胀,沃尔克不顾来自政治方面的反对声音,大幅提高利率,带来了货币稳定。借此,他构建了当代经济管理模式,设立了具有明确/隐含通胀目标的一家独立央行。After serving at the Treasury under Richard Nixon, the towering (6ft 7in) Mr Volcker was appointed to the Fed by both Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan. More recently he has been an adviser to Barack Obama, who traded on the former Fed chiefs credibility by dubbing his plan to end banks proprietary trading the “Volcker rule”.在尼克松(Richard Nixon)政府的财政部工作过后,伟岸的沃尔克先生(6英尺7英寸,即2米出头)同时被吉米·卡特(Jimmy Carter)和罗纳德·里根(Ronald Reagan)提名推荐到美联储。最近,他又成为了布莱克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)的顾问。奥巴马利用这位前美联储主席的声誉,将其提出的禁止自营交易的计划称为“沃尔克规则”。This long record of public service earns the admiration of William Silber, his new biographer. Mr Volcker could have earned much more on Wall Street. Upon becoming head of the Fed, his salary was halved. To balance their domestic budget, his wife, , took a part-time job as a book-keeper and let a room in their flat. He smoked cheap (and smelly) cigars because he could not imagine spending as much as on a stogie. In later life, when he chaired investigations into the UN oil-for-food programme or Arthur Andersen, an accountancy firm, he charged only a token fee.沃尔克的新自传撰写人威廉· 希尔伯(William Silber)对其在公共务的长期贡献深表敬佩。沃尔克本可在华尔街赚得更多。他的薪水在其出任美联储主席时缩减了一半。为了平衡家庭收,妻子芭芭拉(Barbara)当时从事着一份记账员的兼职工作,并对外出租了他们公寓里的一个房间。沃尔克则抽着廉价(还有点难闻)的雪茄,原因是他最多肯为每廉价雪茄付2美元。后来,不论是在他负责联合国有关 “石油换食品”计划受贿案的调查项目时、还是出任安达信(一家咨询公司)独立监察委员会主席时,沃尔克都仅象征性地收取1美元作为薪酬。Yet Mr Volcker still lacked the consolation of popularity, unlike Mr Greenspan, who was praised by the press and politicians for much of his term. Democrats blamed Mr Volcker for losing them the 1980 election because of his tight monetary policy. Milton Friedman saw him as insufficiently monetarist, and many in the Reagan White House regarded him with suspicion as a Democrat. Mr Volcker barely made it though his eight years at the Fed. He nearly failed to be reappointed in 1983 and almost resigned in 1986, when defeated on a key vote. It was only in retrospect that his reputation grew; Mr Silbers well-written book should help cement it.即便如此,沃尔克仍然缺乏来自民众的安慰;而格林斯潘在位期间,则常常受到媒体与政客的称颂。民主党人士认为,施行紧缩型货币政策的沃尔克要对他们1980年的落选负责。米尔顿·弗里德曼(Milton Friedman)认为沃尔克的货币主义没做到位,而许多里根政府人士则对他的民主党身份抱有质疑。八年的美联储生涯,沃尔克很少有“一举成功”的时刻。1983年,他差点落选继任美联储主席的提名;1986年则由于在一次关键性投票中落败,近乎提出辞呈。只有在后人的回顾里,才能慢慢发现沃尔克的荣望所在;而希尔伯在其所著传记里,应该很好地印了这番观点。While Mr Volckers record at the Fed is well-known, what might be more surprising is the crucial role he played in the exchange-rate crises of the early 1970s. Like an economic Henry Kissinger, Mr Volcker shuttled around the world to placate foreign allies in the face of Nixons marked indifference to international economics. “I dont give a shit about the lira,” was one of Tricky Dicks choice phrases.沃尔克在美联储的任职经历广为人知,其更令人惊讶的,应是他于二十世纪七十年代早期在汇率危机中所扮演的重要角色。同经济学家艾尔弗雷德·基辛格(Henry Kissinger)相似,沃尔克穿梭于世界各地安抚国际同盟,尽管当时尼克松对国际经济满不在乎。“我才不在乎什么里拉”,摘自滑头迪克语录。For decades politicians had mouthed their support for a strong currency, but Nixon cut through the claptrap. “Volcker thinks we ought to sacrifice the domestic economy to save the dollar,” he said. “Im not in favour of that.” The dollar duly fell sharply in the 1970s, although it rebounded under Mr Volckers tenure at the Fed. Mr Silber praises his subject for stabilising the currency and also for opposing Reagans budget deficits. Whether he is right to say that it was those deficits that pushed up real interest rates in the 1980s is harder to tell; after all, deficits are even higher now and real rates are negative:当时政客们已泛泛而谈持美元长达数十年,但尼克松一语打消了这种言不由衷的空谈。“沃尔克认为我们应该牺牲国民经来救美元,”他称。“对此我并不赞成。”这导致美元于二十世纪七十年代急速跌落,尽管后来由于沃尔克在位美联储而有所恢复。希尔伯对沃尔克致力于稳定货币、反对里根财政赤字的行为表示称赞。是否如其所称,二十世纪80年代时正是这些赤字推动了实际利率上扬,如今更加难以分辨;毕竟当今赤字更加高额,而实际利率却为负值。Perhaps the most remarkable fact about Mr Volcker is that he has spent much of his career dealing with Wall Street without being captured by its influence. Mr Silber highlights his subjects commitment to financial reform, but fails to mention one of his more pointed bon mots—that the only useful modern financial innovation has been the automated teller machine. Such robust cynicism about Wall Street, along with his links to the current president, may explain why Mr Volcker is not a hero of the conservative movement, despite his anti-inflationary credentials.沃尔克未受到华尔街影响,毕其大半精力与之斡旋, 这或许是他最杰出的功绩。希尔伯强调了沃尔克对金融改革所做的贡献,却未提及他更为尖锐的箴言——即当代唯一有用的金融创新就是自动提款机。对华尔街如此口出恶言,加之其与现任总统的关系,沃尔克即便有过多么光荣的反通胀传奇也无法成为保守主义运动中的伟人了吧。 /201209/198726

  Science and Technology The rise of the dinosaurs Pardon!科技 恐龙的崛起 恕我直言!A geological burp may have led to the dinosaurs domination地质上的甲烷释放可能是恐龙称霸地球的原因THE s, famously, went out with a bang.众所周知,恐龙在地球上是突然消失的。Some 65.5m years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period, the Earth collided with an asteroid and the biggest terrestrial beasts in history were no more.大约在6500万年前的白垩纪末期,地球与小行星相撞导致最大的陆地兽类全部灭绝。That left things clear for the rise of the mammals.此次灭绝事件为哺乳动物的崛起提供了契机。But how did the dinosaurs rise to power in the first place?但首要的是恐龙是如何崛起的呢?Some light on this question has just been shed by a paper published in Science by Micha Ruhl of Utrecht University, in the Netherlands, and his colleagues.荷兰乌得勒大学迈克尔·鲁尔及其同事在最近一期《科学》杂志上撰文对此问题进行了阐述。Dinosaurs first appear in the fossil record during the Triassic period, some 230m years ago.恐龙最早出现在三叠纪时期(距今约2.3亿年)的化石记录中。They do not take over, though, until the end of the Triassic, 201m years ago.但直至三叠纪末期(距今2.01亿年)恐龙才取得地球霸主地位。That date marks one of five recognised mass extinctions in history (the end of the Cretaceous was another).历史公认的5次物种大灭绝事件之一就是以三叠纪末期为标志的(另一次发生在白垩纪末期)。In it, half the worlds known species disappeared.在此期间,世界上的半数已知物种都灭绝了。Until now, the end of the Triassic has been blamed on massive volcanic eruptions that went on for 600,000 years.直到现在,人们都一直将三叠纪的终结归因于持续了60万年的大规模火山喷发。Dr Ruhl, however, reckons that was not the cause—or, at least, not directly.然而鲁尔士却认为火山喷发不是导致三叠纪终结的原因或者至少不是直接原因。By analysing the isotopic composition of hydrocarbon molecules from plant waxes of the period, he found what looks like a spike in the amount of recently non-biological carbon (which has a distinctive ratio of light isotopes to heavy ones), lasting between 10,000 and 20,000 years.通过分析该时期植物腊的碳氢分子同位素组成,他发现有种类似最近非生物碳(轻、重同位素有着独特的比例)的碳元素在数量上激增,这种现象持续了1万到2万年。He thinks the liberation of methane stored at the bottom of the ocean in structures called clathrates is the most likely culprit.他认为出现这种现象的最可能诱因是甲烷气体的释放,这些甲烷气体释放前存储在海底称作;笼形包合物;的结构中。The alternative, that the carbon came from the volcanoes, is unlikely because the spike is much shorter than the period of volcanic activity.另一种说法是这种碳元素来自于火山,但这不可能,因为碳数量激增期比火山活动期要短得多。Methane is a greenhouse gas far stronger than carbon dioxide, so the consequence would have been a rapid warming of the climate—a phenomenon that the rocks suggest did actually happen.甲烷是一种比二氧化碳浓烈得多的温室气体,它的释放会导致地球气候迅速升温——岩石层研究也表明这种现象确实发生过。This is not the first time a methane burp has been blamed for an extinction.人类已经不是第一次将物种灭绝归因于甲烷气体的脉冲式释放。Though the Cretaceous asteroid cleared the stage, mammals did not really get going until 10m years later, in the Eocene epoch.尽管白垩纪时期的小行星灭绝了居统治地位的恐龙,但哺乳动物却一直到1000万年后的始新世才真正兴起繁盛起来。The preceding Palaeocene epoch was also brought to an end, the rocks suggest, by a sudden release of methane.岩石层研究表明甲烷的突然释放导致了之前的古新世时期结束。The burp could, of course, have been provoked by the eruptions, so the volcanoes are not off the hook completely.当然甲烷的脉冲式释放可能是火山喷发所致,因此火山始终难辞其咎。But, for those of a nervous disposition, the tying of an ancient greenhouse warming to an ancient mass extinction might suggest lessons for the future.但是对于这些性情冲动的火山,古代的温室变暖和古代大量物种灭绝之间的联系或许对未来有诸多的借鉴意义。 /201211/210739

  

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