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来源:养心分类    发布时间:2017年10月20日 16:40:27    编辑:admin         

Speaking two languages can actually help offset some effects of aging on the brain, a new study has found.一项新研究发现,说两种语言实际上能够帮助消除衰老对大脑的影响。Researchers tested how long it took participants to switch from one cognitive task to another, something that’s known to take longer for older adults, said lead researcher, Brian Gold, a neuroscientist at the University of Kentucky. As he spoke to ANews.com from his cell phone, he said he was also in a grocery store choosing between gala and granny smith apples — a perfect example of switching between cognitive tasks in everyday life.研究者测试了参与者们从一个认知活动转换到另一个需要的时间。主管研究员布莱恩·古尔德是肯塔基大学的神经学家,他表示老年人转换任务需要的时间更长。当他和ANews的记者在手机上说话时,他说自己正在一家蔬果店考虑到底是要买小富士苹果还是美国青苹果,这就日常生活中认知活动最典型的例子。“It has big implications these days because our population is aging more and more,” Gold said. “Seniors are living longer, and that’s a good thing, but it’s only a good thing to the extent that their brains are healthy.”“这个研究有重大的意义,因为我们的人口现在越来越老龄化了,”古尔德说。“老年人活的时间更长了,这是件好事,但是前提是他们的大脑要保持健康。”Gold’s team compared task-switching speeds for younger and older adults, knowing they would find slower speeds in the older population because of previous studies. However, they found that older adults who spoke two languages were able to switch mental gears faster than those who didn’t.古尔德的团队比较了年轻人和老年人转换任务的速度,基于之前的研究,他们知道将得到的结果是老年人转换任务的速度更慢。然而他们又发现,会说两种语言的老年人转换思维的速度要比只说一种语言的要快。The study only looked at life-long bilinguals, defined in the study as people who had spoken a second language daily since they were at least 10 years old.研究的对象仅为一辈子都说两种语言的人,一辈子说两种语言在这个研究中的定义是:从10岁以前开始每天都使用第二种语言的人。First, Gold and his team asked 30 people, who were either bilingual or monolingual, to look at a series of colored shapes and respond with the name of each shape by pushing a button. Then, they presented the participants with a similar series of colored shapes and asked them to respond with what colors the shapes were by pushing a button. Finally, researchers presented participants with a series of colored shapes, but they mixed prompts for either a shape or a color to test participants’ task-switching times.首先,古尔德和他的团队让30个人看一系列有颜色的形状,然后按下按钮回答他们看到的是哪种形状,这30个人中既有说一种语言也有会说两种语言的人。然后,他们再给实验参与者看类似的上了色的形状,让他们按按钮回答他们看到形状的颜色是什么。最后,研究者们给参与者一系列有颜色的形状,不过问题中既有让参与者回答形状的,又有让他们回答颜色的,测试他们任务转换所花的时间。The bilingual people were able to respond faster to the shifting prompts.会说两种语言的人会对提示的变化反应更快。Researchers then gathered 80 more people for a second experiment: 20 young bilinguals, 20 young monolinguals, 20 old bilinguals, and 20 old monolinguals. This time, researchers used fMRI scans to monitor brain activity during the same shape- and color-identifying tasks. Gold and his team found that bilingual people were not only able to switch tasks faster — they had different brain activity than their monolingual peers.研究者接着召集了80个人参与第二项实验:20个说两种语言的年轻人,20个说一种语言的年轻人,20个说两种语言的老年人,以及20个说一种语言的老年人。这次,研究者用功能磁共振成像扫描法检测参与者们参加同样的实验时大脑活动的情况。古尔德和他的团队发现,说两种语言的人不仅转换任务的速度更快,而且他们大脑的活跃程度也同说一种语言的同龄人不同。“It allows a sort of window into how the brains of people who have different cognitive processing abilities are processing the same stimuli in different ways,” said Kristina Visscher, a neurobologist at the University of Alabama School of Medicine who did not work on the study.“这个研究让我们看到,拥有不同认知处理能力的人,大脑是如何用不同方式处理同一个刺激物的。”克里斯蒂娜·维斯切如是说,她是阿拉巴马大学医学院一位神经学家,并没有参与此次的研究。Visscher called bilingualism a “beautiful natural experiment”, because people grow up speaking two languages, and studies have shown that they reap certain cognitive benefits from switching between languages and determining which to respond with based on what’s going on around them. The University of Kentucky researchers took it a step further by using brain imaging, which she said was “exciting.”维斯切将双语称为是一个“美丽的自然的实验”。研究显示,通过语言转换、根据周围的环境判断应该如何回应,说着两种语言长大的人能够在认知方面得到某些特定的益处。肯塔基大学的研究者们又进了一步,用脑成像的方式进行实验,维斯切说这种尝试 “令人激动”。Gold said he grew up in Montreal, where he spoke French at school and English at home, prompting relatives to question whether his French language immersion would somehow hinder his ability to learn English.古尔德说他在蒙特利尔长大,在学校说法语,在家说英语。他的亲戚也问他在法语的环境下长大是否会影响他学习英语的能力。“Until very recently, learning a second language in childhood was thought of as dangerous,” he said. “Actually, it’s beneficial.”“直到最近,人们还认为在童年学习第二门语言是危险的,”他说。“实际上,这样做是有益的。” /201301/220279。

“屌丝”这个词似乎在一夜之间成了网络红词,人人都自称“屌丝”,可似乎人人又都算不上“屌丝”。那么,“屌丝”这个词英语怎么说呢?Plebs is short for plebians, derived from the period of the Ancient Romans. The plebeians were the general body of Roman citizens and those who were privileged were labeled patricians.Plebs是plebians一词的简写形式,源于古罗马时期。Plebians指古罗马时期的普通民众,比他们身份更高贵的被称为patricians(贵族)。Nowadays, plebs is one associated with those in the lower class. They were often defined as members of a low-born, despised social class and a commoner, while many people who consider themselves modern-day patricians often look down and mock them.如今,plebs多指处于社会底层的人,即我们所说的“屌丝”。他们多被归类为出生低下、平凡无奇,且被轻视的社会阶层。而那些自认为是现代社会贵族的人经常会鄙视或嘲笑他们。 /201211/209926。

New scientific research offers surprising ways to shower yourself with tranquility, creativity, longevity and more。新的研究发现有很多方式能让自己更加安静、富有创造力和长寿。1. Optimism乐观积极Never mind if you don#39;t have hours a day—even a few minutes spent in quiet contemplation once in a while yields noticeable benefits. A group of adults who meditated an average of six hours and 13 minutes over the course of five weeks developed patterns of brain activity typically associated with positive moods。就算你每天没有太多的时间也没关系,仅仅几分钟的沉思就能让你获得不少好处。研究显示,在五周的时间里平均沉思6小时13分钟的成年人,有效地提升了脑力,心态也变得更加积极。2. Serenity平静When mice were fed a strain of probiotics found in some yogurt, they became calmer under stress, Irish and Canadian scientists observed. The were less likely to panic like their broth-fed brethren, and they produced fewer stress hormones—effects similar to those brought on by antidepressants. Look for yogurt that has active probiotic cultures, and say, ;Mmmm.;爱尔兰和加拿大的科学家观察发现,用某种酸奶里含有的活益生菌喂食老鼠,能让它们在压力之下显得更加冷静。相比那些食肉的老鼠而言,它们似乎更不容易陷入恐慌,还能分泌出较少的压力荷尔蒙——这和用抗抑郁症药物的效果一样。喝喝那些富含活益生菌的酸奶吧,然后大赞一句“好喝”。3. Creative Thinking创造性思维Volunteers who worked in rooms lit by a lamp with an incandescent lightbulb instead of overhead fluorescents solved problems requiring novel thinking more successfully. Scientists say the symbolism of the bulb (not just its light spectrum) led to the subjects#39; bright ideas, and cited ;a growing body of research showing that perception of objects...can subtly influence our behavior.;房间里的灯泡对创造性思维有影响。相比头顶是日光灯的志愿者而言,头顶是白炽灯泡的似乎更能轻而易举的解决需要创新性思维的难题。科学家表示,灯泡的象征主义(不仅仅它的光谱)能帮助被试者想出不错的点子,并且“越来越多的行为研究表明对物体的感知能潜移默化的影响我们的行为”。4. Belonging归属感Undergraduates who considered chicken soup a comfort food and then were fed some scored higher on a psychological test of social connectedness than those who weren#39;t given any soup. When given a word fragment like incl, they converted it into a ;relationship word; such as include, instead of a neutral term, like incline, because the dish stirred a sense of connection。在社交连通性的心理测试中,我们给那些把鸡汤看成是安慰食物的大学生准备了一些鸡汤,结果显示他们的得分要比没有喝鸡汤的那群人更高。比如我们给出词根incl, 他们会迅速转化成“关系词汇” 比如include,而非中性词汇incline,因为鸡汤激起了他们心中的归属感。5. Vitality活力Tired? Draggy? Stuck in your office? Picture yourself outside beneath an arching sky and canopied branches. Daydreaming about nature is energizing, according to a new study. And if you can go outdoors, even better: As little as 20 minutes in a natural setting demonstrably increased people#39;s energy levels for the day。累了?乏了?被困在办公室了?想象一下自己正在户外,蓝天下,绿茵旁吧。新的研究显示,做点关于自然的白日梦能增加能量。如果你真能去户外那就更好了,每天只需要在自然环境下待上20分钟就能有效提高一天的能量了。6. Longevity长寿Using data from about 10,000 adults tracked over 50 years, scientists discovered that volunteering, especially for altruistic motives, can be a lifesaver. People who reported giving their time because they wanted to help others outlived those who didn#39;t volunteer at all, as well as those who did so mostly for their own satisfaction。根据对10000个成年人长达50年的追踪研究,科学家发现,志愿活动尤其是那些无私利心的,可以是救命稻草。那些花时间帮助别人的人们要比其他人更加长寿,即使他们帮别人只是为了自己开心。7. Bliss狂喜Researchers asked volunteers to rate their level of happiness the last time they spent money on themselves or on someone else. Not only were the givers happier, but when presented with extra cash to use as they wished, they were more apt to spend it on others. The study#39;s authors concluded ;a positive feedback loop; exists between offering gifts and well-being。研究者要求志愿者回想一下上次为自己或别人花钱时到底有多开心。事实上,花钱者不仅更开心了,给他们多余的钱时,他们还会乐于花在别人身上。研究作者总结道,给礼物和人之间有着“积极的回馈循环”。8. A Healthier Diet健康饮食To make better choices at the grocery store, bring dollar bills, a revelatory study shows. Analyzing 1,000 households, researchers found that shoppers who paid by credit card tended to select chips, cookies, and other junk food. The theory: Shelling out cash is more psychologically painful, so people are less likely to spend it on unhealthy goods。一项启示性的研究显示,想在便利店做出正确的选择,用现金吧。对1000个家庭的分析发现,那些用信用卡付账的顾客似乎更易选择薯片、饼干和其他垃圾食品。理论:花现金才更会肉疼,人们也就不会多买那些垃圾食品了。 /201306/244607。

A teenager suffering from an untreatable form of cancer has recorded a song to say goodbye to his friends and family after being told he has only another three months to one year to live.在被告知只有3个月到1年的存活时间时,这位身患一种绝症的年轻人录了一首歌曲来告别朋友和家人。Seventeen-year-old Zach Sobiech of Lakeland, Minnesota wrote the song, titled #39;Clouds,#39; and posted a of his studio recording on YouTube.17岁少年扎克·索比希来自明尼苏达州雷克兰市,他写下了这首名为“白云”的歌曲,并把视频录像上传到了YouTube网站。The has amassed more than 412,000 views in the last 10 days.在过去的十天内,视频点击率超过了41.2万次。In the chorus, he sings: #39;And we’ll go up, up, up, but I’ll fly a little higher. We’ll go up in the clouds, because the view is a littler nicer. Up here, my dear. It won’t be long now; it won’t be long now.#39;在副歌部分,他唱到:“我们会飞得更高,更高,更高,而我要飞得再高一点。我们会飞到云朵上面,因为那里的风景会更好一点。飞到上面来吧,亲爱的。不会等很久了,很快就到了。”Sobiech was diagnosed with osteosarcoma, a bone cancer that develops in children, in 2009 when he was 14 years old. The cancer affects just 400 people under the age of 20 each year.2009年,14岁的索比希他被诊断出罹患骨肉癌,这是一种会在儿童身上出现的骨癌。每年全球在20岁以下的人群中,会有400个人患上这种癌症。He was diagnosed after going to the doctor for a persistent pain in his hip, where doctors discovered he had a large tumor. Since his diagnosis, Sobiech has had dozens of surgeries including a hip replacement, as well as months of chemotherapy.他是在臀部持续疼痛去看医生之后被诊断出癌症的,医生在他的臀部发现了一个大肿瘤。自那之后,索比希经历了一系列包括换臀在内的外科手术,还有一连好几个月的化疗。His family has established a fund in his name - the Zach Sobiech Osteosarcoma Fund - to help raise money for his rare disease.他的家人已经用他的名字成立了扎克·索比希基金会,募集善款希望可以治疗他罕见的疾病。The fund awards donors of or more with a copy of Zach#39;s album, which features his song, #39;Clouds.#39;捐赠者只要为基金会捐赠20美元,就会获得一份扎克的音乐集,里面收录了他的歌曲“白云”。 /201212/216070。

N;SO#abNIU)Gs3T1d#)oa~C,R9zWT4Q#.What better way to wrap up 2012 than with a look back at the year#39;s loveliest dresses? These 12 red carpet picks have one thing in common: they’re just plain stunning!有什么比回顾年度最美装更好的方法来结束2012年?这12件红毯选择有一个共同点:它们只是完全惊为天人!bWV;^Z#@E15r53k|jGY7+XV;2m_GiR*_bzwgTb*LY5 /201301/220385。