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2019年10月20日 14:48:56
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Ethnic advertising种族广告One message, or many?要一个还是多个声音?The uses and limitations of ethnic ads种族广告的使用和限制IN THE television series Mad Men, a 1960s adman makes a pitch to a television-maker whose sales are flat.电视剧广告狂人,描述了二十世纪六十年代的一个广告制作人向电视制作人推销其对付销售平淡的招数。Among Negroes sales are actually growing, he chirps.他很兴奋地提出黑人的购买额确实在上升。He proposes making integrated ads that appeal to both black and white consumers.他建议制作一体化广告以吸引黑人和白人消费者。His idea bombs.他的想法遭到狂轰烂炸。This being the era of segregation, one of his listeners wonders if mixed-race ads are even legal.那时还处于种族隔离时期,其中一个在场人员甚至怀疑种族混合的广告是否合法。Such days are long gone.今非昔比。Americas minorities will eventually be a majority of the population:根据最新的人口普查资料显示,by 2045, according to the most recent census.至2045年,美国的少数族裔将最终在人数上成为主流大众。Advertisers have noticed.广告商知晓这趋势。Many now favour cross-cultural ads that emphasise what black, Hispanic and Asian-American consumers have in common.如今许多广告商热衷于拍跨文化的广告,强调黑人、西班牙人和亚裔美国人的消费共性。This approach is thought to work well with the young, who often listen to the same music, eat the same food and wear similar clothes regardless of their ethnic background.这一方法非常对年轻一代人的胃口,这些年轻人不管是何种族背景,他们通常听同一首歌,吃同一种食物和穿相似的衣。Ogilvy amp; Mather, a big ad agency, formed OgilvyCulture in 2010 as a unit specialising in cross-cultural marketing.广告业巨头奥美于2010年组建了奥美文化作为一个业务单元专门从事跨文化营销。The ethnic ad model has not changed since the 1960s, says Jeffrey Bowman, head of OgilvyCulture.奥美文化的部门主管杰弗瑞·鲍曼说种族广告模式自从二十世纪六十年代以来一成不变。It was the census data that made Ogilvy change its model.正是人口调查资料让奥美改变了其营销模式。In 2010 Burger King stopped employing ethnic agencies such as LatinWorks, which specialised in the Hispanic market, to address its consumers as a whole rather than taking a segmented approach.2010年快餐连锁品牌汉堡王炒掉了如LatinWorks那些专攻西班牙市场,具有种族色的广告代理商。汉堡王将顾客视为一体而不再采取细分的方式。Yet some admen feel ethnicity remains relevant.但是有些广告人仍感到种族与广告还是有千丝万缕的关系。Every ten years we go through a rethink of targeted versus one voice,每隔十年,我们会重新考虑反对传播一个声音的广告says McGhee Williams Osse, co-chief executive of Burrell, a Chicago-based agency specialising in the African-American market.专攻非洲裔市场,总部位于芝加哥的Burrell公司的联合行政长官 McGhee Williams Oss说道,She argues that ethnic origin is the key to peoples identity, much more than education, income, religion, sex and sexual orientation. She would say that, of course.她认为种族血缘是人的身份认同的主要因素,比教育、收入、宗教、性和性取向等更重要。她是这样说的,千真万确。Maurice Levy, the boss of Publicis Groupe, the French ad giant that owns 49% of Burrell, says that ethnic advertising makes sense for advertisers that are very big, or very specialised.法国广告业巨头阳狮集团拥有Burrell49%的股票份额。阳狮的老板马千里说,种族广告对大公司或专业型公司还是有商业意义的。A maker of cream for black skin, for example, will probably not bother marketing it to Asians.例如,为黑人制造的面霜就没有必要进军亚洲市场了。Nestle, a huge food firm, aims some ads at Hispanics, Americas largest minority.食品巨擘雀巢公司针对美国最大的少数族裔西班牙裔制作了一些广告。It recruited four Hispanic mothers to blog on a new bilingual website, El Mejor Nido, offering tips about parenting and healthy eating.它招聘了4名西班牙裔母亲在其新设双语版的 El Mejor Nido 网上写客,提供为人父母之道和健康饮食的小贴士。Hispanics are younger than other Americans, have more children and spend more on food, says Juan Motta, who heads the California-based unit running Nestles Hispanic campaign in the ed States,负责雀巢西班牙裔广告促销的美国加利福尼亚分部主管胡安·莫塔说,西班牙裔人比其他美国人更年轻,育有更多小孩且更舍得在食品上花钱。which promotes both the firms Latin American brands, such as La Lechera and Abuelita, and the rest of its larder.该分部主要负责促销公司的两个拉丁美洲品牌如La Lechera 和Abuelita和其他的食品柜。McDonalds has been a pioneer of ethnic advertising since the 1960s.自从二十世纪六十年代,麦当劳一直是种族广告的先驱者。Minorities represent about 40% of its customers in America.在美国少数民族裔占其消费者总数的40%。Neil Golden, the firms American chief marketing officer, argues that other Americans often follow trends set by ethnic minorities.麦当劳主要负责美国市场首席营销官尼尔·戈登认为其他美国人常跟在少数族裔掀起的潮流后面。So he watches minorities for insights he can use in ads aimed at the general market.故他深入地了解少数族裔就可将其特色用于针对整个市场的广告中。In 2010 McDonalds learned that African-Americans liked sweeter, weaker caramel mocha, so it started offering such blends everywhere, with great success.2010年麦当劳得知非洲裔美国人喜欢更甜一点,咖啡味更淡一点的焦糖卡。故麦当劳开始到处提供这种混合物,结果一跑打响。A similar thing happened with its mango and pineapple smoothies, a big hit with Hispanics.它的芒果和凤梨冰沙也如法炮制,在西班牙裔人中大受欢迎。McDonalds featured the drinks in restaurants nationwide and they quickly overtook strawberry banana, the traditional favourite.麦当劳将此类饮品推广至遍布全国的门店,结果一夜之间便取代了传统畅销品草莓香蕉饮料。David Burgos, co-author of a book on marketing to the new majority,David Burgos和别人合写了一本针对新生大众营销的书。says that in spite of the increasing importance of minority consumers, advertisers still put ethnic ads into a separate budget—which tends to be cut first when the economy goes sour.该书上说尽管少数族裔消费者的重要性日益俱增,广告商仍将种族广告单独预算—一旦经济不景气,首先便拿这块预算开刀。Only 7% of marketing dollars are spent on targeted ethnic campaigns, although nearly half of Americans belong to ethnic minorities.尽管少数族裔占了将近一半的美国人口,但只有7%的营销费用花在针对种族的广告活动上。He thinks ad-agency staff need to be more diverse.他认为广告机构应招聘各种族的工作人员以使营销更多样化。Getting the right ethnic perspective is tricky.在广告中从不同种族角度看问题这是非常高难度的工作。Hispanics are a varied lot.同为西班牙人却迥然不同。An ad that delights Cuban-Americans may irritate migrants from Venezuela.能让古巴裔美国人捧腹大笑的广告可能会让委内瑞拉移民暴跳如雷。Asians are hardly monolithic, either.亚洲人也很是众口难调。Even the wittiest Korean catchphrases will provoke only bafflement in Chinatown.即便是韩国的警言妙句也可能令唐人街的中国人迷惑不解。Saul Gitlin of Kang amp; Lee, an agency specialising in selling to Asian-Americans, argues that recent Chinese and Korean immigrants are best reached with communications in their mother tongue.专门针对亚洲裔美国人的广告公司Kang amp; Lee的Saul Gitlin认为和新一代的中国和韩国的移民用其母语沟通能收到最好的效果。They are generally ignored by advertisers, however, with the exception of financial firms.但是除了金融公司做到这一点外,广告商一般都置若罔闻。This is a mistake, he reckons:广告商的做法大错特错,他推测:the median household income of Asian-Americans is some ,000 higher than that of non-Hispanic whites.亚洲裔美国人的家庭收入中值比非西班牙裔白人还高10,000美元。Many modern Mad Men think digital media will allow them to know their audiences better, and feed them more precisely-tailored messages.许多现代的广告狂人认为数字媒体能让他们更加了解受众,从而更易提供量身定制的信息来满足他们的需求。This can be costly.这要付出很高的代价。But many consumers seem to like it.但是许多消费者看来很喜欢这样。When Latinas disagree with something the four mommy bloggers at El Mejor Nido have written, they can go to the El Mejor Nido Facebook page, and let loose.如果拉丁裔美国人不喜欢在 El Mejor Nido网站上4位母亲所写的客观点,他们可以移步至El Mejor Nido脸谱网,可在此畅所欲言。 /201305/239038宜昌中医院男科医生宜昌医院不孕不育宜昌市中心医院有泌尿科吗

宜昌的医院排名宜昌男健医院有没有男科Science and technology科学技术R D in America美国研发战略Bad medicine医学受阻Cutting American health research will harm the world美国削减医药研究经费,影响波及整个地球BARACK OBAMA, in his state-of-the-union speech on February 12th, called for a new era of scientific discovery.2月12日,巴拉克·奥巴马在国情咨文演讲中号召人民开启科研成果新纪元。Now is the time to reach a level of research and development not seen since the height of the space race, he declared.他宣布:自太空竞赛取胜以来,我们始终未能将科技研发推向一个新高度,现在是时候了。He praised projects to map the human brain and accelerate regenerative medicine.他还表扬了大脑活动图谱绘制工程和再生医学提速项目。This would mean spending more on research.这意味着他打算在科研上投入更多的经费。As The Economist went to press, Americas government was about to do the opposite.本期《经济学人》付印时,美国政府正欲背道而驰。Federal spending is due to be cut on March 1st, the result of a long brawl over the deficit.赤字当前,各政客长期意见不合,导致联邦自动减于3月1日强制启动。Complex politics triggered this sequester but the sequester itself is brutally simple.政局复杂导致了财政封存,但是财政封存却简单得要命。America will cut 85 billion from this years budget, split between military and non-military programmes.美国将在本年度预算中削减850亿美元,由军事开和非军事开共同分担。Among the areas to be squeezed is Ramp;D, and medical research in particular.研发项目开也将被削减,而医学研究首当其冲。For years America has enjoyed pre-eminence in research, but this is fading.美国历年都在科研方面独占鳌头,但现在她龙头的光环越来越小。Chinese investment more than quintupled from 2000 to 2010, to 160 billion, in 2005 prices.以2005年价格核算,2010年中国的研发投资是2000年的5倍多,达1600亿美元;Americas RD spending rose by just 22% over that period, according to the OECD.而据经济合作与发展组织称,同期美国只增加了22%。Research also makes up a smaller portion of Americas economy than some other countries.同时,研究经费在美国经济中所占的比例比其他一些国家都要小。In a ranking of RD spending as a share of GDP, America came tenth in 2011.A decade earlier it was sixth.在2011年研发开占GDP比例上,美国排名第十,而十年前,美国位居第六。Nevertheless, America remains the worlds biggest engine for innovation.然而,美国仍然是全球最大的创新引擎。It spent 366 billion on research in 2011, compared with 275 billion by all 27 countries of the European Union.2011年,美国在科研上投入了3660亿美元,而27个欧盟国家的总投入仅有2750亿美元。Despite Chinas rapid ascent, America still spends more than twice as much on Ramp;D. Subsidies help.虽然中国涨势迅猛,美国在研发上的开仍比中国高出1倍以上。Americas government pays for about one-third of all domestic research and for most basic science.这少不了补贴的功劳。美国政府承担国内三分之一左右的研究经费及多数基础科学费用。Medicine is one of the main beneficiaries.医学研究成了补贴的主要受益对象。Americas National Institutes of Health is the worlds biggest funder of biomedical research.美国国家卫生研究所是世界最大的生物医学研究投资方。It pays for risky basic science; companies pay for later stages of development.对于成功率较低的基础科学,开始阶段的研究由研究会买单,而后阶段的开发则由各大公司付。For example, the NIH supported early research into monoclonal antibodies.比如,NIH付了单克隆抗体早期的研发费用。By 2010 such research underpinned five of Americas 20 bestselling drugs.截至2010年,美国最畅销的20种药物中,有5种来自于这种方式。As drug firms trim their budgets, the NIHs work is becoming even more vital.药物公司的预算减少,NIH的作用就更加重要了。But since 2003, inflation-adjusted spending on medical research has declined.然而,由于通胀所迫,医学研究经费自2003年起也有所下降。With the sequester public investment will shrink further.由于财政封存,国家投资将进一步减少。Americas total outlay on RD will drop by 8.7 billion this year, according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science.据美国科学发展协会称,今年美国在研发上的总出会减少87亿美元。Francis Collins, the NIHs director, says that his organisation will spend 1.6 billion less in 2013—a cut of 5.1%—and 16 billion less over the next decade.NIH所长弗朗西斯?柯林斯说,今年,NIH的开也会缩减16亿美元,减少约5.1%。在未来十年内,将减少160亿美元;Hundreds of grants will not be awarded.数百项项目经费也将取消。Existing grantees will receive only 90% of the cash promised to them.已申请成功的人士也只能拿到约定经费总额的九成。These cuts will speed the erosion of American supremacy in research.美国在研究领域的龙头地位已经不保,以上各项开削减进一步加快了其下滑速度。In December Battelle, a research group, predicted that China would surpass Americas spending by 2023.去年12月,巴特尔研究中心预测,中国的科研经费将在2023年赶超美国。Thanks to the sequester, that date may come earlier.拜财政封存所赐,这天将来得更早了。But the real problem is absolute, not relative, and affects the whole world, not just America.然而,真正的问题在于,美国不仅会在研发开排名上下滑,也无疑将在研发进展上落后。这不仅会减缓美国发展,且影响会波及全世界。RD is a rare type of public spending that stimulates growth.能刺激经济增长的国家投资不多,研发就是其中之一。Knowledge is cumulative, easy to share and generates benefits that spill rapidly across borders.知识是可积累的,便于分享,而且还可以带来效益、造福各界。Dr Collins says that cuts to the NIH will slow work on Alzheimers disease, a universal flu vaccine and cancer therapies, to name just a few.柯林斯士说,削减NIH出,会减缓多种研究的进程,比如老年痴呆症、通用流感疫苗和抗癌疗法。 /201309/257663宜昌市治疗阳痿多少钱宜昌市治疗尖锐湿疣最好的医院

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