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来源:周在线    发布时间:2019年08月17日 16:29:18    编辑:admin         

Zhuang Zi(369 B. C.~286 B. C.), with his given name as Zhou, was a key figure of Taoism following Lao Zi. He was born at the town of Meng (Northeast of the present-day Shangqiu, Henan Province) of the Song State.庄子(约公元前369年~公元前286年),名周,宋国蒙(今河南商丘东北)人,是继老子之后道家学派的代表人物。He once worked as an official in a varnish free farm before resigning to lead a reclusive life.曾做过漆园吏,后隐居乡里,与统治者采取了不合作的态度。The book bearing his name has 33 chapters survived. The traditional view is that Zhuang Zi penned the first seven “inner; chapters and his disciples and other thinkers contributed the other parts (the ;outer; and “miscellaneous; chapters).《庄子》现存33篇,分内篇、外篇和杂篇三部分。一般认为,内篇7篇为庄子自著,反映了他的主要思想。Similar to Lao Zi#39;s philosophy, Zhuang Zi believed that the ;Tao; is the origin of everything in the universe. However, the “Tao; Zhuang Zi referred to is an omnipresent and infinite concept in nature.庄子继承了老子关于“道”为宇宙万物本源的思想,但庄子之“道”无所不在,无始无终,是总体性的。Zhuang Zi transformed Lao Zi#39;s outlook on life into a spiritual realm of absolute freedom, a“free and easy wondering; state.在天道观上,庄子也讲“天”,但他的天是指自然,自然生成即为天。This state can be achieved, according to Zhuang Zi, through a variety of complicated introspective experiences rather than pursuing endless desires in society.庄子把老子的人生哲学转化为以“逍遥游”命名的人生境界,一种绝对自由的精神境界。为达到这种境界,庄子主张以“心斋”、“物化”、“丧我”、“虚己”等内心的深刻体验去代替社会的无限多样的追求。The experience of“xinzha(mindfasting)” means the freedom from all preoccupations, that is, an attitude free from materialism and a complete unity with nature.所谓“心斋”就是“虚而待物”,对外物采取一种“虚”的态度,即超功利、超现实的态度,排除一切外界干扰,忘却功名利禄,全神贯注,在顺乎自然中与自然融为一体,返璞归真。By comparing the sophisticated and competitive social reality with the harmonious and tranquil nature, Zhuang Zi put forward the notion of ;wuhua; (the transformation of things) and appealed to the return of one#39;s suppressed soul back to nature.“物化”是拿被异化了的对立相争的社会现实与和睦相处、与世无争的自然作对比,使人被现实所压抑了的感情归向自然,恢复人的本性。Zhuang Zi#39;s philosophy of worshipping the nature often leads to the pursuit of a personality of aloofness.庄子崇尚“自然”的人生观表现出一种对清高孤傲、遗世独立人格的执著追求。The philosophical basis of this aloofness is reiativism, that is, in his own words, “The universe and I came into being together; I and everything therein are One.”这种出世态度的哲学基础是相对主义,即“天地与我并生,而万物与我为一”的齐物论。Only through the equivalence of all things can one#39;s real self fuse into the world, thus the spiritual emancipation of humanity can be achieved.庄子认为世界上的万物都是没差别的,齐一的。等万物,齐生死,无是非,只有连“我”也融化到万物之中去了,人也就获得了精神上的彻底解放。 /201509/399197。

Bai Juyi (772~846), courtesy name Letian, literary name Xiangshan Jushi, was a Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty who used his elegantly simple verse to protest the social evils of his day, including corruption and militarism.白居易(772~846),字乐天,号香山居士,中国唐代诗人。白居易用优美朴素的诗歌对当时社会的黑暗(包括腐败和黩武主义)提出了抗议。Bai Juyi began composing poetry at five. Because of his father#39;s death in 794 and straitened family circumstances, Bai did not take the official examinations for the bureaucracy until the late age of 28. He passed them and also did extremely well at another examination he took two years later.白居易5岁开始作诗,但是794年因为他父亲去世家庭环境贫困,白居易28岁才参加科考,但是白居易一次就中了进士,而且两年后又以“拔萃”登科,做了校书郎。As a result, he was given a minor post at the palace library, as was another successful examination candidate and poet, Yuan Zhen. They shared views on the need for both literary and political reform, and their lifelong friendship became perhaps the most famous in Chinese history.白居易的同年,另外一位诗人元稹与他共事,他们都认为需要进行文学改革和政治改革,彼此间终生的友谊可能是中国历史上最著名的。In 807, Bai became a member of the prestigious Hanlin Academy in Chang#39;an, the capital, and he rose steadily in official life, except for his banishment in 814 to a minor post at Jiujiang, which arose from the slander of rival courtiers.807年白居易入翰林院,他的官职稳步上升。但是814年白居易因受政敌的诽谤而迁九江郡司马。He assumed the important posts of governor of Zhongzhou (818), Hangzhou (822), and later, Suzhou.白居易先后担任过忠州刺史(818 )、杭州刺史(822)和苏州刺史。In 829 he became mayor of Luoyang, the eastern capital, but he retired from that post in 842 because of illness.829年白居易以太子宾客分司东都洛阳。842年病退。Bai was the informal leader of a group of poets who rejected the courtly style of the time and emphasized the didactic function of literature, believing that every literary work should contain a fitting moral and a well-defined social purpose.白居易是一群诗人的非正式领导。他们拒绝接受当时典雅的文风,强调文学的教诲功能。他们认为“文章合为时而著,歌诗合为事而作。”He considered his most important contributions to be his satirical and allegorical ballads and his ;new yuefu, ;which usually took the form of free verse based on old folk ballads.白居易认为他最重要的贡献是他的讽喻歌谣和“新乐府”诗。新乐府诗通常以旧民歌为基础,采用自由的形式。The most prolific of the Tang poets, Bai aimed for simplicity in his writing, and--like Du Fu, a great Tang poet of the preceding generation whom Bai greatly admired--he was deeply concerned with the social problems of the time; he deplored the dissolute and decadent lifestyles of corrupt officials and sympathized with the sufferings of the poor.作为唐代最多产的诗人,白居易致力于朴素的写作风格,并且像他非常仰慕的前辈伟大诗人杜甫一样,他也非常关注当时的社会问题,他对腐败官员挥霍颓废的生活方式表示痛恨,对穷人的苦难生活表示同情。Many of Bai#39;s poems are ed in the Japanese classic The Tale of Genji.日本经典文学作品《源氏物语》引用了白居易的很多诗。 /201601/421771。

It#39;s more than likely you know someone who#39;s obsessed with their own image.你的交际圈中定然有痴迷于自己形象的人吧。A quick scroll through social media can reveal the narcissists in a constant stream of selfies; you might even be one.打开社交媒体,轻轻滑动手指,滚滚的自拍照会向你涌来。甚至你本人很可能也是这众多自恋者中的一员。Narcissists think they#39;re better, smarter, and more important than the people around them – and they want to be treated as such, experts say.有关专家说,自恋者通常认为自己比周围人更聪明、更优秀、更重要——他们也希望别人能这样看待他们。A new TEDEd breaks down the different types of narcissism, from the obvious to the not-so obvious, and explains how these traits almost always take a turn for the dark side.TED教育频道一个最新的视频讲到,自恋者可被划分为几种不同类型,有些人的自恋程度较明显,有些则不太明显。该视频还解释了这种性格特征为什么常常会产生负面效果。Psychologists define narcissism as an #39;inflated, grandiose self-image,#39; and it has persevered through the centuries as a personality trait and, in extreme cases, a psychological disorder.心理学家将自恋定义为:“夸张、不切实际的自我形象”。几个世纪以来,人们一直将它看做一种性格特征,在某些极端情况下,它被看成一种心理障碍。Narcissists have a tendency to act selfishly, according to the lesson by W. Keith Campbell, and this can present itself in many different ways.基思·坎贝尔在其讲演中指出,自恋者一般都有点自私,并且这种特点会通过许多不同的方式显现出来。According to the expert, #39;it#39;s like a disease where the sufferers feel pretty good, but the people around them suffer.#39;坎贝尔说,“自恋就像疾病一样,自恋者自我感觉不错,但周围人却因此遭殃。”Political leaders or people of power may make risky or unethical decisions as a result of narcissism, while narcissistic partners could be unfaithful and dishonest.由于自恋,政治领导者或是有权势的人可能会做一些冒险的或不道德的决定。自恋型的伴侣也可能不忠,易出轨。As a personality trait, narcissism can appear in two forms: grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism.作为一种性格特点,自恋可以分为两种形式:浮夸型自恋和脆弱型自恋。In both forms, however, #39;the dark side of narcissism#39; will ultimately show up over time.然而,自恋的这两种形式,最终都会随着时间的推移,展现出“自恋的黑暗面”。A much more extreme type of narcissism also exists, and it#39;s classified as a psychological disorder.还有一种更为极端的自恋类型,它被看成是一种心理障碍。This is known as narcissistic personality disorder.即我们通常所说的自恋型人格障碍。Research has linked narcissism to genetics, but it#39;s still unknown which genes actually contribute to this.已经有研究认为自恋与基因有关,但仍无法得知哪种基因更易导致自恋。Genes, environment, and cultural setting can all have a hand in fostering narcissism.基因、环境、文化背景都可能影响自恋的形成。According to the expert, narcissism has been on the rise in the ed States since the 1970s.专家谈到,自20世纪70年代以来,美国的自恋人数一直处于上升态势。And, while social media hasn#39;t been proven to actually create narcissists, it does give them a new platform to garner attention and admiration.尽管没有据表明社交媒体为自恋者提供了滋生的土壤,但它确实为自恋者创造了一个赢得别人注意和赞赏的平台。When a narcissist#39;s self-inflated viewpoint is challenged, a person can become aggressive and resentful.当自恋者自我膨胀的观点受到他人质疑时,他可能就会变得咄咄逼人、愤恨不满。It is possible for narcissists to become more altruistic, the explains, and this can be done by enrolling in psychotherapy, or practicing compassion.视频解释道,自恋者也有可能变得更无私,但这可能要通过心理治疗或培养同情心的方式得以实现。People who exhibit narcissistic traits can improve their behaviour by reflecting upon their own actions or practicing compassion for others.自恋者通过反思自身行为或培养对他人的同情心,可以改进自己的行为举止。But, becoming less self-absorbed isn#39;t always an easy task, the expert explains.然而专家称,要想降低自己的自恋情结绝非易事。#39;For narcissists, self-reflection is hard from an unflattering angle.#39;“对自恋者而言,改变浮夸的想法进行自我反思是有难度的。”WHAT KIND OF NARCISSIST ARE YOU?看看你是哪种自恋类型1. Grandiose narcissists are the most familiar type, the explains, and these people can be extroverted, dominant, and attention-seeking.视频讲到,浮夸型自恋者最为常见。这些人性格外向、控制欲强,希望引起别人注意。These types of narcissists will #39;pursue attention and power,#39; often showing up among political and cultural leaders, and celebrities.这种自恋者在政治首脑、文化领袖等名人中最为常见,他们“向往别人的注意、追逐权力”。This way of viewing oneself can be nurtured by upbringing, especially in situations where parent#39;s put their child on a pedestal.如果父母将孩子视为掌上明珠,在这种成长环境下,就容易培养出这类自恋性格。2. Vulnerable narcissists are more reserved. People with this trait have a strong sense of entitlement, and easily feel threatened or demeaned by the actions of others.脆弱型自恋者可能更为矜持一些。他们的权利意识更强,别人的一个无意之举,可能就会让他们感到自己被威胁或轻视了。Cold, controlling parents can have a hand in fostering this trait, the explains.视频中说,冷漠、控制欲强的父母更有可能培养出有这种性格特点的孩子。3. Narcissistic personality disorder is a much more extreme form, and is classified as a psychological disorder.自恋型人格障碍是一种更为极端的自恋类型,它被认为是一种心理疾病。This is more common in men, and affects just 1-2 percent of the population.这种自恋类型在男性中更为常见,仅占男性总人口的1%到2%。These people also feel a sense of entitlement, and seek admiration and attention, but in a way that is all-encompassing, the experts explain.专家称,这类人也有一种权利意识,希望得到别人的注意和赞赏,涵盖方方面面。A narcissistic personality disorder can consume a person#39;s life.自恋型人格障碍可能会影响一个人的一生。The points to the example of a person using their spouse of children as a means to gain attention, over caring for them.视频中还举了一个例子,讲的是一个自恋者对孩子的配偶过度关心,只是为了赢得他们的注意。 /201603/429804。

McDonald#39;s Corp (MCD.N) plans to launch in China this year 150 outlets where clients can customize burgers to suit their tastes, as the world#39;s top restaurant chain aims to grow sales in the country after being hit by a fast-food scandal in 2014.麦当劳公司计划年内在中国开设150家概念餐厅,在这些餐厅里,顾客可以根据自己的口味自创汉堡。而作为世界顶级快餐连锁公司的麦当劳,在经历了2014年食品安全问题的沉重打击后,决心在中国提升销售额。The U.S. burger chain currently has 11 such outlets on the mainland, including in Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Beijing, Regina Hui, senior director of communications for McDonald#39;s China said in an email received late on Thursday, in which she also disclosed the plans for the 150 restaurants.麦当劳中国区新闻发言人Regina Hui在周四的一封邮件中公布,麦当劳现在在中国内地共有11家类似的概念餐厅,分别位于上海、广州、深圳以及北京,未来计划在全中国新增150家自助概念餐厅。McDonald#39;s beat analyst forecasts for quarterly same-restaurant sales this week, adding momentum to a global recovery for the chain as demand picked up in China.麦当劳公司这星期公布的四季度同店销售额超出了分析师的预测。中国市场的快速恢复为该公司全球销售力的恢复提供了强有力的动力。Its same-store sales in China rose 4 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015, the second straight quarter of growth after four quarters of falling sales.在2015年的第四季度,麦当劳在中国的同店销售额增长了4%,是继连续四季度销售额下降之后,连续第二季度上涨。McDonald#39;s and Yum Brands Inc (YUM.N), the parent of KFC and Pizza Hut, are slowly turning things around in China, although same-restaurant sales for both firms remain below pre-scandal levels, according to a Reuters analysis of available data.根据路透社对已有数据的分析,尽管相比2014年食品安全事件曝出之前,麦当劳和百胜公司(肯德基和必胜客的母公司)的同店销售额仍然要低很多,但两家公司在中国的业绩正在慢慢好好转。The so-called #39;Create Your Taste#39; outlets allow customers to build customized burgers from a wide selection of ingredients.麦当劳所谓的“自创口味”指的是,顾客可以从各式各样的配菜中,搭配出符合自己口味的汉堡。Hui said the chain had seen ;very positive feedback; from local diners, who analysts say are increasingly tough to win over due to greater health awareness and a boom in the range of available dining options.Regina Hui表示,他们已经从当地食客中收到了非常积极的反馈,而分析师认为,由于较高的健康意识和多样的就餐选择,通常来说,这些人非常难以取悦。 /201602/425365。

Five dynasties were the five kingdoms established on the Central Plain and the ten states were all in the south of the Qinling Rang and Huihe River except the Northern Han. Meanwhile, there were other parallel administrations established by minorities tribes like Liao and the West Xia.五代是中原上的五个王朝,先后与之并存的十国除北汉外都在秦岭——淮河以南,其它与之并存的还有辽和西夏。Liao was a regime dominated by the Khitan. Its capital was Linhuangfu in Shangjing( south of present-day Bairin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia), and its founder was a man called Yelu Abaoji(the Han name was Yi).辽国是中国历史上以契丹族为主体建立的王朝,都城上京临潢府(今内蒙古巴林左旗南),其创建者为耶律阿保机(汉名亿)。The Liao Dynasty had nine emperors and ruled for 210 years.辽国共历九帝,前后210年。Its territory reached the coast of the Northern Sea, the Eastern Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in the east, the Jinshan (now the A#39;ertai Mountain) and Liusha (now the Bailongdui Desert in Xinjiang) in the west, the Kelulun, the E’erkun and the Selun’ge Rivers in the north, the southern side of the Outer Xing^nling Mountains in the northeast, the northern part bordered the Northern Shanxi, Baigou in Hebei Province and the northern part of Gansu in the south.其疆域东临北海、东海、黄海、渤海,西 至金山(今阿尔泰山)、流沙(今新疆白龙堆沙漠),北至克鲁伦河、鄂尔昆河、色楞格河流域,东北迄外兴安岭南麓,南接山西北部、河北白沟河及今甘肃北界。The Rising and Development of Liao:The Khitan Tartars were an old normadic nationality from the northern China.辽的兴起和发展:契丹族是中国古代北方地区的一个游牧民族,以放牧、打猎为生。They were first mentioned in historical records dating from the 4th year of Dengguo(389) in the Northern Wei period.历史文献上有关契丹族的确实记载,始于北魏登国四年(389)。They were located in Huang River(the Xar Moron River) valley and lived a nomadic life. The tribe was increasingly grown.主要活动在潢河(今西拉木伦河)一带。By the early Tang Dynasty, the then existing eight Khitan tribes formed an ally, having an army of 40 000 and was under the control of the Tang regime.唐朝初年,契丹8个部落组成部落联盟,拥兵四万,接受唐朝统辖。After the decline of the Tang, the Khitan Tartars frequently attacked its neighbours, captured people from other states and rapidly increased in power.唐朝衰落后,契丹族不断向外扩张,俘掠外族人口,实力大增。In the 2nd year of Zhenming of the Later Liang (916), Yelu Abaoji, the chief of the Khitan Tartars, declared himself emperor and named his state Khitan, after having defeated other tribes like Cige and Died.后梁贞明二年(916),契丹族首领耶律阿保机凭借强大的军事力量,击败了的剌葛、迭剌等人,在龙化州称天皇帝,国号契丹。Two years later, Yelu Abaoji, who was known as Emperor Taizu(the first emperor) of the Liao, set up his capital north of the Xar Moron River and named it Huangdu (imperial capital ; later called Shangjing).神册三年(918),辽太祖耶律阿保机在潢河以北正式建都城,称为皇都(后改称上京)。Before long, he conquered the Uygurs in Ganzhou and captured the Bohai.随后,降甘州回鹘,灭渤海国。In the 1st year of Huitong (947), Emperor Taizong of the Liao defeated the Later Jin and changed the name of his dynasty to the “Great Liao”.会同元年(947),辽太宗灭后晋,改国号大辽。In the 1st year of Tonghe (983), the Liao Emperor Shengzong, Yelu Longxu, revived the name Khitan.统和元年(983),辽圣宗耶律隆绪曾改国号契丹。Later in the 2nd year of Xianyong (1066), Emperor Daozong restored the name the “Great Liao”.以后辽道宗咸雍二年(1066),又恢复大辽国号。During the reign of Taizong of Liao, Liao acquired sixteen cities of Yanyun from Shi Jingtang and started from which it began to extend to the Central Plain.辽太宗耶律德光统治时期,辽国从石敬塘的手中得到了燕云十六州。以此为基础,辽开始了对中原地区的扩张。Yelu Deguang launched several attacks to conquer the Central Plain but had to retreat in facing the severe counterattacks from the people there.耶律德光数次对中原进兵,希望征整个中国,但因中原人民的反抗,使其计划搁浅下来。After Taizong of Liao, from Ruan, the Shizong(947 ?950) of Liao to Jing, AAuzong (951 ?969),the period witnessed the conflicts from within and the rulers did not turn their head to the Cen-tral Plain. The conflicts were settled till Xian,Jingzong (969 ?982) of Liao.在太宗之后,经历世宗阮(947 ~ 950)和穆宗璟(951 ~ 969)两代,辽的统治内部出现了激烈的纷争,直到景宗贤 (969 ~ 982)时,其统治才渐渐稳定下来。Jingzong was succeeded by his 12-year-old son, known as Shengzong, who co-ruled Liao with his mother, Empress Xiao. Xiao was an outstanding female statesman in history. In the fourth year of Shengzong (987), Liao launched war against Song and won the battle.景宗死后,其子12岁的耶律隆绪即位,是为辽圣宗。由于圣宗年龄尚小,所以由其母萧太后摄政,萧太后是辽历史上著名的女政治家,于圣宗统和四年(987)进 兵攻宋,大败宋军。From then on , Liao started their attack on the Song every year till the 22nd year of Shengzong , Liao army threatened the Chanzhou city and was offered to sign a compromise with Zhenzong of Song according to which the Song was forced to contribute to Liao silver and goods annually in return of the peace.此后,辽国连年发兵攻宋,至圣宗二十二年,辽国攻至澶州城下,与宋真宗签定了“澶渊之盟”,迫使宋朝年年向辽国进贡“岁币”,辽宋两国从此相对安定下来。Therefore a temporary peace was bought, and with the tributes from the Song, Liao became rich and strong and attained the height of power and splendor.辽圣宗依靠宋国的进贡,使辽的经济发展起来,此时辽国达到了历史上的鼎盛时期。Liao reached a stage of decline after Shengzong and Xingzong( 1031 ?1055).经过圣宗、兴宗(1031 ~1055)的盛世之后,辽国开始走向衰亡。In 1101, when Emperor of Tian Zuo came into power, Liao was progressively threatened by Jin of Nuzhen, their rising neighbor.公元1101年, 辽天柞帝即位,此时随着女真族的兴起,辽国的统治逐渐受到威胁。In 1115 Jin captured Huang Longfu, an important city of Liao. At the same time, Jin reached an agreement with Song, namely the “Haishang Agreement” to form a joint force to fight against Liao.公元1115年, 金兵攻占辽国重镇黄龙府,随后又与宋朝订立“海上之盟”,共同攻辽。In several years, Jin seized most of Liao’s territory including Uaoyangfu in Dongjing. In the 5th year of Baoda (1125), Emperor Tianzuo was captured by the Jin army, which brought the Liao Dynasty to an end.金兵在几年的时间里,占领了包括东京辽阳府在内的大部分辽国土地,保大五年(1125),辽天祚帝被金军俘虏,辽国自此灭亡。In the 9th year of Tianhui (1131) of the Jin, Yelu Dashi, a minister of the former Liao, reestablished the Liao in the Chuhe valley which became known as the Western Liao.金天会九年(1131),原辽国大臣耶律大石在楚河 流域重建国家,仍沿用辽国号,史称西辽。The Economy and Political System of Liao : In politics, the Liao adopted a differential ruling system. That is, different systems were applied to people from different cultures and economies in different areas.辽的社会经济和政治:辽国采用“因俗而治”的统治制度,其特点是根据不同地域、各民族不同的发展水平,而制定独特的统治制度。The important ones were the tribal system, the slavery system, the Bohai system, and the feudal system of the Han people. Officials were divided into two groups according to where they came from (the north or the south).Corresponding administration systems were set up for each area.其内容包括有部族制、奴隶制、渤海制和汉族封建制,采用南、北两套官制进行管理。“官分南、北,以国制治契丹,以汉制待汉人”(《辽史?百官志》)。The Khitan administrative system, called the orthodox system, was applied to Khitan officials who were called northern officials, while the Han administrative system was applied to the Han officials, who were called southern officials.“国制”是指契丹官制,统称北面官,汉制官职统称南面官。北面官地位优于南面官。北南两面官的区别还在于管理的范围不同。Because of different customs and levels of economic development, the northern officials mainly governed the Khitan Tartars and other nomadic peoples while the southern officials took charge of agriculture mainly in areas where the Han people resided.北面官主要管理北面的契丹人和其他游牧民族,南面官主管南面从事农业经济的汉族等。As the Liao Dynasty was founded by the Khitan, the northern officials were superior in status to their southern counterparts. But the southern administrative system was actually the feudal system used to be practiced in the Central Plain states.北面官制是在契丹氏族部落制基础上发展来的一套官制。因此,北面官职多保留部落联盟制的痕迹。辽南面官制实际上是从中原王朝移植过来的制度。The northern administration system embodied the old trace of tribe influence, while the southern administrative of Liao was an imitation after the Tang system although it was not so perfect as the latter.最初,辽太祖仿唐制在中央设立三省,但是当时还未完全具备后来南面官三省的职能。In particular it included a department “Han,er Si”,which was in charge of the Han affairs with Han officials.朝中另设汉儿司,主管汉人事务,官员为总知汉儿司事,由汉族大臣担任。After the Liao conquered the sixteen prefectures in the Yanyun area, this system was further improved with the assimilation to the Chinese governing system.辽朝得燕云十六州后,对中原制度进一步吸收,汉制逐渐完备。The Liao Dynasty went through different stages of economic development. In its early years, it mainly depended on outward expansion, slavery and robbery, so its development remained slow and disrupted.辽代社会经济的发展经过几个不同的阶段,前期由于国力主要用于向外扩张, 采取奴隶制的掠夺式经济,使辽初经济发展较为缓慢,甚至对某些地区的经济造成破坏。It was not until the reign of Emperor Shengzong that the Liao managed to institute feudal reform.直到辽圣宗时期,辽朝的经济才有一个较大的发展,这无疑是封建化改革的结果。The Liao rulers also adopted a differential economic management system, similar to its political one.辽朝统治者管理经济的办法与政治制度相同,也采取“因俗而治”的方针。This system promoted the economic development throughout the whole northern area due to its adaptation to the reality.由于这一方针适应当时社会经济的发展,因此北方社会经济在这一时期处于上升阶段。The Liao economy was divided into three zones: the fishing-hunting zone, the nomadic zone and the agricultural zone.从生产性质上划分,辽代经济大体可划分为三大区域:渔猎区、牧区和农区。The fishing-hunting zone covered the Khitan Tartars9 area between the Huang River(Xar Moron) and Tuhe rivers, and the Nuzhen peopled area in the northeast and so on.以渔猎为基本生产方式的是居住在潢河(西拉木仑河)、土河之间的契丹族以及东北部女真族等。The nomadic zone consisted of various northern grassland nationalities.以畜牧业为基本生产方式的是北方草原各民族。The agricultural zone referred to the southern area where the Han lived and the eastern area where the Bohai people lived.以农业为主要生产方式的是南部地区的汉族以及东部渤海人。The integration of the three economic zones into a political system sped up communication between different nationalities and promoted a higher level of economic development.三个地区的社会组织形态融为一体,加速了相互之间的交流,推动了辽代经济的发展。The southern economy, which had been feudal for a long time, dominated the whole economy and directed other economic zones to step into the feudal economic system with different paces.早已进人封建社会的南部汉族地区经济,在辽代起主导作用,使牧区、渔猎区在不同的基础上,以不同的步伐向封建经济过渡。 /201602/421851。

The Grand Canal大运河的开凿The Grand Canal (大运河)of China, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (京杭大运河)is the largest ancient canal or artificial river in the world.中国的大运河也就是京杭大运河是世界上最大的古代运河和人造河流。The oldest parts of the canal can be traced back to 5th century B. C.其中最古老的段落可以追溯到公元前5世纪。In the year of 604, Emperor Yang Jian (杨坚)of Sui Dynasty (隋朝) left Chang’an, and made his rounds in Luoyang.604年,隋炀帝杨坚离开长安,在洛阳巡视。In 605, the emperor gave an order to build two projects: transferring the capital from Chang’an to Luoyang and excavating the Grand Canal linking Beijing and Hangzhou.605年,隋炀帝下旨建造两项工程——将都城从长安迁至洛阳、开凿联通北京和杭州的大运河。It took over six years to build the Grand Canal linking all the canals along it and connecting Haihe (海河),Yellow River (黄河), Huaihe (淮河),Yangtze (长江) and Qiantangjiong rivers (钱塘江).建造大运河的工程花了6年时间将其沿线的各个河道串联起来并连接了海河、黄河、淮河、长江和钱塘江。The Grand Canal starts north in Beijing and ends south in Hangzhou (杭州)with a total length of l794 kilometers.大运河北起北京南至杭州,全程长1794公里。As the earliest and longest man-made canal in the world, the canal is the economic and cultural communication bridge of the north and south, which was first built in the 5th century and was substantially extended twice during the Sui and Yuan dynasties.作为世界上最早和最长的人工运河,京杭大运河是连接中国南北的经济与文化交流之桥,它首建于公元前5世纪,在隋朝和元朝期间延伸建设了两次。In nowadays, the speedy urbanization process and the enormous landscape change projects such as the water diverting projects from the south to the north, offer great opportunities to the sustainable development of our country.今天,快速的城市化进程和巨大的地形改变工程例如“南水北调”工程为我国的稳定发展创造了巨大的机遇。 /201511/398394。