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昆山/嘴巴微整需要多少钱健共享

楼主:知道健康 时间:2017年11月19日 22:19:29 点击:0 回复:0
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Some people think that theres a TED Talk formula:有些人认为TED有一套演讲模式:;Give a talk on a round, red rug.;“站在一块圆形的红地毯上”;Share a childhood story.;“分享童年的经历”;Divulge a personal secret.;“泄露私人秘密”;End with an inspiring call to action.; No.“最后号召大家行动起来” 不Thats not how to think of a TED Talk.那不该是我们看待TED演讲的方式In fact, if you overuse those devices, youre just going to come across as clichéd or emotionally manipulative.实际上 如果滥用这些套路 只会给人留下陈词滥调 或者心灵鸡汤的感觉But there is one thing that all great TED Talks have in common,但是精的TED演讲确实有一个共同之处and I would like to share that thing with you,我想在这儿跟大家分享because over the past 12 years, Ive had a ringside seat,因为12年来我一直坐在近距离观察席位listening to many hundreds of amazing TED speakers, like these.聆听了数百位演讲者的精演讲 像这样Ive helped them prepare their talks for prime time, and learned directly from them their secrets of what makes for a great talk.我协助他们准备演讲 在黄金时段播出 直接从他们那里学到了做一场精演讲的秘诀And even though these speakers and their topics all seem completely different,尽管这些演讲者和他们的演讲主题都各不相同they actually do have one key common ingredient.但有一个关键的共同要素And its this: Your number one task as a speaker那就是:作为演讲者最重要的任务is to transfer into your listeners minds an extraordinary gift a strange and beautiful object that we call an idea.是给你的听众的思想一件特别的礼物 它神奇而美丽 我们称之为“想法”Let me show you what I mean. Heres Haley.让我来展示一下我的意思 我们首先看看海利的演讲She is about to give a TED Talk and frankly, shes terrified. Haley Van Dyck!她将要进行TED演讲 坦白说 她很紧张 海莉·范·戴克!Over the course of 18 minutes,在18分钟的演讲过程中1,200 people, many of whom have never seen each other before,此前互不相识的1200名听众are finding that their brains are starting to sync with Haleys brain and with each other.发现他们的思想开始和海莉的思想以及他们互相之间都同步了Theyre literally beginning to exhibit the same brain-wave patterns.甚至可以说 他们的脑电波开始同步And I dont just mean theyre feeling the same emotions.他们当时不仅感受相同Theres something even more startling happening.还有更令人吃惊的事在发生Lets take a look inside Haleys brain for a moment.让我们到海莉的大脑中看一看There are billions of interconnected neurons in an impossible tangle.数十亿神经元相互连接 互相缠绕But look here, right here a few million of them are linked to each other in a way which represents a single idea.但是看这里 其中几百万个神经元连接在一起形成了一个想法And incredibly, this exact pattern is being recreated in real time inside the minds of everyone listening.难以置信的是 与其一样模式也立即在每一位听众的脑海中出现了Thats right; in just a few minutes, a pattern involving millions of neurons is being teleported into 1,200 minds,是的 几分钟内这种包含几百万神经元的特殊连接模式仅仅通过听演讲者的声音和看她的脸just by people listening to a voice and watching a face.就传递进了1200个大脑之中But wait -- what is an idea anyway?那么 到底什么是想法呢Well, you can think of it as a pattern of information你可以理解为是一种信息的组合that helps you understand and navigate the world.能帮你理解和探索这个世界Ideas come in all shapes and sizes, from the complex and analytical to the simple and aesthetic.想法是多种多样的从复杂的需要理性分析的到简单的具有审美趣味的Here are just a few examples shared from the TED stage.下面我举几个例子 都发生在TED讲台上Sir Ken Robinson creativity is key to our kids future.这是肯 罗宾逊爵士 他的演讲主题是 创造力是决定孩子未来的关键My contention is that creativity now is as important in education as literacy,我认为在教育中培养孩子的创造力和教他们读书写字一样重要and we should treat it with the same status.我们应该对它们一视同仁Elora Hardy building from bamboo is beautiful.这是尹劳拉 哈迪 他的演讲主题是 竹制建筑的魅力It is growing all around us, its strong, its elegant, its earthquake-resistant.竹子随处可见 它们很茁壮 很优雅 而且可以防震Chimamanda Adichie people are more than a single identity.这是奇麻曼达·阿迪契 他的演讲主题是人类并不只有单一属性The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue,单一的故事会导致老套问题并不在于它不正确but that they are incomplete.而在于它不完整Your mind is teeming with ideas, and not just randomly.你的大脑里充满了各种想法 它们并不是随机的Theyre carefully linked together.而是相互联系的Collectively they form an amazingly complex structure that is your personal worldview.它们汇集成神奇而复杂的体系形成你的世界观Its your brains operating system.是你大脑的操作系统Its how you navigate the world.也是你探索世界的方式And it is built up out of millions of individual ideas.是数百万个想法的大集合So, for example, if one little component of your worldview is the idea that kittens are adorable,所以比如说 你世界观中的一小部分告诉你小猫很可爱then when you see this, youll react like this.那么当你看到小猫时你就会抚摸它But if another component of your worldview is the idea that leopards are dangerous,而另一部分告诉你美洲豹很危险then when you see this, youll react a little bit differently.那么当你看见它时你就会反应不同So, its pretty obvious why the ideas that make up your worldview are crucial.所以显而易见这些想法对于塑造你的世界观至关重要You need them to be as reliable as possible -- a guide, to the scary but wonderful real world out there.它们就像一名值得信赖的向导帮你应对这个美妙却又危险的世界Now, different peoples worldviews can be dramatically different.不同人的世界观截然不同For example, how does your worldview react when you see this image:举个例子你对下面的视频会有什么反应?What do you think when you look at me你看到我的时候你在想什么;A woman of faith,; ;an expert,; maybe even ;a sister;?“一个有信仰的女人” “一名专家” 甚至 “一名修女”?Or ;oppressed,; ;brainwashed,; ;a terrorist;?或者“受压迫的” “被洗脑了的”还是“恐怖分子”?Whatever your answer, there are millions of people out there who would react very differently.无论你的是什么 成千上万的人 就会有成千上万种So thats why ideas really matter.正因为此 想法才如此重要If communicated properly, theyre capable of changing, forever,如果交流适当 那么它们能够改变how someone thinks about the world,永久地改变一个人的世界观and shaping their actions both now and well into the future.影响他们现在和未来的的行为Ideas are the most powerful force shaping human culture.想法是塑造人类文化最强大的力量So if you accept that your number one task as a speaker is to build an idea inside the minds of your audience,如果你认同作为一名演讲者 你的主要任务是在观众的思想中植入你的想法的话here are four guidelines for how you should go about that task:那么这里有四条原则需要你遵循:One, limit your talk to just one major idea.第一 让你的演讲要只围绕一个主题Ideas are complex things;思想是一种很复杂的概念you need to slash back your content你要避免长篇大论so that you can focus on the single idea youre most passionate about,所以你要专注于你一个让你最激动不已的想法and give yourself a chance to explain that one thing properly.并且要以合适的方式把它解释清楚You have to give context, share examples, make it vivid.你可以通过描述背景 分享事例等方式让它变得生动形象So pick one idea,所以只挑选一个想法and make it the through-line running through your entire talk,让它贯穿你的整个演讲so that everything you say links back to it in some way.让你讲的所有内容都能与之呼应Two, give your listeners a reason to care.第二 吸引你的听众Before you can start building things inside the minds of your audience,在你将自己的想法灌输给观众之前you have to get their permission to welcome you in.你必须得到他们的允许And the main tool to achieve that? Curiosity.那主要手段是什么呢 好奇心Stir your audiences curiosity.勾起观众的好奇心Use intriguing, provocative questions to identify why something doesnt make sense and needs explaining.提一些耐人寻味 引人入胜的问题让大家发现为什么有些事情不合理并且需要解释If you can reveal a disconnection in someones worldview,如果你让某人发现 他的世界观里有断点theyll feel the need to bridge that knowledge gap.他们就会想把这个知识的缺口连接上And once youve sparked that desire, it will be so much easier to start building your idea.一旦你勾起他们的求知欲灌输你的想法就容易多了Three, build your idea, piece by piece, out of concepts that your audience aly understands.第三 一步一步构造你的想法要使用观众已经了解的概念You use the power of language to weave together concepts that aly exist in your listeners minds用语言的力量把观众脑海中已经存在的概念重新整合but not your language, their language.不过要用观众能懂的语言You start where they are.你要让他们跟上你的节奏The speakers often forget that many of the terms and concepts they live with are completely unfamiliar to their audiences.演讲者经常会忘记 自己每天接触的术语和概念在观众们眼中可能就是天书Now, metaphors can play a crucial role in showing how the pieces fit together,因此 善用比喻非常重要because they reveal the desired shape of the pattern,因为比喻是用听众已经了解的概念based on an idea that the listener aly understands.来勾画缺失的那一块知识拼图For example, when Jennifer Kahn wanted to explain the incredible new biotechnology called CRISPR,比如当珍妮弗·卡恩想解释一种叫做CRISPR的 最前端的生物技术时she said, ;Its as if, for the first time, you had a word processor to edit DNA.她说:“这项技术 就像你第一次拥有了一台可以编辑DNA的文字处理机一样CRISPR allows you to cut and paste genetic information really easily.;CRISPR能让你十分轻松的剪切和粘贴基因组;Now, a vivid explanation like that delivers a satisfying aha moment as it snaps into place in our minds.就这样 一个生动的描述让我们恍然大悟并且深深地印在了我们的脑海里Its important, therefore, to test your talk on trusted friends,在信任的朋友面前 试讲一下是很关键的and find out which parts they get confused by.你可以找出他们听不懂的地方(加以修改)Four, heres the final tip: Make your idea worth sharing.第四条 也是最后一条:使你的想法值得分享By that I mean, ask yourself the question: ;Who does this idea benefit?;我的意思是扪心自问:“这个想法对谁有好处?”And I need you to be honest with the answer.你需要实事求是If the idea only serves you or your organization,如果这个想法只务于你或者你的组织then, Im sorry to say, its probably not worth sharing.那么对不起 它也许不值得分享The audience will see right through you.观众通过你马上能发现这一点But if you believe that the idea has the potential to brighten up someone elses day但如果你认为自己的想法有可能照亮他人的人生or change someone elses perspective for the better或者改善他人的观点or inspire someone to do something differently,或者激励他人去改变then you have the core ingredient to a truly great talk,那么你就拥有了一篇精演讲的核心元素one that can be a gift to them and to all of us.所有人都会因此受益201706/513897TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201608/457823Its five oclock, and the rest of Bohunts students have gone home.五点了,其他航特的学生已经回家了But in the Chinese school, work goes on.然而在中式学校,学习还在继续Mr. Zou is starting his lesson for those students who struggle in maths.邹老师要开始为数学有困难的学生开小灶补习Luca and two other pupils havent turned up.卢卡和其他两个学生还没有出现I never seen students like this.我从没见过这样的学生I came so long a distance to bring you some Chinese way of teaching.我漂洋过海,是为了带给你们一些中式教学法And you dont want to learn. I feel disappointed.但你们却不想学,这让我很失望Lets start, OK? Lets start.我们开始吧,好吗,开始吧Were not going to wait. Just.. be seated.不等他们了。来...坐好Almost ten years teaching, I havent experienced the level of students like these.我教了十年书,从来没有遇到过这样的学生I see if I can help them by my effort.我想知道,我能不能帮助他们提高成绩Sir, Ive done it. Can I pack up now?老师,我做完了,可以收拾书包了吗Luca is a lovely boy.卢卡这孩子很可爱He learns very quickly.他学东西很快In fact, maybe the quickest in my small group.可以说是我这补习小组里学得最快的But if he doesnt want to learn, will be a totally different person.但是如果他不想学,那就完全不一样了Luca, come here! I need to talk to you.卢卡,过来。我们谈谈Why dont you come for lesson?你为什么不来上课Sorry, Sir. No, dont say sorry.对不起,老师。不,别光说对不起Hello, this is Mr Zou from Chinese school. Is that Lucas mother?你好,我是中式学校的邹老师。请问您是卢卡的母亲吗Oh, hello.您好Tonight should be maths lesson for two periods and Luca didnt show up,今晚有两节数学课,但是卢卡都没来so he missed all two lessons tonight.他逃了今晚的两节数学课Its so different from the normal Bohunt day.中式学校跟航特中学平时上课很不一样One thing being the hours are longer.最大不同就是上课时间变长了Im trying to get to used to that. Its been difficult.我在努力去适应。但是这真的很难I just wanted to go watch the year eight basketball game.我当时只是想去看初二的篮球比赛It was because I felt like I was back in Bohunt when I went there.因为看比赛的时候,我会觉得我又回到了航特中学Im missing just normal school quite a lot from doing this.在中式学校学习,让我错过了平时学校的很多东西It just felt good.看比赛会让我觉得很开心201606/449095So, I have an overlooked but potentially lucrative investment opportunity for you.我有一个被人们忽视的、但又有可能赚大钱的投资机会给你们。Over the past 10 years in the UK, the return on burial plots has outperformed the UK property market by a ratio of around three to one.过去10年,在英国,墓地的回报已经胜过房地产,两者的比例大致为3:1。There are private cemeteries being set up with plots for sale to investors, and they start at around 3,900 pounds.大量的私人墓园被开发,销售给投资者,一块墓地的起始价格大概为3900英磅。And theyre projected to achieve about 40 percent growth.并且他们预计会有40%的增长。The biggest advantage is that this is a market with continuous demand.这个项目最大的优势是,这是一个有着持久需求的市场。Now, this is a real proposition, and there are companies out there that really are offering this investment,现在,这是一桩真正的生意,已经有公司真正的提供这种投资了,but my interest in it is quite different.但这不是我的兴趣所在。Im an architect and urban designer, and for the past year and a half,我是一个建筑设计师和城市设计师,在过去的一年半里,Ive been looking at approaches to death and dying and at how theyve shaped our cities and the buildings within them.我一直在研究通向死亡和临终的途径,它们是如何塑造我们的城市,以及那些身在其中的建筑。So in the summer, I did my first exhibition on death and architecture in Venice, and it was called ;Death in Venice.;所以,今夏我在办了我的第一场关于死亡与建筑的展览,展览的名称为《之死》。And because death is a subject that many of us find quite uncomfortable to talk about,因为死亡是一个许多人都不愿谈及的话题。the exhibition was designed to be quite playful, so that people would literally engage with it.所以这个展览设计的很轻松活泼,让大家愿意参与,So one of our exhibits was an interactive map of London which showed just how much of the real estate in the city is given over to death.我们其中的一件展品是一个伦敦的互动地图,它向我们展示了有多少这个城市的地产是属于死亡产业的。As you wave your hand across the map, the name of the piece of real estate -- the building or the cemetery -- is revealed.当你在这张地图上挥手的时候,这些地产的名字--建筑物或者墓地--就会显示出来。And those white shapes that you can see, theyre all of the hospitals and hospices and mortuaries and cemeteries in the city.你们看到的这些白色的都是医院和临终关怀院,以及太平间和墓地。In fact, the majority are cemeteries. We wanted to show that, even though death and burial are things that we might not think about,事实上,主要的还是墓地。我们想要展现的是,虽然死亡和埋葬可能是我们不会去想的事情,theyre all around us, and theyre important parts of our cities.但它们就在我们周围,并且是我们城市的重要部分。So about half a million people die in the UK each year, and of those, around a quarter will want to be buried.在英国,每年大概有50万人死亡。这些人中,大概有四分之一的想要入土为安。But the UK, like many Western European countries, is running out of burial space, especially in the major cities.但是英国,就像其它的欧洲国家一样,正在耗尽它的安葬空间,特别是在那些主要城市。And the Greater London Authority has been aware of this for a while,而大伦敦市政府早就意识到这一点了,and the main causes are population growth, the fact that existing cemeteries are almost full.导致这一问题的主要原因是人口增长,事实上现存的墓地几乎已经全满了。Theres a custom in the UK that graves are considered to be occupied forever, and theres also development pressure英国的风俗是坟墓是永久占有的,并且还有发展的压力people want to use that same land to build houses or offices or shops.人们想要利用同样的土地去建造住宅、写字楼或商店。So they came up with a few solutions. They were like, well, maybe we can reuse those graves after 50 years.因此他们想出了一些解决办法,比如说,也许我们可以在50年后重新利用这些墓地。Or maybe we can bury people, like, four deep, so that four people can be buried in the same plot,或者我们可以埋四层深,这样四个人可以同时埋在一块墓地。and we can make more efficient use of the land that way, and in that way,并且这样我们可以更高效地使用土地,如果用这种方法,hopefully London will still have space to bury people in the near future.那么伦敦有希望在未来短期内仍然拥有足够的墓地。But, traditionally, cemeteries havent been taken care of by the local authority.但是,传统上,墓地从来没有被地方政府重视过。In fact, the surprising thing is that theres no legal obligation on anyone in the UK to provide burial space.事实上,令人意想不到的是,在英国,没有任何人有提供安葬空间的法律义务。Traditionally, its been done by private and religious organizations, like churches and mosques and synagogues.传统上,都是私人和宗教组织在做这些,比如教堂、清真寺以及犹太会堂。But theres also occasionally been a for-profit group who has wanted to get in on the act.但偶尔也会有一两家盈利组织想要插上一手。And, you know, they look at the small size of a burial plot and that high cost, and it looks like theres serious money to be made.他们看着墓地的尺寸之小以及价格之高,看起来似乎真的大有钱景。So, actually, if you want to go out and start your own cemetery, you kind of can.事实上,如果你想开始拥有自己的坟场也是可以的。There was this couple in South Wales, and they had a farmhouse and a load of fields next to it, and they wanted to develop the land.有这么一对南威尔士的夫妻,他们拥有一个农舍以及它周围的一块地,然后他们想要开发这块地。They had a load of ideas. They first thought about making a caravan park, but the council said no.他们有很多的想法。第一个想法是做一个大篷车公园,但是地方议会没同意。And then they wanted to make a fish farm and again the council said no.然后他们想弄一个养鱼场,地方议会还是没同意。Then they hit on the idea of making a cemetery and they calculated that by doing this,然后他们想到了建坟场的主意,计算了通过这样做,they could increase the value of their land from about 95,000 pounds to over one million pounds.他们可以提升他们土地的价值,大概从95000英磅提升到超过100万英磅。But just to come back to this idea of making profit from cemeteries, like, its kind of ludicrous, right?但是回过头来看通过坟场获利这个主意,像是有点荒唐可笑,是吗?The thing is that the high cost of those burial plots is actually very misleading.问题是这些墓地的高价,事实上是一个误导。They look like theyre expensive, but that cost reflects the fact that you need to maintain the burial plot它们看起来似乎很贵,但这个价格也反映出你需要去维护这些墓地的事实。like, someone has to cut the grass for the next 50 years. That means its very difficult to make money from cemeteries.比如说,在接下来的50年里需要有人去除草,那就意味着很难从墓园中赚到钱。And its the reason that normally theyre run by the council or by a not-for-profit group.这也是为什么通常这些墓园是被地方议会或者非盈利组织经营。But anyway, the council granted these people permission, and theyre now trying to build their cemetery.但不管怎么说,这些人获得了地方议会的批准 他们正在试着建造他们的墓园。So just to explain to you kind of how this works:跟你们解释一下这事是如何操作的:If I want to build something in the UK, like a cemetery for example, then I have to apply for planning permission first.在英国,如果我想建个什么,比如说一个墓园,那么我首先得申请规划许可。So if I want to build a new office building for a client or if I want to extend my home or, you know,因此,如果我想为客户建一栋新写字楼,或者想扩建自己的房屋,if I have a shop and I want to convert it into an office, I have to do a load of drawings,或者如果我有一个商店想改成办公室,我得绘大量的图纸,and I submit them to the council for permission. And theyll look at things like how it fits in the surroundings.然后提交到地方议会去批准。然后他们会考察它跟周围是否适应。So theyll look at what it looks like.以及它看起来怎么样。But theyll also think about things like what impact is it going to have on the local environment?但他们也会考虑它将对当地的环境产生怎样的影响之类的事情。And theyll be thinking about things like,他们会考虑一些负面的影响,is this thing going to cause pollution or is there going to be a lot of traffic that wants to go to this thing that Ive built?比如说这个事情会导致污染吗?或者会导致很大的交通流量涌向这个新建的建筑吗?But also good things. Is it going to add local services like shops to the neighborhood that local people would like to use?但也会考虑正面的影响。如比说,它会为社区增加像商店这样的本地居民可能喜欢的务设施吗?And theyll weigh up the advantages and the disadvantages and theyll make a decision.他们会权衡利弊,然后做出决定。So thats how it works if I want to build a large cemetery.如果我要建一座大型的墓园的话,这就是如何操作的。But what if Ive got a piece of land and I just want to bury a few people, like five or six?但是如果我有一块地,而我只想在里面埋葬少数的人,比如就五六个人,又会怎样?Well, then -- actually, I dont need permission from anyone!那么,事实上我不需要作何人的批准!Theres actually almost no regulation in the UK around burial, and the little bit that there is,事实上,在英国几乎没有关于殡葬的规定。仅有的一点就是,is about not polluting water courses, like not polluting rivers or groundwater.不能污染水源,比如说不能污染河流或者地下水。So actually, if you want to go and make your own mini-cemetery, then you can.所以,如果你想建造小型墓园是完全没问题的。But I mean, like -- really, who does this? Right?但我的意思是,真的,谁会这样做?对吗?Well, if youre an aristocratic family and you have a large estate,如果你是一个贵族家庭并且拥有大片土地,then theres a chance that youll have a mausoleum on it, and youll bury your family there.那么你有机会建一个陵墓,并将你的家族成员埋葬于此。But the really weird thing is that you dont need to have a piece of land of a certain size before youre allowed to start burying people on it.但是真正奇怪的事情是,你的土地不必达到某个规定的尺寸,你就可以开始在这块土地上埋人。And so that means that, technically, this applies to, like, the back garden of your house in the suburbs.这也就意味着,从技术上来说,你可以申请在你郊区房子的后花园建一个墓园。So what if you wanted to try this yourself at home?因此如果你想在你家里试试,该怎样做呢?Well, theres a few councils that have guidance on their website which can help you.有一些的地方议会的网站上有指导,可以帮到你。So, the first thing that they tell you is that you need to have a certificate of burial before you can go ahead他们告诉你的第一件事是,你需要有入殓明书,youre not allowed to just murder people and put them under the patio.你不可以杀了某人然后把他埋在花园里。They also tell you that you need to keep a record of where the grave is.他们还会告诉你需要记录下坟墓的位置。But thats pretty much it for formal requirements.但这些几乎就是全部的正式要求。Now, they do warn you that your neighbors might not like this,他们还会警告你,也许你的邻居不会喜欢你这样做。but, legally speaking, theres almost nothing that they can do about it.但是,从法律上讲,他们几乎无法阻止你。And just in case any of you still had that profit idea in your mind about how much those burial plots cost只是万一如果你的脑袋中仍然还有要赚钱的念头,想着这些坟墓值多少钱,and how much money you might be able to make, they also warn that it might cause the value of your house to drop by 20 percent.并且你可能赚多少,他们也会提醒你,它可能会让你的房子贬值20%。Although, actually, its more likely that no one will want to buy your house at all after that.虽然,事实上更有可能的是在这之后根本没有人会愿意买你的房子。So what I find fascinating about this is the fact that it kind of sums up many of our attitudes towards death.所以我发现这件事的有趣之处就是,它概括了你们中许多人对于死亡的态度。In the UK, and I think that the figures across Europe are probably similar,在英国,而且我想整个欧洲的情况都大概相似,only about 30 percent of people have ever talked to anyone about their wishes around death,只有30%的人跟别人说起过他们将死时的心愿。and even for people over 75, only 45 percent of people have ever talked about this.甚至在75岁以上的人群中也只有45%的人谈起过这个话题。And the reasons that people give ... you know, they think that their death is far而人们给出的原因,就是,他们觉得自己的死期还很遥远,off or they think that theyre going to make people uncomfortable by talking about it.或者他们认为谈论它会使别人感到不舒。And you know, to a certain extent, there are other people out there who are taking care of things for us.你知道,在某种程度上,有人在为我们操心这些事情。The government has all this regulation and bureaucracy around things like burying a death, for example,比如,政府拥有殡葬事务的一整套规定和官僚制度,and theres people like funeral directors who devote their entire working lives to this issue.并且还有像葬礼总监这样将整个职业生涯奉献在这些事情上的人。But when it comes to our cities and thinking about how death fits in our cities,但是当说到我们的城市并且想一想我们的城市如何去容纳死亡,theres much less regulation and design and thought than we might imagine.这里面的规定、设计和思想远比我们想像的要少得多。So were not thinking about this, but all of the people we imagine are thinking about it -- theyre not taking care of it either. Thank you.我们没有去想这件事情,但是那些我们以为会去想这件事情的人--他们却也不关心这件事。谢谢。201706/515592

Hi, everyone. Im Jade. In this lesson, Ive put together all the tips I have for IELTS listening, so if youre preparing to take the test,大家好,我是Jade,这次的课上,我把我所有的雅思听力技巧都汇总起来了,youve got all my tips to help you do your best in the listening exam.所以如果你们准备参加这个考试,你们就有了我所有的技巧来帮助你们完胜听力考试。So, its 40 marks, and its around 30 minutes long, so how can you make the most of your listening exam?听力考试共40分,时长大约30分钟,那么如何才能在听力考试中充分发挥呢?Well, its true what they say: practice really does make perfect.那句话确实说得很对:熟能生巧。So you should aim to do as many practice tests of the listening section as you absolutely can, it will really, really help you.所以你们应该尽可能多做一些听力部分的练习题,它真的真的会对你们大有裨益的。Theres a book that I recommend, its the Cambridge Series for IELTS, weve got some practice tests, there are other parts in that book,我给你们推荐一本书Cambridge Series for IELTS,里面有一些模拟题,那本书里还有其他部分的题,not just for listening, but the listening materials are good, so Ive used those many times.不只是听力部分,不过听力材料很不错,我已经用过很多次了。And you dont get that many listening tests in the book, but what you can do is do the tests, and then take a break for,那本书里没有特别多的听力试题,但是你们能做的就是把这些试题做完,然后隔一段时间,you know, two weeks or three weeks or whatever, and youll forget, and then you can do it again.比如两三个星期之类的,那时你们就把这些题都忘记了,然后可以再做一遍。So, thats really important, because Ill tell you that as a native speaker, yeah, plus someone with a university degree,那非常重要,因为我可以跟你们说,作为一个母语是英语,而且大学毕业了的人,but Ill do...Ill do an IELTS listening test after a long break, and Ill not get a lot of the answers right. Okay?我在隔很长一段时间后再做雅思听力部分的试题,很多题都会做错。So what that tells me is that doing IELTS, and the listening part is just another example, its as much about learning how to pass a test and learning an exam technique, basically.所以我从这里面的体悟是,做雅思,听力部分只是另一个例子而已,做雅思题基本上就是学习如何通过一场考试,学习考试技巧。Because if a native speaker isnt going to get it all right, it shows you that you need to train yourself to be able to do this listening test.因为如果一个以英语为母语的人都做不到全对,那就说明你们需要训练自己才能具备做好听力部分的能力。So, anyway, if I do a couple of those tests, then Im getting them all right.不管怎么说,如果我做过好几套试题,那我就能把它们做到全对。So what Im telling you, just from my experience is: the more you practice those tests, you really will become better and better at doing those tests.所以从我的经验来说,我在告诉你们的是:你们练习得越多,就真的会越来越擅长做这些试题。Even if right now you think that your English is, like, really good and youre going to get a really high score in the IELTS listening because youre good at listening.即使现在你觉得自己的英语非常好,觉得自己在雅思考试的听力部分会拿到一个很高的分数,因为你认为自己很擅长听力。It may be true that you are a really good speaker of English and you understand a lot, but if you havent practiced any of the IELTS tests,也许你确实英语说得很好,懂很多英语知识,但是如果你没有练过任何雅思考试的试题,you might not get a good score, because you havent learned the exam technique, and youre not familiar with those tests.你可能拿不到一个很好的分数,因为你没有学过考试技巧,对那些试题不熟悉。So rule number one: Practice makes perfect.所以第一点:熟能生巧。Also in these tests, you really need to spell carefully, because if you make a spelling mistake, you dont get the mark.还有,在这些考试中,你们拼写单词的时候要非常小心,因为如果你们出现了拼写错误是得不到分的。So, try your best to spell things correctly.所以请尽力正确拼写单词。And especially in questions where they are spelling something to you, make sure you dont lose an easy point for writing down the wrong letter.尤其是在那些他们拼写什么给你听的题目里,确保你们不会因为写下了错误的字母而失去这么容易的得分点。Which brings us to this one: Learn the pronunciation of letters.这就带我们来到了这一点:学会字母的发音。So, just do a little bit of revision, go back over how to say the letters in British English, because the IELTS test is mainly in British accent.所以稍微复习一下,回顾一下英式英语中是如何读那些字母的,因为雅思考试主要是英式口音。So make sure you know how we say our letters here.所以请确保你们知道我们英国人是怎么读这些字母的。But it would also be quite handy for you to practice the letters in American English and Australian English,但是你们练习一下美式英语和澳洲英语的字母发音也会很有用,because these will also be covered in the...in the test, youll get these different accents.因为这些也会出现在......考试中,会有这些不同的口音。So theres a tip for you.这是一个技巧。Going back to this one: when youre doing the test, in between the different parts of the exam (there are four parts) , you get a little bit of ing time.我们回到这一点:当你们在考试的时候,试题的不同部分之间(总共有四个部分),会有一点阅读材料的时间。When you get this ing time, what you should be doing is ing the questions that youre about to answer.到了这个阅读时间的时候,你们应该做的是阅读将要作答的题目。Not checking the answers that you wrote before.而不是检查你们之前写下的。See, a lot of people will just be looking back at what theyve aly done, but when they do that, theyre not preparing for the next questions.是这样的,很多人会回头看看他们已经做完的题,但是这么做的话,他们就不能为下面的题目做准备了。So you really need to make the most of that time, and make sure that youve whats coming.所以你们真的需要充分利用那段时间,并且确保自己读过了接下来要回答的内容。And that will help you, because these listening exams, theyre in chronological order, it means it starts at the top of the page,这对你们很有帮助的,因为听力考试是按时间顺序排列的,也就是会从那一页的顶端开始,the first answers somewhere at the top of the page, and then it goes down.第一个就在试题页顶端的某个地方,然后会下移。Its not like you have to be looking all over the paper for the answers, basically.基本上你们不用在一整页里找。Next tip: Youre only going to hear this once, so dont stress about that.下一个技巧:你们只会听到一遍录音,所以不要紧张。When you are practicing your exams, doing the practice tests, try to do it in a way that youre only listening once.你们练习的时候,做模拟试题的时候,尽量只听一遍。And dont worry so much if you get them wrong, just listen once, then leave those tests for a while, and then when youve forgotten about them, come back and do it again.如果出错了也不要太紧张,只听一遍,然后把那些试题搁置一段时间,接着等你们把题目都忘光了,再回来做一遍。If youre listening twice, youre not really practicing the IELTS listening skill.And...what else have I got to say about it?如果你们听两遍的话就练不到什么雅思听力技巧了。我还要说什么来着?IELTS has a particular speaking style; its not like normal spoken English.雅思考试的讲话方式很特别,不像普通的英语口语。Its nothing like normal spoken English, but in one way, it makes it very easy to understand.一点儿都不像普通的英语口语,但是某种程度上,这样更容易理解。So, get used to that kind of speaking style, it might be in a British English accent, maybe its in an American accent or an Australian accent.所以请习惯那种讲话方式,也许是用英式英语口音,也许是美式口音或者澳大利亚口音。And this will just make you more y for doing the test.这会让你们考试的时候准备得更充分。Here are some other, more general tips, okay? As a listener, key words are really important.下面是一些其他的更笼统的技巧。作为听众,关键词非常重要。These are, as youre listening, the words that are going to point you to the answers,你们在听材料的时候,这些关键词会指引你们找到,like when youre looking at the question written on the paper, youll be looking for verbs, adjectives, and nouns.比如当你们看试卷上的题目时,你们要找动词、形容词和名词。Especially in the third and final part of the listening test, it gets increasingly difficult.尤其是在听力考试的第三部分和最后一部分,题目会越来越难。So, its also very likely that you dont know the nouns that theyre talking about.所以,也很可能你们不认识他们讲到的名词。It could be a scientific or academic context that theyre talking about.他们讲到的上下文可能是关于科学或学术性的。It could be a really unusual noun that youve never heard before.可能是个你们之前从没听说过的很不常见的名词。All right? Thats okay, because as long as you know that youre listening out for a noun, because you look at the question,知道了吗?这没关系,因为只要你们知道自己要注意听的是一个名词就行了,因为你们可以看看题目,if there is a word that you dont know but you know its a noun because it had ;the; before it, or ;a; before it, thats probably your answer.如果有个你们不认识的单词,但是你们知道它是个名词,因为前面有个;the;或者;a;,那可能就是你们的了。So dont be too scared when youre hearing words, like: ;I dont know what that means, I dont know what it means;, because youre not supposed to know what every word means.所以听到像“我不知道那是什么意思,我不知道它是什么意思”的单词时不要太害怕,因为你们本就不必知道每个单词的意思。Youre just supposed to be able to, you know, magically find the answer by knowing...knowing where a noun comes in a sentence, basically.基本上,你们只是应该能够......通过知道一个句子中哪里应该出现名词来神奇地找到。What else to say? Synonyms: your knowledge of synonyms will be useful and important in the text...in the test.还有什么要说的?同义词,你们对同义词的了解在考试中会很有用的,而且也很重要。So, when youre listening, you might hear the word ;suitcase;, but on the answer paper, the word ;luggage; may be written.你们在听录音的时候,可能会听到;suitcase;这个单词,但是在答题纸上也许写着;luggage;这个单词。And the same for ;reservation; and ;booking; and ;holiday; and ;vacation;.同样的还有;reservation;和;booking;,;holiday; 和 ;vacation;。So, know that when youre listening, youre not necessarily trying to find the exact word; youll be trying to find something similar.听材料的时候要知道这一点,你们不用费力找到同样的单词,要试着找到相似的单词。And here is the IELTS trick that they love to do: someone will be talking, and theyll give the answer, whatever the answer is, I cant improvise.现在我要告诉你们一个他们在雅思考试中喜欢耍的小手段:某个人会在讲话,然后会给出,无论那个是什么,我临时想不出来。;Yes, Id like to book a room for, for...Id like to book a table for two on Monday. Yes, thats great. Oh, no. Actually, Ive changed my mind. On Tuesday next week.;比如他们会这么说:“是的,我想预定一个房间......我想预定一个周一的两个人的位置,是的,很好。哦,不,事实上我改主意了,我要订下周二的。”Maybe I said the same day, but this is what they do: they say the answer, and then they take it back.也许我说的是同一天,但是是这样的:他们会说出,然后又收回。So...so sometimes, you think youve found the answer, and you write it down, so just be aware of that IELTS trick.所以......所以有时候你们会以为自己找到了正确,然后把它写下来,所以一定要注意雅思考试里的这个圈套。What were going to do in the next part of the lesson is look specifically at the harder questions, question forms, and what you need to look out for in those specific question types.在这节课的下个部分我们要来具体看看比较难的题目,题目形式,还有在这些具体的题目类型中你们要注意些什么。Lets have some general tips for the specific question types now.现在我们来讲一些针对具体题目类型的基本技巧。Im not going to look at all the question types, because some are self-explanatory, like matching or multiple choice.我不会讲到所有的题目类型,因为有些题目是不言自明的,比如配对题和单选题。But lets have a look at form filling, sometimes youll get a form like this, with some information missing.但是我们来看看填表题吧,有时候试卷上会有像这样的表格,里面有一些缺失的信息。As I mentioned to you, the listening test is chronological, so it will start talking about this diagram by mentioning Sarah, and then it will move across.就像我之前跟你们提到过的,听力试题是按时间顺序的,所以它会通过提到某个人的名字,比如Sarah来开始谈论这个表格,然后会横向移动。So you know that after you hear the name, youre likely to hear the telephone number.所以你们听到名字之后就知道可能会听到电话号码了。And if this is repeated...maybe you have somebodys name, here, maybe you have the number, here.Theres my number, not my number; its just a number.如果这个重复了......也许某个人的名字在这儿,然后号码在这儿。这是我的号码,不是我的号码,只是随便诌的一个号码。So its...when you get here, again, you know you need to be waiting to hear this location.当你们听到了这里,同样的,你们就知道自己需要等着听地点了。And it might not be a place that you know, it might be a place that youve never heard of,可能不是你们知道的地方,可能是个你们从没听说过的地方,so when that...when that happens, you just have to either take a guess at spelling this word that youve never heard, or they will spell that place to you.所以当......当这种情况发生的时候,你们只需要猜着把你们从没听说过的这个单词拼写出来,或者他们会把这个地名拼读出来。The person will be like: -;Hmm. Im not sure if I understood that correctly. Did you say Bristol?; -;Yes, thats right. B-r-i-s-t-o-l.;那个人会说:-“嗯......我不确定我有没有听对,你说的是Bristol吗?”-“是的,没错,拼写是B-r-i-s-t-o-l。”So, either youll have to guess, or theyll spell it to you.所以你们要么蒙一个,要么他们会拼读出来。And if you have this kind of question-I mean, this is important in the whole test, in every single part-dont put too many words or too much information in these things.如果你们遇到了这种题目,我的意思是,这在整场考试中,在考试的每一个部分都很重要:不要在这些空格里填写太多单词或太多信息。Because...lets just imagine you put the answer here, but then you also put in some extra piece of information, you wont get any mark there; that will be wrong.因为......我们假设你们把写在了这里,但是接着你们还写了一些额外的信息,这样你们一分都得不到,那是错误的。So, the correct number of words, okay? No more than that.所以记得写下正确数量的单词,好吗?不要超过那个数字。And the IELTS trick...the IELTS trick is that they give you...they give you unfamiliar names, or ones that are spelled in unexpected ways.雅思考试中还会出现的陷阱是,他们会给你们......他们会给你们不熟悉的名字,或者用很出乎意料的方式拼写的名字。So, when youre listening out for that name, youre only going to hear it once,当你们注意听那个名字的时候,你们只能听一遍,but rather than think you aly know how to spell that name, spell it the way that you hear, because sometimes youll doubt yourself.但是不要按照你们以为自己已知的方式拼写那个名字,而要按照你们听到的方式拼写,因为有时候你们会怀疑自己。Youll hear the...the weird name, and youll be like: ;Oh, I know how to spell...; well, its not weird, okay lets...Ill give you an example.你们会听到一个很奇葩的名字,然后会想“哦,我知道怎么拼写......”,好吧,不是奇葩......我给你们举个例子。Lets imagine they said the word ;Smith;, and youre like: ;Oh, I know how to spell Smith, but it didnt sound like Smith, oh, but I must have heard that wrong.;假设他们说了;Smith;这个单词,然后你们觉得“哦,我知道怎么拼写Smith,但是它听起来不像Smith,我一定是听错了。”Theyll probably...theyll probably smell it...smell it? (Laughs) spell it in a strange way, I dont know.他们可能会用一种很奇怪的方式拼读这个单词什么的。Thats what they do, so, trust your...trust what you...what you hear, not what you think it should be. IELTS trick.他们就喜欢这么做,所以要相信你们自己听到的内容,而不是你们认为应该是的内容。要注意雅思考试中的这个陷阱。Lets have a look now at label and map, or label or diagram question.现在我们来看看标签与地图,或者标签或图表题。These will not necessarily be in every single test, and therefore, you might...you might not actually get this on your test.可能不是每套试卷上都有这种题目,因此,你们也许实际上考试的时候不会遇到这类题目。But theyre really worthwhile to practice, because when they are on the test, they are some of the hardest questions.但是它们非常值得练习,因为如果它们出现在试卷上,就是最难的题目之一。So, you might...you might lose points, here.所以在这种题型上你们可能会丢分。Label and map is usually in the first section or the second section, so it should be one...among the easiest listening questions in the whole test.标签和地图通常在听力考试的第一或第二部分,所以应该是......在整场考试最简单的听力题目中。So you really dont want to waste any points in this section of the test.所以你们真的不该在这个部分丢分。Label or diagram is more complicated, usually in part three or part four, but the same principle.标签或图表更复杂一些,通常在第三或第四部分,但是原则还是一样的。How can you prepare for this? You use your ing time to look at the map. Okay?怎么准备这种题型呢?你们要利用阅读时间来看地图。So you get 30 seconds to look at the map, so, it could be a good idea to...你们有30秒钟的时间可以看地图,所以可能很好......I dont think its actually possible to predict the answers for all the questions in IELTS, but for the map, it could be helpful.我觉得预测雅思考试中所有题目的事实上是不可能的,但是对地图这类的题目来说,会大有帮助。If you look at the map, youll know: ;Am I listening for shop names? Am I listening for street names?如果你们看到地图就会知道“我要注意听商店名字吗?我要注意听街道的名字吗?Am I listening for building names, or numbers? Or is it particular landmarks, like trees, lake, that kind of thing?;我要注意听建筑物的名字或者门牌号吗?或者这是特别的地标吗?比如树、湖之类的事物。”And just knowing what youre listening for will really help you in the...in the map questions, or the...in the map questions.仅仅知道自己要注意听什么就能在地图类题目中给你们带来很大帮助。Also in the map questions, it will really help you to learn directions phrases.Anything like ;across;, ;opposite;, ;on the right hand side;.还有,地图类题目会帮助你们学习方向类短语。诸如;across;, ;opposite;, ;on the right hand side;。So make sure you study some directions phrases before you take your test, to refresh those all in your memory.所以请确保在参加考试之前学习一些方向类短语,在脑子里复习一下那类短语。And when we...when we get to a diagram question, these...these ones will be technical vocabulary or technical language, probably language that youre not familiar with.讲到图表类题目,这些题目中可能会出现技术性词汇或者技术性语言,可能是你们不熟悉的语言。You havent heard it before; you dont know it, so, when youre in these...when youre having this part of the paper, know that youll be listening out for an unusual word that you dont know.你们之前没听说过,不认识它们,所以当试卷上出现这个部分的时候,你们要知道自己要注意听不认识的不平常的单词。So dont let that...dont let that be a scary thing, dont let that make you panic or something.不要被那些单词吓到,不要惊慌。Its meant to be difficult in that way, that its testing your ability to just find a technical word in the middle of some other long technical thing.它就是要有那种难度的,它就是在测试你们从一些其他很长的技术性内容中找到一个技术性单词的能力。And then, the most difficult out of all the questions are flowchart completion and classification questions in the IELTS test.接下来,雅思考试所有题目中难度最大的就是完成流程图和分类型题目。Flowchart completion would be something like this: youd have some boxes showing a process, a scientific process, or something, an academic...something in academic things.完成流程图是这样的:会有一些方框表示一个流程,一个科学流程或者学术性流程之类的。No, thats not right, something, you know, at university level, this thing happens, this thing happens, this thing happens, Im thinking of biology or something like that.不,不是这样,就是......在大学水平上,会发生这个事情,会发生这个事情,会发生这个事情,我现在在想生物学或者类似的事情。So, therell be different steps, and when you listen, you need to order which thing happens first.所以会有不同的步骤,你们在听录音的时候要排好顺序哪个步骤最先发生。How do you do that? Well, the biggest IELTS tip I can give you is that: Use a different approach for these questions.怎么做呢?我能告诉你们的最重要的雅思技巧是:针对这些问题使用一个不同的方法。So Ill give you...Ill give you a real life example, when I was preparing IELTS with one of my students,我给你们举个真实的例子吧,我帮我其中一个学生准备雅思考试的时候,he was doing the practice, and he was consistently...he stayed not getting the result that he needed for quite a long time,他做了练习,但是他一直......他很长时间都得不到自己需要的结果,it was if...it was as if his practice wasnt really helping him get a better mark.就好像他做的练习一点都没帮到他取得一个更好的分数。But when I suggested to him: ;When you get to this part of the listening test, dont the questions and listen at the same time.;但是我建议他说:“当你做到听力考试的这一部分的时候,不要同时看题目和听录音。”When I suggested that he just listen, but then after, write in the answer, fill in the gap A, B, C, D,我建议他光听录音,然后听完之后再写,填上A、B、C、D,then, suddenly, the result that he was getting in the test went up by four marks, or something like that.然后突然之间,他的考试成绩就提高了4分,或者差不多的分数。So when he changed the approach, how he listened in these difficult questions, he was getting a much better result.所以他改变了听这些难度比较大的题目的方法之后,就获得了更好的分数。Because when you get to the end of the test, section four especially, which is the hardest questions,因为当你们做到试卷最后的时候,尤其是第四部分,这里的题目是最难的,you dont really have time to complex, long words, listen to academic speaking; its too much information.这个时候你们没有多少时间去阅读复杂冗长的单词,听学术性讲话,这里面信息太多了。So, you could try this, like my student tried: when you get to these hard questions, youre listening to a long lecture by one person, just listen to it.所以你们可以试着这么做,就像我的学生那样:当你们做到这些困难的题目时,你们会听到一个人进行的长讲座,就直接听。And then, when theyre finished speaking, take your full knowledge of everything that you listened to and then choose your answers.然后,等他们讲完了,充分利用你们听到的所有内容,然后选择。So try that, thats my number one tip for these hard questions.试试吧,这是我针对这些难度比较大的题目的第一个技巧。I still think a different approach works in the earlier questions, obviously, if youre listening for a telephone number,我还是认为另一种方法在先前的题目中显然更为奏效,如果你们在听一个电话号码,you dont just let the telephone number go and then say: ;Oh, yes. I remember;, because you wont remember.你们不能直接听过这个电话号码就说“好的,我记住了”,因为你们记不住的。But for the hard questions, that different approach really helps.但是对于难度更大的题目,这个不同的方法非常有用。And I put classification type questions in there, because these are...its a bit like matching, you have to say我把分类型题目放在了那里,因为这些......它和配对题有些像,你们会觉得Oh, this thing goes with this idea, this thing goes with this idea;, and its more complicated.哦,这个事情和这个想法是一起的,这个和这个想法是一起的”,它更复杂一点。So, you really need to have an understanding of everything you listen to, to answer that well.所以要答对那些题目,你们非常需要理解听到的所有内容。So, there are my IELTS tips for you, I wish you a very successful listening exam.以上就是我给你们准备的雅思技巧,希望你们在听力考试中大获成功。Remember, you do need to do the practice, do as much practice as you can, follow my tips, also, Id really like you to do the quiz for this lesson, so go to the engVid site to do the quiz.别忘了,你们真的需要做练习,按照我的技巧尽可能多做练习,还有,我想让你们做一个关于这节课的小测验,所以请登陆engVid网站去做测验吧。But before you go there, please do subscribe here on my channel, and my personal channel, because Ive got two YouTube channels.不过在你们去登陆网站之前,请在这里订阅我的频道,还有我的个人频道,因为我有两个YouTube频道。Id really like to have you subscribe in both places so you get all my s, and, yes, Im finished now, so good luck in your exam.See you later.我非常想让你们两个频道都订阅,这样你们就不会错过任何我的视频啦,是的,我现在讲完了,那么祝你们考试好运啦。再见。201707/516709

栏目简介:Over the next week more than 1,000 science-related activities will be held in town, most of which are open free to the public. Its all part of the annual Shanghai Science Week that begins this Saturday.201702/491698

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