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Iraq announced on Sunday that it had signed an agreement to exchange intelligence with Russia, the latest sign of Moscow’s increasingly ambitious intervention into the fight against Isis.持政府的抗议者在大马士革的俄罗斯使馆外手举叙利亚总统巴沙尔·阿萨德和俄罗斯总统普京的照片Under the new agreement, which also includes Syria and Iran, the Iraqi military said the four countries would share information about the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (Isis).伊拉克上周日宣布,已与俄罗斯签署一项情报交换协议,这一最新迹象表明俄罗斯干预打击“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国(ISIS)行动的愿望越来越强烈。As well increasing the role of Russia in the fight against Isis, the agreement also serves to put the US which has been conducting joint military operations with Iraq against Isis on the back-foot.根据这项最新协议(还包括叙利亚和伊朗),伊拉克军方表示国将分享有关Isis的情报信息。A senior US official later said that Mr Kerry did not discuss the new Iraq-Russia agreement when he met on Sunday with Sergei Lavrov, Russia’s foreign minister.该协议将增强俄罗斯在打击Isis战争中的作用,还会让美国处于被动,美国一直在与伊拉克联合发动打击Isis的军事行动。While the exact nature of the new agreement between Baghdad and Moscow remains unclear, its announcement will probably accelerate criticism in the US and some parts of the region that the Obama administration is seeing its influence over events in the Middle East decline, especially as Russia seeks to play a more decisive role.尽管伊拉克与俄罗斯达成的这项最新协议的具体内容尚不清楚,但这一声明可能会加大美国和该地区其他国家关于奥巴马政府对于中东形势的影响力正在下滑的批评,特别是在俄罗斯希望发挥更决定性作用之际。Two foreign diplomats in Moscow said it was a mistake to view Russia and Iran as the closest allies in the Syria conflict because their interests were diverging as well.莫斯科两位外交官表示,把俄罗斯和伊朗视为在叙利亚的最亲密盟友是错误的,因为两国的利益不同。However, Moscow has been working with Iran and Iraq in certain areas. The Russian military has conducted most of its recent build-up in Syria through Iraqi airspace after other countries closed theirs to its military aircraft at the request of the US.然而,俄罗斯一直在一些领域与伊朗和伊拉克合作。俄罗斯军方最近在叙利亚的增兵多数是通过伊拉克领空完成的,此前其他国家应美国要求向俄罗斯军用飞机关闭了领空。Moreover, Qassem Soleimani, the leader of the Quds Force, the foreign arm of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards Corps, who has been supporting Shia militias fighting Isis in Iraq, held talks in Moscow last month, a visit which sparked US protest, since he is subject to a UN travel ban.另外伊朗伊斯兰革命卫Revolutionary Guards Corps)下属“圣城军Quds Force)指挥官卡西姆苏莱曼尼(Qassem Soleimani)一直持什叶派(Shia)武装力量在伊拉克打击Isis,他上月在莫斯科与俄罗斯举行会谈,此次访问招致美国的反对,因为他是联合国(UN)旅行禁令的对象。来 /201510/401917Sub-Saharan Africa’s vast energy resources could be a catalyst for strong growth in the coming decades, but only if countries push through reforms and upgrade their infrastructures.对于撒哈拉以南非洲地区来说,未来数十年里,丰富的能源资源有望成为其强劲增长的催化剂,但是前提是这些国家必须推进改革并升级基础设施。According to a report released Monday by the International Energy Agency, countries in the region must enact reforms that will attract investors and spend the hundred of billions needed to upgrade aging and poorly functioning infrastructures.国际能源署(International Energy Agency)本周发布的一份报告显示,撒哈拉以南非洲地区的国家必须实施改革来吸引投资者,并投入数千亿美元对陈旧落后的基础设施进行升级改造。The African Energy Outlook found that 30% of global oil and gas discoveries made over the past five years were from sub-Saharan Africa, which includes countries south of the Sahara desert. But at the same time only 290 million out of 915 million people have access to electricity. That figure is only rising.《非洲能源展望》(African Energy Outlook)报告发现,在过去五年里,全球探明的石油和天然气0%来自撒哈拉以南非洲地区——该地区包括撒哈拉沙漠以南的若干国家。但与此同时,在当地9.15亿人口当中,仅有2.9亿人可以使用电力。这个人口基数只会不断增长。Worse, four out of five people in the region depend on firewood and charcoal mainly for cooking due to the lack of electricity. The projection is that figure will rise 40 percent by 2040, putting tropical forests at risk and further contributing to indoor pollution that is aly the second biggest cause of premature death behind AIDS in the region.更糟糕的是,由于电力供应不足,该地区有五分之四的人口主要依靠柴禾和木炭做饭。预计到2040年,数值还将增0%,热带雨林面临砍伐过度的险境,并且将进一步加重室内污染问题——室内污染已成为致使该地区人口早夭的第二大原因,仅次于艾滋病(AIDS)。“When I look at the continent, sub-Saharan Africa is very rich in energy resources and very poor in energy supply and production,IEA Chief Economist FatihBirol told Fortune.“据我了解,撒哈拉以南非洲地区的能源资源非常丰富,但能源供应和生产却极度不足,”国际能源署首席经济学家法蒂赫o比罗尔在接受《财富》(Fortune)杂志的采访时表示。“There is huge potential both for oil and gas and, when it comes to renewables, huge potential for hydropower, wind and solar,he said. “On the other hand, there is very little energy for the people in Africa.”他介绍说:“这些地区蕴藏着巨大的石油和天然气发展潜力,并且在可再生能源方面,比如水电、风能和太阳能,潜力也都非常可观。而另一方面,非洲人民现有的可用能源却极度匮乏。”Africa has long been plagued by the resource curse, where abundant oil, gas and minerals in places like Equatorial Guinea or the Republic of Congo have made a select few rich, led to widesp corruption and left the majority of citizens poor. The energy resources have also sparked conflict in countries such as Sudan and Nigeria, and have contributed to years of coups and political unrest.长期以来,非洲一直处于能源困境。像赤道几内亚或刚果共和国等石油、天然气和矿产资源丰富的国家,有极少的一部分人富了起来,但这些国家腐败泛滥,多数市民仍处于贫困之中。此外,能源资源是苏丹和尼日尼亚等国家地缘冲突的导火索,同时也是该地区长年发生政变和政治动荡的原因之一。That trend is set to continue, the IEA report said, unless countries tackle the range of problems that hinder the energy sector, from widesp oil theft (worth billion a year in Nigeria) to electricity tariffs across the region, which are among the highest in the world. Corruption, too, remains a “major barrierto investment in some countries.国际能源署的报告中显示,除非各国采取措施应对能源领域的一系列问题,比如解决盛行的石油偷盗(每年为尼日利亚造成损失0亿美元)和降低电价(这里是全球电价最高的地区之一),否则情况还会继续恶化。另外,腐败仍是在一些国家投资的“主要障碍”。“There are two major issues here the lack of investment and the second one is the governance issue,Birol said of the need for about 0 million a year across the region for the energy sector.“这里存在两个主要的掣肘——投资匮乏以及政府管理问题,”比罗尔表示,该地区能源业每年需要大.4亿美元的投资。“There are investments coming into the region but our study shows that today out of in Africa is for export-related projects not for the Africans,he said. “We don’t see the investments can come if the governance issue is not fixed.”“有一些投资进入该地区,但是我们的研究显示,目前非洲有三分之二的投资都是出口相关项目,而不是务于非洲人民,”他评价说,“在我们看来,如果政府管理问题得不到解决,就不可能吸引投资。”Meike van Ginneken, a World Bank expert on energy for west and central Africa, said she saw a lot of potential for hydropower, geothermal and natural gas across the region but agreed “investment needed to be increased tremendouslyespecially from the private sector and the building of power delivery systems.世界(World Bank)中西非能源专家梅克o范o辛内肯认为,该地区的水电、地热和天然气开发潜力巨大,但是她同时承认“这需要增加大量的投资”,尤其是来自于私营部门的投资,还需要加强电力输送系统的建设。“The question is how do you translate these large resources into increased access?Van Ginneken said. “What you need for that is a lot of infrastructure, functioning utilities and a lot of money. While there is a lot investment in energy in Africa in the past five years, there has a period of two decades where there was very little investment. So, Africa is catching up.”“问题是,如何将这些巨量的资源转变为更多的电力供应?”范o辛内肯说,“这就需要大量的基础设施、高效的公用事业部门以及大量的投资。过去二十年来对非洲的投资非常少,但最近五年来能源投资的规模较大。所以,非洲正在迎头赶上。”To ensure that the energy resources improve living standards and contribute to stronger economic growth by 2040, the report calls for investment of an additional 0 billion in the power sector. It also calls for regional cooperation that could lead to large-scale generation and transmission projects as well as the adoption of “robust and transparentprocesses that would result in “more effective useof oil and gas revenues.该报告指出,为了确保040年非洲的能源资源有效改善该地区的生活水平,并且促进经济增长,需要对能源部门增加4,500亿美元的投资。此外,该报告还呼吁,进行区域合作来促成大规模的发电及输电项目,以及采取“严格透明”的管理流程来“更为有效地利用”油气收入。As part of its billion in energy investments in Africa, van Ginneken said the World Bank has supported regional cooperation including the 1 million in guarantees this year for the Banda Gas-to-Power Project which will produce and convert natural gas from offshore gas fields in Mauritania into 300 megawatts of new electricity for the country and for export to Mali and Senegal.范o辛内肯指出,作为110亿美元能源投资的一部分,世界对区域合作的持包括今年为班达天然气发电项目(Banda Gas-to-Power Project)提供的2.61亿美元担保,该项目利用毛里塔尼亚近海天然气田的天然气,可为该国新00兆瓦电力,并可出口到马里和塞内加尔。They are also investing in regional transmission grids and setting up rural electrification projects including min-grids and off-grid solar power.这些项目还包括对区域电网及农村电气化改造的投资,如微型电网和离网太阳能发电。“Regional cooperation and regional power grids will play an important role in bringing down cost which will make it more attractive for the private sector and more affordable for households,van Ginneken said.范o辛内肯进一步介绍说:“区域合作和搭建区域电网在降低成本方面非常关键,对私营部门更具吸引力,家庭用户也更容易负担。”If some of the changes are enacted, renewables could also take off with the IEA projecting they could represent almost half the growth in electricity generation by 2040. Hydro, for example, represents 20% of the region’s power supply currently but only 10% of its technical potential has been realized.如果实施一些变革,可再生能源也可以迎来新的发展机遇。据国际能源署预计,040年,可再生能源将占新增电力的一半左右。例如,水电目前占电力供给的20%,但仅有10%的技术潜力得到了利用。Alex Rugamba, director of the Energy, Environment and Climate Change Department at the African Development Bank, agreed that renewables offer a chance for the continent to pursue a greener path than the one chose by its more developed neighbors.非洲开发(African Development Bank)能源、环境及气候变化部门(Energy, Environment and Climate Change Department)主任阿历克斯o鲁甘马指出,他也承认,对可再生能源的利用,将使得非洲有望走上比其周边的发达国家更为环保的发展道路。“Certainly, the potential is high and we are seeing very good take up of all sorts of geothermal, wind, solar and, of course, hydro. We are definitely committed,Rugamba said, adding that the bank has doubled its financing to the sector to .3 million from 2007 to 2012.鲁甘马说:“确实,(非洲的)各种能源,包括地热、风胀?太阳能,当然还有水电,潜力都非常大。我们肯定都会大力开发。”他还指出,2007年至2012年,非洲开发对能源部门的融资增加了一倍,达到430万美元。Among the challenges, he said, were the high, upfront capital cost of solar and the lack of private sector investment into the geothermal sector. “The private sector is often reluctant about geothermal without proven reserves of steam,Rugamba said. “There are some schemes underway to mitigate those risk so we get more private investment into geothermal.”他表示,可再生能源发展所遇到的挑战包括太阳能高昂的前期资本投入,以及私营部门对地热行业投资的缺乏。“在蒸汽储量没有探明的情况下,私营部门通常不愿意投资地热资源。”鲁甘马介绍说,“目前有一些降低此类风险的计划正在酝酿之中,以吸引更多私营投资进入地热资源领域。”Both van Ginneken and Birol said they were confident Africa will make the changes necessary in the energy sector, which the IEA projected could boost the economy 30% by 2040.范o辛内肯和比罗尔均表示,他们有足够的信心相信,非洲会在能源行业做出必要的改革,国际能源署预测,040年该行业可推动当地经济增0%。Birol said he is aly seeing several countries take the lead in reforming their energy sectors, including Nigeria, South Africa, Ghana and Rwanda. Angola, meanwhile, is poised to overtake Nigeria as the continents biggest energy producer while Tanzania and Mozambique are set to take advantage of significant natural gas discoveries.比罗尔表示,他已经看到几个国家率先对能源行业进行改革,其中包括尼日利亚、南非、加纳和卢旺达。与此同时,安哥拉正蓄势待发,有望取代尼日利亚成为非洲大陆最大的能源生产国,而坦桑尼亚和莫桑比克也计划充分利用其丰富的天然气资源。“I see a momentum being built in many African countries that are understanding the critical importance of energy and making some energy sector reforms,he said. “I see hope there with good governance especially with better management. We could see the energy sector provide a strong trigger for economic growth on the continent.”“我看到一些非洲国家开始认识到能源的重要性,并且积极进行能源改革,这种势头正在不断增长,”他说,“从好的治理模式,特别是有所改善的管理方式中,我看到了希望。我们有理由期待,能源业将成为带动非洲大陆经济增长的有力引擎。”Van Ginneken agreed, saying she has seen significant changes since she has been covering the sector the past seven years.范o辛内肯对此表示认同。她指出,在过去七年对能源行业的持续关注中,她已经看到了一些重要的变化。“I certainly see Africa turning a corner,she said. “The investment in the energy sector in the past few years has been much higher than the two decades before. This is translating into more access to resources, transparency is being improved and the potential of Africa with finds of gas and geothermal in the Rift Valley (in East Africa) is tremendous.”“我的确看到非洲在转变。”她肯定地说,“过去几年能源业的投资比过去二十年高出很多。这意味着可利用的能源资源有所增加,透明度也在得到改善,在非洲大裂谷(Rift Valley,位于东非)发现的天然气和地热资源也昭示着未来的巨大潜力。 /201410/336507The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Isis) is earning as much as m a day through the sale of oil to some of its biggest enemies: middlemen from Turkey, Iraq’s Kurdish community and the regime of Bashar al-Assad, according to the US Treasury.The remarks made in a speech to the Carnegie Foundation on Wednesday by undersecretary for terrorism and financial intelligence David Cohen are likely to raise eyebrows in a region where questions are aly being asked over Ankara’s commitment to fighting Isis and Kurdish fighters are battling to avoid being over-run by the jihadis in the Syrian city of Kobani.“We have made our position very clear on this issue. Both Minister of Foreign Affairs Mevlüt #199;avu#351;o#287;lu and Minister of Energy Taner Y#305;ld#305;z have repeatedly denied that oil has been sold by [Isis] to Turkey,said Tanju Bilgi#231;, the ministry of foreign affairs spokesperson.“We expect our allies to share with us intelligence rather than publicly accuse Turkey. Turkey fights the smuggling of oil with determination [and] confiscated 78m litres of smuggled oil last year.”Iraqi Kurdish officials also issued strong denials. “We have never heard accusations of [the government] being involved. The KRG [Kurdistan Regional Government] doesn’t buy oil from anyone we sell it. We produce about 150,000 bpd [barrels per day] and even more than that is refined,said Eizzat Sabir, an MP in the KRG parliament.He added that there were reports of soldiers helping middlemen sell petrol into Isis-controlled areas. “Right now there are two soldiers who have been arrested over this and are being investigated,he said.Mr Cohen’s speech amounts to one of the most detailed official and public assessments of Isis financial strength to date and underscores the extent to which its brutal zealotry is underwritten by pragmatic methods to boost its power and resources.Though western intelligence officials have long-described the group as the most financially powerful terrorist organisation they have ever confronted, exact details on the jihadi group’s financial clout, and the sources of its wealth, have so far been rarely provided in public. 美国财政Treasury)表示,通过向部分最大敌手出售石油,“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国Isis)每天能获得高00万美元的利润。这些购买ISIS石油的人们包括来自土耳其、伊拉克库尔德人社区和巴沙尔#8226;阿萨Bashar al- Assad)政权的中间人。以上这种说法是美国财政部负责反恐和金融情报事务的副部长戴维#8226;科恩(David Cohen)在卡内基国际和平研究Carnegie Endowment For International Peace)的一个讲话中发表的,它很可能会引发该地区人们的不快。在当地,已经有人对土耳其政府抗击ISIS的决心提出了质疑。与此同时,在叙利亚的科巴尼镇,库尔德武装力量正在激烈战斗,以避免被这些圣战分子赶出该镇。土耳其外交部发言人坦#8226;比尔吉奇(Tanju Bilgi#231;)表示:“对于这个问题,我们已非常明确地表达了我们的立场。土耳其外交部长梅夫吕特#8226;恰武什奥卢(Mevlüt #199;avu#351;o#287;lu)和能源部长塔内尔#8226;耶尔德兹(Taner Y#305;ld#305;z)都曾反复重申,土耳其并未购买过(ISIS的)石油。”“我们希望我们的盟国应分享他们获得的情报,而不是公开指责土耳其。土耳其一直在坚决打击石油走私,去年曾没收800万升走私石油。”伊拉克库尔德官员也对这种说法予以强烈否认。库尔德斯坦地区政府(KRG)议员埃塞#8226;萨比Eizzat Sabir)表示:“我们从来没听到过有关(政府)曾参与此事的指控。KRG从未从任何人手里购买石油——我们是出售石油的。我们每天会生产大约15万桶石油,我们提炼的石油更多。”他补充说,曾有报道称有士兵帮助中间人将汽油销往ISIS控制的地区。他说:“目前,有两名士兵因此事被捕,此案正在调查之中。”到目前为止,科恩的说法差不多是官方对ISIS经济实力的公开评估中最具细节的一个。也从一个方面表明了ISIS的务实程度,他们用十分实用的方式扩充其拥有的资源,提升其影响力,并为其野蛮的狂热行为保驾护航。来 /201410/338099

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