明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月16日 13:07:11
Science and technology科学技术Pilotless aircraft无人机Giving drones a thumbs up向无人机打手势How to integrate the control of piloted and pilotless aircraft如何让指挥有人机的方法适用于无人机DECK officers on American aircraft carriers use hand gestures to guide planes around their vessels.在美国的航空母舰上,甲板指挥员会用手势指挥母舰附近的飞机。These signals are fast, efficient and perfect for a noisy environment.这种信号快速、高效,而且十分适用于嘈杂的环境。Unfortunately, they work only with people.但遗憾的是,只有人才能读懂这些手势。They are utterly lost on robotic drones—and even if a drone is under the control of a remote pilot deep in the bowels of the ship,在无人机上,这一套完全失效;而即便有飞行员在船舱深处远程操控这架飞机,that pilot often has difficulty ing them.他往往也很难识别那些手势。Since drones are becoming more and more important in modern warfare, this is a nuisance.这是个麻烦,因为无人机在现代战争里变得越来越重要了。Life would be easier for all if drones were smart enough to respond directly to a deck officers gesticulations.若无人机的智能达到了足以直接响应甲板指挥员手势的程度,那一切都会好很多。Making them that smart is the goal of Yale Song, a computer scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.让无人机具备这样的智能是麻省理工学院计算机科学家Yale Song的目标。He is not there yet but,这个目标虽尚未达成,as he reports in ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems,不过正如他在《美国计算机学会交互式智能系统学报》所报告的,he and his colleagues David Demirdjian and Randall Davis have developed a promising prototype.他和他的同事David Demirdjian和Randall Davis已开发了一个很有前景的原型系统。To try teaching drones the language of hand signals Mr Song and his colleagues made a series of s in which various deck officers performed to camera a set of 24 commonly used gestures.为了让无人机读懂手语,Yale Song和他的同事制作了一系列视频,视频记录了多位甲板指挥员对着摄象机摆出的24个常用手势。They then fed these s into an algorithm of their own devising that was designed to analyse the position and movement of a human body, and told the algorithm what each gesture represented.然后他们用一个自己设计的算法来处理这些视频,并让算法知道每个手势的意义。The idea was that the algorithm would learn the association and, having seen the same gesture performed by different people,他们的设想是,该算法会记住每个手势所对应的意义,而在对不同人摆出的相同手势进行处理后能够概括出手势本身的意义,would be able to generalise what was going on and thus recognise gestures performed by strangers.从而识别任何人摆出的手势。Unfortunately, it did not quite work out like that.很遗憾,实际与预想的不太一样。In much the same way that spoken language is actually a continuous stream of sound,其实指挥飞行员所用的手语和人说的话差不多。so the language of gestures to pilots is also continuous, with one flowing seamlessly into the next.后者实际上是一串连续的声音,而手语同样也是连续的,因为两个动作之间是连贯的。And the algorithm could not cope with that.但该算法无法处理这种连续的信息。To overcome this difficulty Mr Song imposed gaps by chopping the s up into three-second blocks.为了解决这个问题,Yale Song以3秒为一段将视频截开,在各段之间插入时间间隔。That allowed the computer time for reflection.这样就给计算机留出了响应时间。Its accuracy was also increased by interpreting each block in light of those immediately before and after it,同时识别的准确率也有所提高。因为这样计算机就能根据前一段及后一段的视频来理解当前这一段,to see if the result was a coherent message of the sort a deck officer might actually wish to impart.看看结果是不是那种甲板指挥员可能真的想摆出的有特定意义的手势。The result is a system that gets it right three-quarters of the time.他们最终做出了一个正确率为75%的系统。Obviously that is not enough:显然,那样是不够的:you would not entrust the fate of a multi-million-dollar drone to such a system.你不会将一架价值数百万美元的无人机交给这样的系统。But it is a good start.但这是个好的开始。If Mr Song can push the accuracy up to that displayed by a human pilot, then the task of controlling activity on deck should become a lot easier.若Yale Song能将无人机识别手势的正确率提高至与真人飞行员相当,那么在甲板指挥无人机会容易得多。 /201307/247186

the river slowly winds its way around the bank, known as Echo Corner.河水慢慢在河岸蜿蜒,因此这里被称为回声角。Right, lets test out the name of Echo Corner.是的,我们看看回声角是不是名不虚传。HELLO! Not bad!你好!不坏啊!Echo Corner is where the Angrabies Gorge starts in earnest.回声角是安格拉贝斯峡谷的开始处。Upstream towards the Falls, valley tightens on the cliffs rise up,在瀑布上游, 悬崖上的山谷开始变得陡峭,so this might be the last chance to see the Orange River in such a peace state.所以这可能是最后一次机会在这样一个和平的国家看到橙色的河。201311/263041

  The national parks desginated three-day trail isnt for the faint-hearted. 国家公园指定三天的考验唯独不适合胆小者。You need to carry all your own equipment, food and water. 你需要备足所有你自己的装备,食物和水。And theres no electricity or showers on hand.而且手边没有电力,也不能淋浴。This walk is closed for five months of the year because of the heat. 这一旅途一年中有5个月因为天气炎热而关闭。And today I can understand why.时至今日我才理解个中缘由。And the further you climb away from the only water in the park, the more you realize how little shelter there really is. 你攀爬的离公园唯一水源越远,你就越清楚离遮蔽所越远。But the climb leads me to a high point, called, the best possible view of the Orange River.但是攀爬带给我无上荣耀,那里可有最好的奥兰治河美景在等待你。What a gorgeous gorge! 多么壮观的峡谷!She is a beauty! 她简直美不胜收!Definitely worth all that hard work to get up here.能够到达这里所有的努力都绝对值得。201309/258217


  Business商业报道Corporate governance in America美国的企业管治Heating up逐渐升温Shareholders are ever more willing to vote against management股东永远愿意对管理者投反对票TWENTY years ago Bob Monks bought an ad in the Wall Street Journal declaring members of the board of Sears, to which he hoped to be elected,non-performing assets.20年前,鲍勃.蒙克斯在华尔街日报刊登了一则广告,宣称西尔斯百货的董事会成员是不良资产, 在此之前,他渴望被选中的成为其中之一,可惜没有。Nowadays, shareholder activists just create a website.现今,股东维权主义者只需创建一个网站即可。On April 2nd Dan Loeb, a hedge-fund boss, launched valueyahoo.com, which brims with proposals for reviving the struggling web firm.4月2号,一个对冲基金的老板丹·勒布,建立一个valueyahoo.com网站,公布了各种拯救雅虎这不景气网络公司的方案。Mr Loeb is trying to get himself elected to Yahoo!s board against the wishes of its managers—a fight that could be the highlight of the annual corporate proxy season that is getting under way.勒布先生正尝试违背公司管理层的意愿,令自己被选进雅虎的董事会。一场可能成为公司年度股东大会期间的焦点战争正准备打响。He may win the shareholder vote, if Yahoo! does not strike a deal with him first.一旦雅虎没有预先和他达成协议,他可能赢得股东们的选票。Several hedge funds are urging shareholders to give boards a good kicking.几个对冲基金正说股东们给董事会一个下马威。Starboard Value has nominated five candidates to the board of AOL, another ailing web firm.Starboard Value已经给另一间衰落的网络公司—美国在线的董事会里提名了五名候选人。On April 2nd Pershing Square added a seventh candidate to the alternative slate of directors it has nominated to the board of Canadian Pacific Railway.4月2号,波欣广场在已经提命的加拿大太平洋铁路公司董事会候选人中增加第七位候选人作为董事的替代人。Shareholder activism isgetting back to normal after the financial crisis of 2008, says Peter Harkins of D.F. King, a firm that advises participants in proxy contests.股东激进主义在2008年经济危机后现正回归到正常。D.F. King的皮得.哈更斯说,D.F. King是一间为代理权争夺的参与者提供咨询的公司。It is not just hedge funds that are flexing their shareholderly muscles. Pension funds are at it, too.不仅仅是对冲基金显示了他们的股东权力。On March 27th it was reported that Goldman Sachs had made peace with the pension fund of the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees,养老基金同样如此。在3月27号,据报道,高盛投资公司与美国养老基金会以及美国工会达成协议,which had proposed a resolution to split the roles of chief executive and chairman, both of which are held by Lloyd Blankfein.工会在为分离首席执行官与董事会提出了解决方案,而此前两个职位都是由贝兰克梵担任的。The bank convinced AFSCME to withdraw its proposal by agreeing to appoint alead director to keep Mr Blankfein in check.高盛同意任命一个首席董事以限制贝兰克梵,以此说美国工会会撤销它的方案。The union has made similar proposals at several firms, including JPMorgan Chase, whose boss AFSCMEs president calls themost dangerous man in America.该联合会在几间公司都采用了类似的方法,包括JP根大通—美国工会主席称他们的老板为美国最危险的男人。Rupert Murdoch, the embattled chairman and chief executive of News Corporation, will face a motion that he surrender his chairmanship to someone independent.鲁伯特.默多克,一个新闻公司备受争议的董事会主席兼首席执行官,将面临一项移交他的主席身份给某个独立人的变动。Two other issues are expected to attract scrutiny from shareholders this year.另外两个问题今年将有望得到股东们的严格审查。One is bosses pay.一个是领导者的工资。Investors will showa little more backbone in curbing it,having rather fluffed it last year,投资者将在处理这一问题上显示更大的决心,去年已经付出了很多,predicts Anne Simpson, who oversees the corporate-governance activities of CalPERS, a giant pension fund for Californias public employees.辛普森组织认为,该组织负责监督加州公务员基金—这一巨型的加利福尼亚公务员的养老基金的管理活动。Many boards struggled to win 70% support for pay packages last year, the first time such votes were required.许多董事会通过抗争,去年在薪酬福利当面赢得了约70%持,第一次被要求进行这样的投票。This year, several could lose the vote unless they have linked pay more explicitly to performance, reckons Paul Hodgson of GMI Ratings, a firm that measures corporate governance.今年,一些董事会可能会失去票数,除非他们把工资与绩效明确地挂钩起来。GMI评级机构的保罗-霍奇森这样指出,GMI是一间评估公司治理的公司。Perhaps the most contentious resolutions will be those demanding that firms be more transparent about their political spending,可能最有争议的解决方案是那些要求公司在关于政治方面的花费更加透明,and requiring boards to ensure that this money is used in the interests of shareholders, not managers.且同时要求董事会确保这些钱被用到符合股东的利益上而不是管理层。This effort is being fiercely resisted.这一方案被强烈地抵制。The US Chamber of Commerce argues that these resolutions, which mostly come from shareholders who are also trade unions or social activists, are not in the best interests of the firms concerned.美国商会认为这些解决方案,大多数是由来自工会或者是社会活动家的股东们提出,方案并不符合公司所关注的最大利益。Jim Copland of the Manhattan Institute, a think-tank, says thatsome of these proposals may serve primarily to chill corporate political speech broadly,一个曼哈顿研究所的智囊团,吉姆.科普兰认为其中的一些建议中的可能主要是为广泛地冻结公司政治性言论,including on issues that most diversified shareholders—as distinguished from the proposals sponsors—might prefer that the corporations views be heard.其中包括关于股东多样化的问题,有别于建议赞助商,这些股东们可能更喜欢公司的意见被听到。Well, maybe. But, as with the other issues on the proxy this year, that is for shareholders to decide.也许是这样。但就像今年董事会中的其他问题一样,这都将由股东们去决定。 /201306/243944

  Most of us are familiar with calluses.对于“老茧”,我们都很熟悉。These extra-tough patches of skin are generally quite useful-wemight even say handy-because they act like a kind of natural armor, protecting areas of skin thatget an unusual amount of wear and tear.这些皮肤上突出的硬皮是很有用的,也可以说是方便,因为他们扮演着保护常磨损皮肤的天然盔甲的角色。Have you ever wondered exactly what a callus is, or howit forms on your skin?你是否思考过什么是老茧?他又是怎样形成的?Callus formation is triggered by pressure or abrasion.老茧是由压力和擦而形成。The heel of your foot as it rubs inside yourshoe, or the palm of your hand if youre doing a lot of manual labor are good examples of this.脚后跟的茧是由其在鞋里擦而形成,正如手茧是在大量的劳动过程中形成。While it might feel like a callus is something extra, added to your skin, its actually just a build-up ofwhats aly there.尽管看起来似乎是皮肤上多出的部分,然而事实是已经存在的皮肤角质的累积。Your skin has a number of layers of different types of cells.皮肤是由若干层不同类型的皮肤构成。The outermost is a layer of hardened, dead cells.表层是一些坏死的硬细胞,This top layer is usually about twenty-five cellsthick, and it constantly replaces itself as the outermost cells flake off to be replaced by new hardened, dead cells underneath.通常有25个细胞那么厚,表层细胞不断的脱落,取而代之的是下层硬的坏死细胞,由此而完成自我更替过程。If your skin is subject to an unusual amount of friction, this layer of dead cells increases.假如皮肤受到不寻常量的擦,这层坏死细胞将会增加,New deadcells are added faster than the old ones slough away.新的坏死细胞增长速度比旧细胞脱落的速度快,This can build up the outer layer fromtwenty-five cells thick to over a hundred cells thick.这就致使皮肤表层的厚度增加到100个细胞那么厚,Youve grown a callus.由此,老茧便形成。While calluses are generally useful, if the process continues unchecked a callus can thicken into acone-shaped structure called a corn.虽然一般来讲,茧是有益的,但如不控制其过程,老茧厚度就会增加到被称作鸡眼的锥形结构,These super calluses can be quite painful, and may require the attention of a doctor.那样就会很疼,甚至需要去看医生。 201407/312308The People’s Bank of China lifted restrictions on commercial interest rates, leaving lenders free to set the price of credit for the first time. By removing the floor on rates, previously set at 70% of the central bank’s benchmark interest rate, officials hope to increase competition among banks and spur lending to private companies.中国人民全面放开贷款利率管制。首次允许金融机构自行设定贷款利率。取消金融机构贷款利率0.7倍下限,官方希望增加间的竞争力,刺激贷款流向私企。The EU’s controversial Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive came into force. The AIFMD, which will be phased in over a year, aims to change the way hedge funds, buy-out firms and other alternative-investment companies in Europe deal with risk, market their funds and pay staff. The industry fears that the new rules will serve mainly to raise costs to investors.欧盟富有争议的另类投资基金经理指令生效。此指令会在一年多的时间里逐渐施行,目的在于改变对冲基金,收购公司和其他另类投资公司在欧洲风险管理,规范自己基金以及员工工资的方式。欧洲金融业害怕新规则会增加投资者的花费。The Financial Stability Board, which co-ordinates financial regulation for the G20, named nine insurers, including Allianz, MetLife and Prudential, as “systemically important”. The designation, hitherto reserved for big banks, entails closer regulatory scrutiny and higher capital requirements. The insurers argue that lumping them with lenders is unfair because of their fundamentally different risk profiles.协调G20金融管理的金融稳定委员会指名包括安联,大都会人寿和保诚集团在内的9个保险公司具有系统重要性。这个称号,迄今为止只有有,现在则意味着监管更加严格,资金要求更高。保险公司辩解道,将他们同相提并论对他们不公平,因为他们本质上截然不同的风险形象。The G20 endorsed a roadmap drawn up by the OECD, a rich-country club, for reforming the current patchwork of cross-border tax rules and treaties. Its 15 proposals should make it harder for companies to exploit the existing system’s many loopholes.G20签署了一个经合组织规划的路线图,经合组织是一个富国俱乐部,该路线图是为了改革现有拼凑起来的边境税规则。该路线图的15项提议会使得公司钻现有制度的空子变得困难。America’s Securities and Exchange Commission charged Steven Cohen in a probe centred on his hedge fund, SAC Capital. The SEC did not accuse Mr Cohen directly of insider trading, but filed a civil suit against him for failing “reasonably to supervise” two underlings, who now await criminal trial for it. SAC vowed to fight the charge.美国券交易委员会控告赛科资本的Steven Cohen,并对其对冲基金展开调查。券交易委员会并没有直接起诉Mr Cohen内幕交易,而是因其没能有效监督两位即将面临牢狱之灾的下属而对其提起民事诉讼。赛克资本说要应对诉讼。A federal appeals court upheld a verdict reached last year by a jury in Texas to invalidate two patents covering some of the internet’s basic interactive features. This put an end to a protracted legal battle which pitted a clutch of big web firms, including Amazon and Google, against the patents’ owner, Eolas Technologies, which was seeking damages of at least 0m.联邦上诉法庭对去年德州一名法官对两个涉及互联网基础交互的专利侵权宣告无效的判决予以肯定。这宣告了陷入官司的包括亚马逊和谷歌在内的网络巨头们同原告,即专利的拥有者Eolas Technologies的纠纷结束。Eolas Technologies公司索要至少6亿美元的赔偿。Yahoo said it will buy back 40m shares, valued at .2 billion, from Third Point, a hedge fund headed by Daniel Loeb. Shares in the internet giant have almost doubled in value since the activist investor helped to boot out Scott Thompson and install Marissa Mayer as boss a year ago. Third Point will keep a stake of less than 2% in Yahoo, worth around 0m, but Mr Loeb and two directors he nominated will leave the board.雅虎宣告要从Daniel Loeb领导的对冲基金Third Point回购4000万股股票,价值12亿美元。自从一年前维权投资者帮着解雇掉Scott Thompson,任命Marissa Mayer当老板以来,雅虎这一网络巨头的股价已经翻了一番。Third Point将持有雅虎不到2%的股份,价值5亿美元左右,但是Mr Loeb和他任命的两个主管将离开董事会。Michael Dell and Silver Lake Partners, a private-equity firm, raised their offer for the computer-maker Mr Dell founded by 10 cents, to .75 a share. A vote by Dell shareholders on whether to accept the buy-out bid, currently valued at .4 billion, was postponed for the second time.迈克尔·戴尔和私募公司银湖资本向戴尔公司提出收购提案。该电脑公司由戴尔先生创立,股价从每股10分增加到了现在的每股13.75美元。戴尔股东关于此次收购的投票再次推迟,此次收购金额达244亿美元。Apple made a profit of .9 billion in the second quarter, down from .8 billion last year but higher than many analysts had expected, thanks to soaring demand for iPhones. The gadget-maker shifted 31.2m smartphones in the three months to June, 5.2m more than a year ago. Sales of its tablet computers, though, were disappointing: only 14.6m iPads were sold between April and June, down from 17m last year.苹果第二季度利润达69亿美元,与去年同期的88亿美元相比有所下降,但高于很多分析师的预期。这得归功于iphone的强烈需求。该公司四到六月智能手机的销售量为3120万,比去年多520万。然而,其平板电脑的销售量则令人失望,同期只卖出了1460万台,相比去年的1700万有所下降。EasyJet flew 16.4m passengers in the three months to June, up 2.6% on last year. The budget airline’s revenue grew by 10.5% in the second quarter, to £1.14 billion (.75 billion), as frugal consumers snapped up cheap holiday flights well in advance.易捷航空二季度运送旅客达1640万人次,与去年同期相比增加了2.6%。由于节俭的旅客提前抢订假期机票,其二季度应收增加了10.5%,达到了11.4亿英镑,也就是17.5亿美元.SAP announced that it will not replace Jim Hagemann Snabe, one of its two joint chief executives, when he moves to the supervisory board in May 2014. That will leave Bill McDermott, an American, alone at the helm of the German software giant.SAP公司宣布在Jim Hagemann Snabe于2014年五月调任到监事会后,将不会有人接任其首席执行官的职务。这意味着美国人Bill McDermott将会自己掌控德国软件巨头。Caterpillar’s second-quarter sales fell to .6 billion, from .3 billion a year earlier, and profits sank by 43%, to 0m. The world’s biggest maker of earth-moving equipment benefited from a decade of insatiable demand for diggers in places like China but feels the pinch as growth in emerging markets slows.卡特皮勒二季度销售额从去年同期的173亿美元下降到了今年的146亿,利润也减少了43%,只有9.6亿美元。这个世界上最大的土方挖掘机械公司在受益于像中国这种地方对挖掘机的猛烈需求之后感到了新兴市场增长的放缓。Bentley Motors announced that it would invest £800m (.2 billion) in its factory in Crewe. The high-end carmaker, based in Britain but owned by Germany’s Volkswagen, plans to expand the plant to build its first sport-utility vehicle, which it says will be the “most luxurious and most powerful”, and probably most expensive, in the world.宾利汽车宣布将在其克鲁郡的工厂增加8亿英镑(12亿美元)的投资。这个高端汽车生产商位于英国,但是隶属于德国的大众,计划扩建工厂开发第一款SUV,这会是世界上最奢华动力最强劲,可能也是最贵的汽车。Mark Carney, the Bank of England’s Canadian governor, picked Jane Austen, the inventor of chick lit, as the next face to appear on the back of new £10 notes.英格兰的加拿大主管Mark Carney选了小妞文学的创造者,简奥斯丁作为新的10英镑的背面图案。201308/251079

  And farming fuelled the growth of another habitat, one that would become an even bigger challenge to North Americas wildlife. The modern city was born. The city is an artificial environment, built around the needs of millions of people, and yet it also offers unexpected opportunities for wildlife. 农耕推动了另一个种族栖息地的发展,这个栖息地对于北美野生动物来说是一个更大的挑战,这就是现代都市。城市是由人类创作的一种环境,这种环境能够满足几百万人的生活需要,然而它也为野生动物提供了一些意想不到的生存机会。This burrowing owl lives in one of the biggest high-tech urban sprawls of North America. It maintains a tenacious foothold in Silicon Valley. Burrowing owls originally lived on open prairies, but theyve been forced to adapt to city life because the urban environment has grown around them. They survive by occupying any tiny sliver of grassland that remains. Like many city animals, they take advantage of the darkness to protect them and move around mostly at night. These adaptable birds traditionally nest in the burrows of prairie dogs. But in the city, a piece of old pipe will do. The parents split their duties. The father does much of the hunting. But in this case, its the mother that actually feeds the chicks. The burrowing owls ability to hover gives it time to judge an attack before pouncing on its prey.这只穴鴞生活在北美最大的高科技现代都市之一。在硅谷中有着适合他们的落脚点。穴鴞原本生活在开阔的大草原上,但是由于城市在它们身边拔地而起,它们不得不适应城市生活。它们依靠城市中仅存的草地生存。和许多城市动物一样,它们利用黑暗保护自己并大多时候于夜晚行动。这些适应了新环境的鸟儿原本将巢穴驻在草原犬鼠的洞穴中。但是在城市中,一根陈旧的管道就足够它们栖息。鸟儿父母分工行动。父亲主要工作是捕食。但在这种情况,真正喂食小鸟的确是母亲。穴鴞盘旋的能力使它可以在扑向猎物前做出准确判断。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201312/267293


  Finance and economics财经商业Reforming Chinas state-owned firms改革中国国有企业From SOE to GLC从国有企业到国联企业Chinas rulers look to Singapore for tips on portfolio management中国领导人指望得到新加坡关于投资组合管理的指点SHORTLY before his confirmation as Chinas paramount leader in 1978, Deng Xiaoping paid a visit to fast-growing Singapore.1978年,邓小平被任命为中国最高领导人前夕,他对高速发展的新加坡进行了访问。He planted a tree on a hill overlooking Jurong, a bustling industrial park built on what was once marshy wasteland close to the city-states harbour.他在俯瞰裕廊的一座山上种植了一棵树,裕廊是建于城市港口附近的一个蓬勃发展的工业园区,那里曾经是一个不毛之地。Singapores success as a trading hub impressed Deng, who imposed his vision of economic reform on Chinas Communist Party the following month, at an historic meeting known as the third plenum.新加坡成功成为一个贸易枢纽给邓小平留下了深刻的印象,他在访问新加坡后的一个月,在那个具有历史意义的三中全会上,向中国共产党提出了有关经济改革的设想。Singapore, which has a population of 5m to Chinas 1.35 billion, remains a source of inspiration for some Chinese reformers.对于中国一些改革家来说,拥有500万人口的新加坡与拥有13.5亿人口的中国相比,仍然具有激励作用。On the eve of the latest third plenum, held earlier this month, the Development Research Centre, a government think-tank, advertised an ambitious set of reform proposals, including an overhaul of Chinas inefficient state-owned enterprises.本月初期举行的十八届三中全会前夕,政府智囊团国务院发展研究中心公布了一系列雄心勃勃的改革提议,包括彻底改革中国低效国有企业。Simply privatising these companies remains out of the question for Chinas leaders.仅仅将这些企业私有化对中国领导人来说是不可能的。But there are alternatives, and Singapore provides one.但是他们还有其他选择,新加坡就提供了一个选项。The DRCs plan named Temasek, a holding company for SOEs in Singapore, as a potential model.国务院发展研究中心计划把新加坡国有企业控股公司淡马锡公司作为一个可能的模型。It was created in 1974, when it inherited 35 companies from the finance ministry.淡马锡公司成立于1974年,它从新加坡财政部手中接手了35家国有企业。Its inaugural portfolio contained several of the firms that made Jurong eye-catching, including its shipyard and its birdpark.它成立的投资组合包括几个使得裕廊引人注目的公司,包括其造船厂和飞禽公园。In the four decades since, Temaseks portfolio has both multiplied and gone forth: only 30% of its holdings remain in Singapore itself.从那时起后四十年,裕廊的投资组合不仅迅速增加,还不断发展:只有30%的控股还在新加坡手上。Its domestic holdings are concentrated in what Singapore calls government-linked companies, such as Singapore Airlines and SingTel, a telecoms company.其国内股份集中在新加坡称为国联企业手中,例如新加坡航空,电信公司SingTel。Temaseks charter obliges it to increase the value of its holdings over the long term.淡马锡公司的章程迫使他们在长期增加他们股份的价值。This is a remarkably simple aim compared with the Chinese governments manifold ambitions.这相对于中国政府各种各样的雄心壮志来说明显是一个简单明确的目标。It wants its holdings to promote technological progress, favoured industries and national security, among other things.此外,他们还希望他们的股份能推进技术进步,推动中意的工业发展和国家安全。As well as clarifying objectives, the Temasek model also allows the state to distance itself from the management of its enterprises, without relinquishing ownership.除了阐明目标以外,淡马锡模型还准许国家在不放弃所有权的情况下,拉开自己与企业管理的距离。Temasek avoids meddling in the day-to-day running of the GLCs in its portfolio, which are free to hire professional managers at market rates.淡马锡模型避免了对国联企业投资组合日常管理的干预,这样可以随意以市场价雇佣专业的管理人才。With a few exceptions, it does not directly appoint board members either.除了几个例外,淡马锡公司也不直接任命董事会成员。This is partly because it does not want to become privy to price-sensitive information that might limit its ability to trade shares.这样做部分原因是因为它不想获准接触那些可能会限制其自身交易股份能力的价格敏感的信息。Temasek has evolved into an active investor, but not an activist one, says Stephen Forshaw, its chief spokesman.淡马锡公司首席发言人史蒂芬福肖说,淡马锡公司已经逐步发展成了一个活跃的投资者,但不是一个积极分子。Although it does not appoint directors, it does meet regularly with its wards boards to make its feelings known.虽然淡马锡不任命董事,它定期与其监管董事会开会,让董事会知道他们的想法。It also keeps managers on their toes by enlisting outside consultants, such as Bain or McKinsey, to spot industrial trends they should be aware of.它还让管理者通过谋求外部咨询来保持警觉,如向贝恩或麦肯锡咨询,来留意他们应该知道的工业发展趋势。Would the Temasek model help improve the efficiency of Chinas state-owned enterprises?淡马锡模型会有助于提高中国国有企业的效率吗?Only one or possibly two of Temaseks GLCs have established themselves as international brands, according to critics such as Chris Balding of Peking University.据北京大学的克里斯鲍尔丁说,淡马锡公司的国联企业中只有一个或者可能两个已经成为了国际品牌。SingTel has made successful foreign acquisitions, but other GLCs have fared less well.SingTel成功进行了外资并购,但是其他国联企业很少有成功的。STATS ChipPAC, a semiconductor firm, lost money in the second quarter of this year, as a result of the costs of closing a factory in Malaysia.半导体公司STATAS ChipPAC今年第二季度亏损,因为它关闭了位于马来西亚的一个工厂。The few academic studies of Singapores GLCs are more encouraging, however.但是关于新加坡国联企业的学术研究越少越令人鼓舞。A 2004 article by Carlos Ramirez of George Mason University and Ling Hui Tan of the IMF showed that the countrys GLCs enjoyed a higher market value, relative to the book value of their assets, than comparable private firms.乔治梅森的卡洛斯拉米雷斯和国际货币基金组织的Ling Hui Tan 2004发表的一篇文章表明,就资产净值而言,新加坡的国联企业比起私人企业有更高的市场价值。They also generated a higher return on assets, on average.他们还创造更高的平均投资回报。In judging the performance of Temaseks GLCs, the counterfactual is important.在评价淡马锡的国联企业的表现时,反事实的情况很重要。They may not be as obviously successful as private titans from the region such as Samsung or LG.他们可能不会像亚洲私人公司巨头那样有着明显的成功,如三星、LG。But they are not nearly as bad as most SOEs, including Chinas.但是他们几乎不会像大多数国有企业包括中国的国有企业那样糟糕。The enthusiasm for reform of SOEs in China reflects their deteriorating returns and accumulating debt.中国国有企业改革的反映了他们日益恶化的投资回报和日益增长的债务。According to M.K. Tang of Goldman Sachs, their return on assets was 6.5 percentage points below that of other Chinese firms in 2012 and their shares trade at a growing discount.根据高盛投资公司的M.K. Tang,2012年国有企业的资产回报比中国其他公司低6.5个百分点,且他们的股份持续贬值。Even Mr Balding, meanwhile, is happy to fly Singapore Airlines.同时,甚至是鲍尔丁先生也很高兴乘坐新加坡航空。 /201311/266498。


  The Cyrus cylinder塞勒斯圆筒Diplomatic whirl外交漩涡A show that tests the limits of cultural politics一场巡展,一次文化政治学极限的考验CYRUS THE GREAT, king of Persia and conqueror of Babylon in the sixth century , has been a personal hero to many people. These include Thomas Jefferson and Irans last shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and, perhaps more oddly, Irans President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and David Ben-Gurion, Israels first leader.公元前6世纪,居鲁士称帝波斯,征巴比伦王国,史称居鲁士大帝(Cyrus the great)。其个人英雄形象万世流芳。粉丝包括美国总统托马斯杰弗逊、伊朗末代国王穆罕默德礼萨巴列维(Mohammad Reza Pahlavi),或许还意外地成为伊朗前总统马哈茂德艾哈迈迪-内贾德(Mahmoud Ahmadinejad)和以色列首任总理戴维本-古里安(David Ben-Gurion)的偶像。Xenophon, a Greek historian whose “Cyropaedia” has been by statesmen down the ages, believed that Cyrus embodied all the qualities of a perfect king. Now the British Museum (BM) is sending an object closely associated with Cyrus on a tour of five American museums, beginning with the Smithsonian in Washington, DC. The curators hope the show will highlight the Persian kings religious tolerance and his close relations with the Jews in particular, and that this may help improve ties between America and Iran.希腊历史学家色诺芬(Xenophon)著有《居鲁士的教育》(Cyropaedia)一书流传至今,在政治人物中广为传阅。他认为,居鲁士身上凝聚了完美无缺的君主所具备的一切品质。如今大英物馆(BM)将一枚这位波斯大帝的旧物运至美国,分别在5家美国物馆进行巡回展览,首站便是华盛顿市的史密森尼物院(Smithsonian)。各家馆长期望此次巡展能强调居鲁士大帝推崇的宗教自由,尤其他和犹太人之间的亲密关系,以此促进美伊两国关系。The Cyrus cylinder, one of the BMs most important objects, is made of clay and covered in dense Babylonian cuneiform script. Unearthed in 1879, it is cracked and bits have fallen off it, but enough remains for the writing to have been deciphered.大英物馆重要藏品之一塞勒斯圆筒由黏土制成,通体镌刻密密麻麻的巴比伦楔形文字。它于1879年出土,筒身开裂,部分泥土脱落,不过剩下部分足以供人解读文字内容。Under Cyrus the Persian empire became the largest kingdom the world had ever seen, unifying many tribes, languages and cultures, and stretching across vast distances. The cylinder, which had been placed at the base of a building in ancient Babylon (now modern Iraq) proclaimed Cyruss ambitions for his rapidly expanding domain: that those people who had been captured and enslaved by his predecessors should be allowed to go back to their homes and the statues of their different gods returned to their original shrines to be freely worshipped. The exiled Jews, who wept by the waters of Babylon when they remembered Zion, the Bible says, could return to Jerusalem and rebuild their temple.居鲁士大帝统治下的波斯帝国成为前所未见的大国,吞并了众多部落、语言和文化,幅员广阔。这塞勒斯圆筒一度躺在古代巴比伦(即现在的伊拉克)的建筑物脚下,叙述着皇帝谋求迅速向外扩张的雄心壮志:祖辈们俘获的奴隶们应该被允许回归故土,他们信奉的神祇挪回原位供信徒自由膜拜。圣经上说,原先犹太人被流放后,在纪念锡安圣地的日子涉过巴比伦河,此时获准返回耶路撒冷,重建寺庙。No ruler before Cyrus had done anything like this, and many since have claimed a connection with him. After the 1917 Balfour declaration in favour of a Jewish homeland, Jews displayed photographs of King George V alongside images of Cyrus. In 1971 the shah prayed at his tomb during the celebrations of 2,500 years of Iranian monarchy, and new coins were struck with the shah and Cyrus on one side and the cylinder on the other. The shahs sister gave a copy of it to the secretary-general of the ed Nations. Some call it the first charter of human rights.居鲁士大帝此举开历史先河,为他赢得后人的绵绵景仰之情。持建立犹太家园的贝尔福宣言得发表后,犹太人于乔治五世照片之侧放置居鲁士大帝画像。1971年,纪念伊朗君主制2500年之际,伊朗国王在居鲁士墓前祷告,并且发行新硬币,一面同时印上国王和居鲁士大帝,另一面则是塞勒斯圆筒。国王的一位将圆筒上的文字拓印成文,赠送给当时的联合国秘书长。这些文字被称为人权宪章的始祖。The leaders of revolutionary Iran at first turned away from everything that had been praised by the shah. But that began to change with the eight-year Iran-Iraq war, which began in 1980. Anxious to be regarded as superior to the Iraqis, Iran became more interested in its distant past. In 2010 the cylinder was sent to Tehran on loan. Nearly 500,000 people queued to see it, and its presence provoked a fierce national debate about Iranian values. Mr Ahmadinejad opened the exhibition at the National Museum of Iran, reminding visitors that Islam had a tradition of tolerance and that the Iranian constitution reserved seats in parliament for a Christian (Armenian), a Zoroastrian and a Jew.伊朗陷入革命浪潮后,反对派领袖起先抗拒国王称赞有加的一切事物。不过随着一场为期八年的两伊战争在1980年爆发,他们的态度发生逆转。由于急于塑造超过伊拉克的形象,伊朗对本国悠久历史的兴趣大增。2010年,塞勒斯圆筒被租借至德黑兰。近50万人排队以求一睹其风采。伊朗国内掀起一股讨论伊朗价值观的热潮。内贾德在伊朗国家物馆组织一次展览,透露给参观者:伊斯兰教拥有包容的优良传统;伊朗宪法保基督徒(亚美尼亚籍)、拜火教徒和犹太教徒在议会的席位。The American exhibition takes up just two rooms at the Smithsonians Freer/Sackler Gallery. The first shows the cylinder together with jewellery and seals from the same period; the second focuses on Cyruss influence. A glass case contains Xenophons “Cyropaedia”. Loaned by the Library of Congress, it is one of two copies that Jefferson owned. On the walls are a selection of laudatory phrases: from that student of power, Niccolò Machiavelli, Edmund Spenser, a 16th-century English poet, and Shirin Ebadi, an Iranian human-rights activist and the first Muslim woman to win the Nobel peace prize.本次美国展在隶属史密森尼物院的弗利尔/沙可乐美术馆两个展厅进行:塞勒斯圆筒和同时期的一批珠宝和印章放置在其中一个展厅供人观赏,而另一展厅集中展出深受塞勒斯圆筒影响的后期文物。玻璃柜盛放着色诺芬所著的《居鲁士的教育》一书,为美国约瑟芬总统的两个藏本之一,由国会图书馆(Library of Congress)出面借得。墙上是名人所题的赞美之词:研究权利的学者马基雅维利(Niccolò Machiavelli),16世纪英国诗人斯潘塞(Edmund Spenser),伊朗人权活动家和首位获得诺贝尔和平奖的穆斯林女性莎琳艾巴迪(Shirin Ebadi)。American Iranians and Jews have been among the many early visitors to the show, which opened on March 9th. The BMs director, Neil MacGregor, hopes others will come too. But Americas relationship with Iran is still toxic. The exhibition catalogue is subtitled: “A New Beginning for the Middle East”. But the Smithsonian posters for the show merely say: “A New Beginning”, as if the mere mention of the Middle East might put people off.3月9日展览举行伊始,迎来众多参观者,其中包括伊朗籍美国人和犹太人。大英物馆馆长尼尔麦克格瑞格(Neil MacGregor)期待更多访客的到来。不过美伊关系依然紧张。此次展会目录的副标题为“中东新起点”,史密森尼物院为其制作的海报却仅仅提到“新起点”,似乎中东这几个字眼会使人扫兴而归。As for Mr Ahmadinejads views on Cyrus, the Iranian leaders words of praise were expected to hang on the wall of the exhibitions second room, alongside those of Jefferson and Ms Ebadi. But they were not included. Exhibitions like this should help Iranians and Americans understand the past better. But such caution suggests that relations between the two countries will not improve fast.提及伊朗前总统马哈茂德艾哈迈迪-内贾德对于塞勒斯圆筒的评价,这位领导人的溢美之词一度被指望登上第二展厅的墙壁,比邻杰弗逊总统和艾巴迪女士的名言。可惜未能如愿。举办此类展览理应促进伊朗和美国两国人民对历史的理解,不过采取如此谨慎的态度不免令人疑心美伊两国关系不会迅速改善。The Cyrus Cylinder and Ancient Persia: A New Beginning; will be at the Smithsonians Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, until April 28th. The show will be at the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston from May 3rd until June 14th and then at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York from June 20th until August 4th, the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco from August 9th until September 22nd and at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles from October 2nd until December 2nd. The tour is supported by the Iran Heritage Foundation.本次展览名为“塞勒斯圆筒和波斯古国:新起点”。此次巡回展览由伊朗遗产基金会(Iran Heritage Foundation)赞助。第一站是华盛顿市的亚瑟 M. 沙可乐美术馆(Arthur M. Sackler Gallery)和弗利尔美术馆(Freer Gallery of Art),展览活动截止4月28日;5月3日至6月14日转至休斯顿艺术物馆(Museum of Fine Arts);6月20日至8月4日则由纽约大都市艺术物馆(Metropolitan Museum of Art)承展;8月9日至9月22日来到旧金山的亚洲艺术物馆(Asian Art Museum);10月2日至12月2日抵达末尾站,洛杉矶的保罗盖蒂物馆(J. Paul Getty Museum)。 /201405/296978


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