四川二院专家挂号多少钱平安互动

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 四川二院专家挂号多少钱美中文
Burning of Books and Burying of Scholars焚书坑儒1. Book burning1、焚书According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after the First Emperor of Qin annexed the State of Qi and unified China in 221 , his Chancellor Li Si suggested suppressing the freedom of speech, unifying all thoughts and political opinions.根据《史记》的记载,秦始皇吞并齐国并一统中国之后,他的丞相李斯建议压制演讲的自由,统一思想和政见。This was justified by accusations that the intelligentsia sang false praise and raised dissent through libel.这个建议被指责知识分子阿谀奉承和进行文字诽谤的论点明了它的合理性。Beginning in 213 B.C, all classic works of the Hundred Schools of Thought----except those from his own, the school of philosophy known as Legalism----were subject to burning.公元前213年开始,争鸣的所有典籍,除了他所尊崇的法家学说以外,全部被焚烧。Li Si proposed that all histories in the imperial archives except those written by the Qin historians be burned;李斯建议帝国档案馆里的所有史料,除去秦朝历史学家所撰写的,都应该被烧毁;that the Classic of Poetry, the Classic of History, and works by scholars of different schools be handed into the local authorities for burning;包括《诗经》、《书经》和那些由诸子所写的著作都应被收至中央进行焚烧;that anyone discussing these two particular books be executed;that those using ancient examples to satirize contemporary politics be put to death, along with their families;任何人谈论这两本书都应被处死,任何人用过去的例子来讽刺当朝的政治都应被处死,他们的家人也应被行刑;that authorities who failed to report cases that came to their attention were equally guilty;朝廷中有任何人知情不报同样该被治罪;and that those who had not burned the listed books within 30 days of the decree were to be banished to the north as convicts working on building the Great Wall.那些没有按圣旨在30天内焚烧名单上书籍的人应被发配到北疆和犯人们一起修建长城。The only books to be spared in the destruction were books on medicine, agriculture and divination.在焚书期间唯一得以流传的书籍是有关医药、农业和占卜的。2. Burial of the scholars2、坑儒After being deceived by two alchemists while seeking prolonged life, the First Emperor of Qin ordered more than 460 of them in the capital to be buried alive in the second year of the proscription, though an account given by Wei Hong in the 2nd century added another 700 to the figure.自从在寻找长生不老方法的过程中被两个炼金术士欺骗,秦始皇在放逐他们的第二年就在都城活埋了超过460个儒家学者,不过2世纪时卫宏又为这个数据增加了700个人。The Crown Prince Fusu counseled that, with the country newly unified, and enemies still not pacified, such a harsh measure imposed on those who respect Confucius would cause instability.太子扶苏劝谏说,对于一个刚刚统一的国家,外敌还未平定,对尊崇孔子学说的那些人采取这样严酷的刑法会造成不稳定。However, he was unable to change his father’s mind, and instead was sent to guard the frontier in a de facto exile.但是,他不仅无法改变秦始皇的想法,甚至还被发配至边疆充军。The quick fall of the Qin Dynasty was attributed to this proscription.秦朝如此快速的覆灭就源于这些对于人权的剥夺。Confucianism was revived in the Han Dynasty that followed, and became the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state.儒学思想在之后的汉代复兴并成为了中国封建社会的官方学说。However, many of the other schools of thought disappeared.然而,其他的思想学派却消失了。 /201509/397328

Xin Dynasty新朝The Xin Dynasty (新朝)was a “dynasty”(even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history.新朝是中国历史上的一个“朝代”(尽管它和普通朝代的意义有所不同,它仅有一位皇帝)。It followed the Western Han Dynasty and preceded the Eastern Han Dynasty.它上乘西汉下启东汉。The Xin Dynasty’s sole emperor, Wang Mang (王莽) was the nephew of Grand Empress Dowager Wang Zhengjun, and he became powerful after the death of her step-grandson, Emperor Ai in 1 B.C.新朝唯一一位帝王王莽是太皇太后王政君的侄子,公元前1年,他在王政君的继孙汉哀帝驾崩后夺权。After several years of cultivating a personality cult, he finally took over as emperor in 8 A.D.建立了多年的个人崇拜之后,他最终在公元8年自立为帝。However, while he was a creative scholar and politician, he was an incompetent ruler, and his capital Chang’an was sieged in 23 AD by peasant rebels.然而,尽管他是一个极富创造力的学者与政治家,他却是一个无能的帝王,他的都城长安在公元23年被农民起义者围攻。He died in the siege.他死于那场围攻之中。 /201510/397353

All Coca-Cola wanted to do was to wish consumers a happy new year, but instead it ended up stirring anger in two markets, Russia and Ukraine, over the disputed territory of Crimea. The Ukrainian Black Sea peninsula was annexed by Moscow in March 2014 and remains a trigger issue in the Russian-Ukrainian crisis today.可口可乐希望将新年快乐传达给消费者,但是却在俄罗斯和乌克兰这两个市场引起愤怒,这一切都是因为克里米亚这片争议领土。乌克兰黑海半岛于2014年3月并入俄罗斯,至今仍是俄罗斯乌克兰危机中的一个一触即发的问题。In a new year#39;s message on VK, the most popular Russian social media network, Coca-Cola published a map of Russia that did not include Crimea.俄罗斯最受欢迎的社交媒体网络VK传达了一条新年广告,可口可乐发布了一张不包括克里米亚在内的俄罗斯地图。Faced with barrage of criticism from Russian users of VK, it published the map again on Tuesday, this time including Crimea, and apologised. The new map also included the Kuril Islands, the western Pacific archipelago that Moscow seized in 1945 from Japan.面对VK上俄罗斯网民排山倒海的指责,可口可乐昨日重新发布了一张地图,这次包括了克里米亚,并进行了道歉。新地图还包括莫斯科于1945年从日本夺取的西太平洋群岛的千岛群岛。But by including Crimea, Coca-Cola unleashed a firestorm in Ukraine, where demands for a boycott of the soft drink got under way. On Tuesday, the corporation threw in the towel and simply dropped the New Year#39;s message. ;Dear friends! Thank you for your attention. It has been decided to delete the item which caused the upset,; Coca-Cola#39;s Ukrainian subsidiary said on Facebook.但是加入克里米亚的行为又惹怒了乌克兰,该国抵制可口可乐的要求已经开始进行。周二,可口可乐自认倒霉并撤下这则新年广告。可口可乐乌克兰子公司在脸书上写道:;亲爱的朋友们,感谢你们的关注,我们决定删除这条引发混乱的广告。;Late Tuesday Coca-Cola#39;s headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia issued a statement apologizing for the issue but blaming an outside agency. ;The Coca-Cola Russia team had a stylized map of Russia created as part of its Christmas campaign. The agency that created the map later made changes without our knowledge or approval,; the company said. ;We, as a company, do not take political positions unrelated to our business, and we apologize for the post, which we have removed.;上周二,可口可乐位于佐治亚州亚特兰大市的总部,对此事件发表了声明进行道歉,但是同时却责怪了一个局外者。该公司称:;可口可乐俄罗斯团队有一张固定的俄罗斯地图,作为圣诞节活动的一部分,绘制这个地图的机构没有告知我们,也没有经过我们的同意进行了修改。我们作为一家公司,在对于与我们业务无关的问题上,不持政治立场,我们为这条广告道歉,并且已经删除。; /201601/4208825.Drinking Alcohol Can Cause Birth Defects5.饮酒可导致新生儿先天性缺陷Alcohol can lead to birth defects. Pregnant women who drink put their unborn babies at risk for fetal alcohol syndrome. A woman is at risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome if she drinks while pregnant.Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition that affects the developing fetus when alcohol passes through the placental barrier. Experts indicate that drinking alcohol while pregnant is the leading cause of birth defects and developmental disability in the U.S. About 40,000 babies are affected by FAS every year. The effects of fetal alcohol syndrome include physical and mental disabilities, learning difficulties, behavioral issues and lifelong impairments that prevent individuals from reaching their full potential.酒精可能引发新生儿的先天性缺陷。饮酒的妇,易使自己还未出生的宝宝患上胎儿酒精综合症。如果怀了还喝酒,那这就是把自己的孩子置于患上胎儿酒精综合症的危险之中。胎儿酒精综合症,是酒精透过胎盘屏障影响生长中的胎儿的一种情况。专家指出,在美国,妇饮酒是导致婴儿先天性缺陷和发育障碍最主要的原因。每年大概有40,000婴儿患有胎儿酒精综合症。胎儿酒精综合症的症状包括,生理和心理障碍,学习障碍,行为问题和终身残疾,这些都会影响一个人充分发挥其潜能。Children suffering from fetal alcohol syndrome often have abnormal facial characteristics, stunted growth, brain damage, organ defects, problems paying attention and poor coordination. These children are also experience poor coordination and limited fine motor and gross motor skills. Fetal alcohol syndrome not only impacts the affected child, it takes a toll on society with billions being spent each year on services for children with FAS. Even if a woman stops drinking when she learns of her pregnancy, can still have a baby with FAS. Alcohol can affect the developing fetus very early. That is why any sexually active woman of childbearing age who is not using birth control should avoid alcohol. There is no cure for fetal alcohol syndrome, once the damage is done to a child, he or she must suffer for life. Abstaining from alcohol is the best practice for any woman who is at a stage of life where she may become pregnant.患有胎儿酒精综合症的儿童,通常会有面部特征异常、发育迟缓、脑损伤、器官缺损、注意力不集中和肢体协调能力差等问题。这些孩子们还要经历协调性障碍,像难以完成的精细动作和一些大动作的技能。不仅仅是患有胎儿酒精综合症的儿童们受苦,社会每年还要付数十亿美元来为这些儿童患者务。即使饮酒的女性在得知她怀时停止摄入酒精,她生出的宝宝也有可能会患上胎儿酒精综合症。酒精能在很早的时候就对胎儿的发育产生不良影响。所以说,性行为频繁却未节育的育龄女性应该避免饮酒。胎儿酒精综合症现在还没有治愈的方法,一旦得了这种病,孩子必将一生受苦。戒酒对于育龄期女性来说,可谓明智之举。4.Drinking Alcohol Can Increase Aggression4.喝酒可能会引发暴力事件Alcohol is often a factor in physical and sexual violence. Alcohol should never be used as an excuse for violence and is not the underlying reason for this behavior. However drinking can and does contribute to family violence orviolence against women and children. In the home, a person who physically abuses his or her spouse can become more aggressive when alcohol is involved. The individual who perpetrates the violence feels less inhibited, which results in an escalation of violent behavior toward a spouse or children. This can result in actions such as hitting, kicking, shoving, verbal abuse or the use of weapons like knives or guns. Children who are sexually abused are often the helpless victims of drunken adults.酒精是引发身体暴力和性暴力中的一个因素。酒精不应该被当做是施行暴力的借口,而且它也不是引发暴力行为的根本原因。然而饮酒会促使家庭暴力的发生,或促使对妇女和儿童使用暴力。在家中,有家暴行为的人,饮酒后对配偶的暴力行为会加剧。醉酒者施行暴力会无所顾忌,从而引发对配偶和孩子的暴力行为升级。这也就导致了殴打、踢、推搡、言语辱骂和使用刀器械等暴力行为的发生。儿童常常会成为醉酒的成年人性虐待的无辜受害者。In these situations there may be a pattern of drinking and abuse that persists for years. Similarly alcohol is often a factor in violent acts toward other people including date rape and gang rape. Every year there are stories about young people being sexually assaulted by either trusted friends or strangers, and in many cases alcohol is a factor. On college campuses, a party where binge drinking occurs may lead to a student becoming vulnerable when he or she is observed as too drunk to be aware of what is happening. As a result one or more persons may decide to take advantage of the situation by having forced sex with the individual. When caught, the perpetrators try to make excuses such as ;she wanted it,; or he did not resist.; It is obvious that an individual who is drunk is not in a position to consent to sex nor to defend themselves in such a situation.酗酒和虐待已经存在好多年。同时酒精也是致使约会强奸和轮奸等暴力行为的一个诱因。每年都会有很多年轻人,遭受自己信任的朋友或是陌生人性侵犯的案件发生,多数情况下酒精就是引发这类案件的一个因素。在大学聚会中,当别人觉得你喝了太多酒时,其实酒精早已让你麻痹,对身边发生什么毫无知觉,容易成为受害者。从而可能诱发有些人会利用这一状况强迫他人发生性关系。当行凶者被抓时,他们会寻找借口说;是她想要做的;或;当时他根本就没有抵抗;。很显然,一个人在醉酒的情况下,根本不具备认同与他人发生性行为,或是自卫的能力。3.Drinking Alcohol can Lead to Fatal Vehicle Crashes3.酒驾会造成致命交通事故According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2012, there were 10,000 people who died in alcohol related car crashes. Millions of people go to bars and attend social events where they drink heavily and then get in their cars and drive. The impaired judgment and invincibility that comes with drinking alcohol causes people to think that they can drive without problems. As a result, persons who drive while impaired end up in accidents where they injure or kill themselves and or others.根据美国国家公路交通安全统计,2012年有1万人死于酒驾事故。数以百万的人在酒吧或参加社交活动时大量饮酒,之后仍然继续开车。饮酒会使人的判断力降低,并产生无敌感,让人认为继续开车根本没有问题。因此,醉酒驾驶最终会引发事故,造成双方间的伤亡和伤残。Alcohol alters depth perception as well as the skills necessary for operating a vehicle safely. When turning onto a busy highway, a drunk driver may not be able to judge the distance of an oncoming car when turning onto a busy highway. He or she may exceed safe speeds, drive the wrong way or veer off the road into crowded spaces. All of these actions put lives at risk. Getting arrested for driving while alcohol impaired is the beginning of a lengthy criminal record for many who choose to drink and drive. Regardless of the circumstances, a driving while impaired charge has repercussions. Those who are caught drinking and driving spend time in jail and pay thousands in court cost and fees. Assuming that a drunk driver has not killed or maimed anyone, regaining the privilege to drive often requires paying more fees and excessively higher insurance premiums. A person arrested for driving while impaired may also regain only restricted driving privileges. The criminal record that comes with drunk driving can impact the ability to get a job, purchase a home and live as a responsible citizen, making it difficult for the individual to function as a respected member of society.酒精会彻底改变人知觉,以及安全驾驶所必须的技能。当车辆驶入车水马龙的高速公路时,酒驾的司机根本无法及时判断出迎面驶来的汽车的距离。他/她可能会超速驾驶、开错方向、驶离道路,开入拥堵区。这些行为都会危及到生命安全。一旦酒驾被记录在案,其他犯罪行为也会随之而来。无论什么情况下,酒驾都会带来严重的影响。酒驾的人被拘捕后会关在监狱里一段时间,同时还要向法院付数千美元的诉讼费用。如果酒驾司机没有造成人员伤亡和伤残,那么他可以继续驾驶,并且只需赔偿一些费用和额外高额的保险费。因酒驾被捕的人虽能重新获得驾驶的权利,但酒驾的犯罪记录会影响到当事人找工作、购买房屋和公民信用度,使他的声誉很难被社会认可。2.Drinking Alcohol is a Gateway to Other Drug Use2.酗酒是滥用其他毒品药品的;跳板;Alcohol is a known as a gateway drug. The term ;gateway; refers to a situation where people get introduced to substance abuse by first using drugs that are easy to get. Gateway drugs are usually inexpensive and are ily available. This is what makes alcohol the drug of choice for many young people who are seeking a quick high and although it is not legal for persons under 21 to purchase, it is not difficult for young people to get alcohol by paying older friends, using fake identification cards or sneaking drinks from a parent#39;s liquor cabinet or wine cellar.酒,被称为诱导性毒品。;诱导;,意指人们在第一次使用过比较容易得到的毒品之后,会导致滥用毒品的情况。诱导性毒品一般比较便宜且非常容易得到。这就是为什么很多寻找刺激的年轻人选择拿酒来消遣。虽然未满21岁的人购买酒是不合法的,但是对于年轻人来说使用假身份,或花钱找年长的人买酒这并不是什么难事,有些年轻人甚至会从橱柜或者酒窖中偷父母的酒。Young people who abuse alcohol are likely to abuse other drugs. The fact is that alcohol changes brain chemistry, leading to the desire for other drugs. Once young people get a taste of alcohol and become accustomed to the high from drinking, they often seek what they think is a better high through other drugs. Often when a young person takes his or her first drink, it is in an environment of recreational drug use where along with the alcohol, all types of drugs are available. These drugs may include marijuana, cocaine, meth as well as painkillers and other prescription drugs. As a result of combining these drugs with alcohol a young person may become addicted to several substances which begins a vicious cycle of addiction. In fact, some experts say that most young people between the ages of 12 and 17 who are heavy alcohol users also use illicit drugs. This is why it is imperative that young people not experiment with alcohol. One night of experimentation can lead to a lifetime of addiction.恶意酗酒的年轻人,极有可能滥用其他毒品药品。酒精会让大脑产生一种化学物质,会让人们有使用其他毒品药品的欲望。一旦年轻人喝过酒,并且习惯了喝完酒后的兴奋感,他们通常就会寻找那种通过使用其他毒品药品后带来的更加兴奋的感觉。通常人们第一次喝完酒后,就会处于酒精和毒品带来的快感之中,用完任何毒品都会有这种反应。这些毒品药品包括大麻,可卡因,冰毒,止痛药以及一些其他的处方药。年轻人把这些毒品药品和酒精混合使用,很可能会对其中的几种物质上瘾,并对依赖这些毒品药品陷入恶性循环。事实上,一些专家说,大多数12到17岁的对酒有严重依赖的年轻人,也违法使用毒品。这就是为什么年轻人要远离酒类,年轻人一旦沾酒,可能会终生上瘾。1.Drinking Alcohol Can Ruin Your Life1.酗酒会毁掉你的生活Alcohol is dangerous because it has the power to change a person#39;s life forever in the worst kind of way. The teenager who takes one drink on a dare and gets behind the wheel and has an accident where there are fatalities not only faces criminal charges, but may forgo any chance of attending college and enjoying the privileges and opportunities that come with being a carefree young adult. There are many former recovering alcoholics who live each day on the edge because they are afraid that the will relapse and start drinking again.酒精非常危险,它可能以残酷的方式永远改变人们的生活。那些斗胆酗酒,并且酒驾发生车祸的青少年,最终不仅会面对刑事处罚,而且可能失去上大学的机会,失去享受基本权利的机会,失去一个无忧无虑的大学生该有的各种机会。有很多已戒酒的酗酒者,整天忧心忡忡,因为他们害怕有一天意志垮掉,继续酗酒。When an alcoholic is willing to work hard at it, treatment can be successful, however, every day requires the recovering alcoholic to focus on one thing—not taking a drink. Not taking a drink when one is an alcoholic is in some cases like not being able to eat when hungry. This is how dangerously powerful alcohol is and no one is immune to its effects. Imagine drinking for several years, deciding to quit and being successful at staying sober. You rebuild your life, meet and marry a supportive spouse. You have a home, lovely children, a decent paying job and all seems to be going well. One day someone comes into your home and assaults you and your family to the appoint where you need hospitalization, burns down your home, steals your identity and runs up thousands of dollars of bills in your name. You are devastated. All that you have worked so hard for is now in shambles. That is the effect that deciding to take one drink can have on the alcoholic who for whatever reason decides to return to drinking. Once again after so much hard work to rebuild his or her life, the dangerous power of alcohol leaves the alcoholic#39;s life and the life of his or her loved one#39;s in shambles. Anyone who does not consume alcohol is better off leaving alcoholic beverages alone. Most people who start drinking think they have the knowledge and will power to limit the amount they drink. It is true that some people take a drink now and then and never encounter any of the earlier discussed problems. However no one knows for sure how he or she will react to that first drink. The result could be that one drink leads to a fatal accident or other life altering encounter. The first drink is often the gateway to the use of other harmful substances. There are people who are more prone to addiction than others due to genetics or other reasons. However sense no one knows prior to taking that first drink what the outcome will be, before experimenting with alcohol, the following questions should be asked? ;Is this something I can live without, and am I willing to risk throwing my entire future away for a swig of an alcoholic beverage?;当一个酗酒者决定戒酒时,治疗会起作用。然而,这就需要他们每天集中精力做一件事——不酗酒。对于一个酗酒者来说,让他滴酒不沾,就像是让饿了的人不吃饭一样。这就是酒精的魔力所在,并且很少有酗酒者能够自已。试想一下:酗酒多年后,决定戒酒,并且能够时刻保持清醒;你重塑了生活,遇见相伴左右的配偶并与之结婚;你有自己的家庭,有可爱的孩子,有体面的工作,一切看起来都是那么称心如意。但突然有一天,一个人来到你家,袭击你和你的家人,致使你们需要住院治疗;烧毁了你的家,毁坏你的声誉,夺走你名下大把的钱。你遭受到了毁灭性的打击。这一切你努力得来的现在都已化为泡影。这些后果,都是决定戒酒后,又重新酗酒的酗酒者会遇到的情况。通过不懈努力重塑生活后,酒精的强大威力,又会使酗酒者及其深爱的家人的生活苦不堪言。不喝酒的人,最好远离含有酒精的饮料。很多尝试喝含酒精饮料的人认为,他们有能力和毅力掌控好喝酒的度。不排除一些人喝酒只是偶然现象,他们也不会遇到任何一种之前所提到的问题。然而没人能确定喝酒的人接下来的行为——结果可能会是,因喝一次酒而发生致命的事故,或者其他会使生活出现大变故的事情。饮酒行为通常会成为使用其他有害物质的诱导因素。有一些人由于遗传或者其他的原因,比其他人更容易上瘾。然而,既然没人知道喝酒所带来的后果是什么,在喝酒前,应该考虑以下问题:没有酒,我能生存吗?我是否愿意用我的未来做赌注,来大饮特饮这些含酒精饮料?审校:假微信 编辑:Freya然 来源:前十网 /201602/428051

We associate items with cultures or eras because it helps our brains categorize information. We hear the word ;pyramid,; and we instantly associate it with ancient Egypt, despite the numerous non-Egyptian pyramids in the world. Many of these associations are incorrect. Some things we strongly associate with the modern world are actually quite older.我们常常将身边的事物与本族的文化或者我们现在所处的年代联系到一起,因为这样的联系可以帮助我们的大脑将接收到的信息分门别类。比如,当我们听到;金字塔;这个词时,尽管世界上大多数金字塔并不属于埃及,我们的大脑也会下意识地将金字塔与古埃及联系起来。由此可见,很多类似于这样的联系是不准确的。像是那些我们认为和现代生活密不可分的事物,其实在很早以前就存在了。10.Rap Battles10.说唱对决Rappers in early 1980s New York might get most of the credit for this type of lyrical performance, but the practice is actually much older and comes from Scotland. It is called flyting and it was practiced by makaris (Scottish poets) during the 15th and 16th centuries. In this contest, two poets would engage in an exchange of verbal abuse, oftentimes in verse, and the winner was usually decided by the audience. The winner would then enjoy a large cup of mead or beer and more often than not would invite the loser to drink as well.大部分人认为说唱这种特殊的词汇表演技巧起源于那些在19世纪80年代早期出现的纽约说唱家(Rappers)。但事实上,早在这段时间以前,苏格兰就已经有了这样的词汇表演技巧。他们将这个词汇比赛似的表演叫做flyting。Flyting最早出现在15世纪和16世纪,是由一个叫做马卡瑞斯的苏格兰诗人发明的。比赛规则为:两名参赛的诗人在比赛过程中对骂,然后由观众们来决定最终的获胜者。获胜者在比赛结束后会豪饮一杯蜂蜜酒或者啤酒以示庆祝,但是他们不会邀请战败者来共同庆祝。At one point, flyting was so popular in Scotland that the obscenities and vulgarities were overlooked, though they were otherwise not permitted in public. Flytes would usually take place in large rooms like feasting halls, but the most skilled poets would engage in flyting at the royal courts. King James IV was known to be a big fan of flyting, as well as James V.Unfortunately, not many flytes from those times have survived. The most memorable one took place at the aforementioned court of James IV. It is known as ;The Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedy; and took place between Walter Kennedy and William Dunbar.那个时期的Flyting在苏格兰十分受欢迎,因为在比赛时可以尽情使用那些在公共场合不允许使用的粗俗和下流的词语。比赛通常会在宴会大厅里举行,不过那些知识最渊的诗人的比赛通常会在宫廷内举行。詹姆斯四世与詹姆斯五世都十分热衷于这项比赛。遗憾的是,这项比赛并没有流传到现在。最盛大的一场比赛是在詹姆四世的宫廷里举行的。这场比赛被称为;肯尼迪与邓巴的争论;,参赛者就是著名诗人沃特肯尼迪和威廉·邓巴。9.Dentures9.假牙Dentures#39; long history is not particularly surprising. George Washington, for example, was a famous wearer of dentures (although none of his were made of wood, despite the myth). However, dentures go back much further than that. To the time of the Etruscan civilization, in fact, located in modern Italy between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C.假牙拥有悠久的历史这件事应该在人们意料之中。乔治·华盛顿就是一个著名的假牙佩戴者(大家都说他的假牙是木头做的,尽管事实并不是这样)。但事实上假牙的出现要追溯到公元前8世纪到公元前4世纪的伊特鲁里亚(现为意大利)文明时期。A lot of evidence suggests that the Etruscans were the first to create false teeth as early as 700 B.C. Ancient skulls have been discovered with gold bands inside them, and in Marzabotto, a skull was found with an artificial tooth still attached using gold wire. Apart from dentures, individual crowns have also been discovered, made for molars and canines.Their dentistry skills were surprisingly advanced, and the dentures they made were quite similar to those still in use centuries later, even in the time of the aforementioned Washington. They were made using either animal or human teeth, which were fixed onto a gold band with metal pins and then secured in place inside the mouth.许多据表明伊特鲁里亚人早在公元前700年就发明了假牙。远古时期的人类头骨化石里就有金子做的类似于绑带一样的用来固定假牙的东西,并且在玛扎多发现的人类头骨里也有用金线固定的人造牙齿。除了假牙以外,人们还发现了一顶用臼齿和犬齿制作的王冠。他们的牙科学的先进程度令人咋舌,并且他们制造的假牙与几个世纪之后所使用的假牙别无二致,包括前面提到的华盛顿的假牙也是一样。这些假牙的制作材料不是人牙就是兽牙,然后这些假牙再被用金子做的绑带和金属的小钉子固定在人们的口腔内。8.Newspapers8.报纸For a publication to classify as a newspaper, it must publish up-to-date information covering a range of topics at regular intervals and be reasonably accessible to the public. Some would say that a newspaper also has to be printed, which means that they couldn#39;t have existed prior to the printing press. However, if we overlook that small detail, then newspapers go back a lot farther. Ancient Rome and China both had handwritten news sheets presented to the public on a regular basis detailing current events and other important happenings.如果有一种出版物被称作报纸,那么它在出版时不仅要刊登那些最新的并且涵盖了日常生活各个方面的消息,还要与公众有某种程度的联系。谈到报纸出现的时间,有人会说报纸毕竟也是被印刷出来的,意思就是说报纸的出现必然要晚于印刷术的出现。然而,如果我们忽略掉这个小细节,那么我们就会知道报纸出现的时间实际上比印刷术出现的时间更早一些。古时候的罗马和中国都有每天在特定的时间发表的手写的报纸,并且报道的内容通常都是一些琐事或者其他一些重要的大事。In Rome, it was known as Acta Diurna and is considered to be the first daily gazette, even if it wasn#39;t even written on paper (it was carved in stone or metal). At first, it only covered legal proceedings and the results of trials. As its popularity grew, it expanded to also include politics, military campaigns, births, deaths, and executions.In China, the earliest forms of newspapers were known as tipao (also Di Bao). They were imperial bulletins published during the Tang Dynasty. During the Kaiyuan era, they were replaced with Kaiyuan Za Bao, an official publication handwritten on silk and distributed mostly to imperial officials.在罗马,一个名叫;罗马公报;的报纸被看作当时的第一份日报,尽管报纸的内容并不是书写在纸上的(是被镌刻在石头或金属上的)。一开始,罗马公报的内容仅仅包括法律审判的过程和案件审判的结果。但当它渐渐开始变得受欢迎后,内容便逐渐扩充到了时政、军事、人们的出生与死亡以及官方执行的日常任务。在中国,我们知道的最早的报纸是邸报。唐朝时期,邸报相当于是皇家公告。然后在开元年间,邸报被开元早报所取代。开元早报是手写在丝绸上的官方出版物,大部分被分发给臣子。7.Toothbrushes7.牙刷Early dental techniques were of course a lot more primitive. In fact, the first ;toothbrushes; were nothing but sticks with frayed ends that were rubbed against the teeth. While these weren#39;t particularly efficient, they at least gave the user refreshing breath. Such ;chew sticks; were found in ancient China, Egypt, and even Babylonia, dating back to 3,000 B.C.古代的牙科在技术上比起现在自然是粗糙了不少。事实上,世界上第一把牙刷仅仅就是一根木棍,并且这根木棍的某一端可以用来擦牙齿。尽管这样的牙刷并不是特别有效,但至少也给予了刷牙者一个清新的口腔。这种像;磨牙棒;一样的东西在公元前3000年的中国、埃及以及巴比伦就出现了。Something similar to a modern toothbrush didn#39;t appear until the 15th century in China. It was made out of bone or bamboo and had natural bristles made out of the hairs of a hog#39;s neck. Also around that time, China started trading with Europe, so the design was brought there before long. However, Europeans found the hog hairs too rigid and preferred to replace them with softer horse hairs. While the design of the toothbrush would be updated from time to time, it really didn#39;t turn into the modern brush we know today until the beginning of the 20th century, when Wallace Carothers invented nylon for DuPont. Up until that point animal hairs kept being used for the bristles.一直到了15世纪,中国人才发明出了与现代的牙刷相似的牙刷。这样的牙刷是由骨或者竹子以及猪脖子上的鬃毛做成的。同样是在这个时期,中国与欧洲开始进行贸易活动,因此在这样的牙刷在被发明后不久就流传到了欧洲。但是欧洲人认为猪的鬃毛太硬了,所以他们用较柔软的马毛代替了猪的鬃毛。尽管牙刷的设计在这之后也不断地更新,我们今天使用的牙刷也是到了20世纪初期才逐渐成形的。当时华莱士-卡罗瑟斯为杜邦公司发明了尼龙材料,而在这之前牙刷的刷毛都是由动物的毛做成的。6.Welfare6.社会福利Ancient Rome had quite a few programs in place to provide its citizens with subsidized food. At first, this was not an obligation yet was still quite common when either the government or wealthy individuals wanted to gain favor with the public. They would make donations of corn to the people, known as frumentatio. In 123 B.C., however, a tribune by the name of Gaius Gracchus introduced Lex Frumentaria. Through this law, each citizen of Rome was entitled to an amount of wheat each month available at a reasonable price (somewhere around half the market price). This was only available to fathers of families but was not restricted only to poor Romans.古罗马在很早以前就有许多为市民提供补贴食物的活动。最开始,这并不是一项政府或者某一个有钱人想要从公众身上得到好处的普遍的义务。他们直接将粮食送给公众,这样的行为被称作frumentatio。在公元前123年,一个叫做盖约·格拉古的民权保护者出台了新粮食分配政策。通过这项条例,罗马的每个公民每个月都可以得到以公道的价钱(一般都是市场价的一半)售卖的定量小麦。但是对于半价售卖的小麦,有劳动力的家庭,其购买的数量会受到限制,而贫穷的罗马人购买半价小麦的数量是不受限的。Roman emperors also had various approaches when it came to dealing with the poor. It was not uncommon for emperors back then to give money to each Roman to celebrate a certain event (usually a military victory). One emperor who instituted new welfare programs was Trajan. While he increased the number of citizens who could receive free grain from the state, he also introduced alimenta, a publicly funded institution that benefited poor children.罗马帝王也有很多补助贫困公民的政策。但是让罗马帝王回到那种一到庆祝某个重大事件(比如战争的凯旋)就随意分发钱财的时代自然也是不太现实的。因而罗马帝王图拉真出台了一个新的福利政策:他增加了可以免费得到粮食的公民的数量,并且他还创立了一个名叫alimenta的公众基金机构来资助贫穷的儿童。翻译:赵雨晴 来源:前十网 /201510/402675

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