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2019年09月23日 23:19:31 | 作者:健康问答 | 来源:新华社
The World Bank世界Right cause, wrong battle正确的起因,错误的斗争Why the World Banks focus on gay rights is misguided为何世界对同性恋权利的关注是误入歧途的JIM KIM, the president of the World Bank, wants it to promote gay rights. He has declared the “fight to eliminate all institutionalised discrimination” to be an “urgent task”. He recently put on hold a m loan to Ugandas health sector after its government introduced one of Africas most draconian anti-gay laws. He has ordered an overhaul of the banks lending policies to make sure that no loan assists discrimination. At this weeks Spring Meetings in Washington, DC, he is convening discussions with gay activists on how best to do so.世界总裁Jim Kim想要提高同性恋的权利。他曾宣称“消除所有制度化歧视的斗争”是一项“紧急的任务。”近日,本该流向乌干达健康部门的一项九千万美元的世行贷款由于乌干达政府引入一项反同性恋法而被Jim Kim搁置,该法律称得上是非洲最苛刻的反同性恋法之一。Jim Kim已经下令对世行所有的贷款政策进行检查,以确保没有持歧视的贷款出现。在本周于华盛顿召开的春季会议上,他召开了一场讨论,与同性恋积极分子商讨最行之有效的方法。As an early proponent of gay marriage, this newspaper shares Mr Kims sentiments. Bigotry is abhorrent and laws that entrench it should be condemned. Ugandas new law, which allows a maximum sentence of life imprisonment for anyone convicted of homosexuality and requires citizens to report anyone suspected of being gay, is particularly awful. Nonetheless, Mr Kims initiative is misguided. The World Bank is a technocratic development organisation, not a place for political advocacy. Setting up gay rights as a test of its lending decisions is likely to make the bank less effective at what Mr Kim himself has emphasised is its core job: tackling extreme poverty.作为一个早期的同性恋婚姻持方,《经济学人》与Kim先生感情一致。世界不允许偏见,维系偏见的法律也应当受到谴责。乌干达的新法不仅允许对同性恋实行终身监禁这一最高刑罚,还要求市民对任何可能的同性恋进行举报,这是尤其可怕的。然而,Kim先生发起的行动还是被误导了。世行是一个技术主导的发展组织而不是用作政治倡议的。设置同性恋权利作为其贷款政策的检测关卡可能会使得世行在消除极端贫困问题的效率上大打折扣,Kim先生曾经强调这是世行的核心任务。The banks technocratic approach is a big part of its DNA. Its founding documents prohibit “political activity”, however unpleasant a regime might be. Only “economic considerations” should be relevant to lending decisions. That does not, by itself, preclude it from opposing nasty laws. You can draw a link from fighting bigotry to alleviating poverty. Unfair treatment of groups of people, whether on the basis of gender, race or sexuality, leads to their social exclusion, which in turn is likely to harm economic growth and make it harder to alleviate poverty. By this logic the bank has, rightly, long been pushing for the education of girls. The fight against other forms of discrimination can be justified on the same economic grounds.世行的技术解决论在该组织的特色中扮演了一个重要的角色。它的创建文献就写明禁止“政治活动”,无论哪个国家有多么不高兴。只有“经济上的考量”应当与贷款决策有关。这本身并不排斥它反对一些龌龊的法律。从反抗偏见到减轻贫困,人人都能看到之间的联系。群体性的不公平待遇,不管是基于性别、种族还是性征,都会导致社会的排斥,这反过来又可能损害经济增长,使得减轻贫困的道路愈加艰难。正是由于这一逻辑关系,世行长期以来正确地推动了女孩教育。对其他形式歧视的抗争也基于同样的经济原理而合乎情理。A rainbow of reasons原因一箩筐But even if it can be justified in principle, Mr Kims focus on gay rights is likely to be counterproductive in practice, for three reasons. First, it seems capricious. Uganda is hardly the only country with anti-gay laws on the books; nor is it the only one to have recently toughened its anti-gay stance. Almost 80 of the banks member countries, including most in Africa, have legislation that discriminates against gays. In many places the laws are ignored, but several places, notably Ethiopia and Nigeria, have recently introduced stiffer anti-gay statutes. Ugandas behaviour is odious. But it is not alone.但是,就算大体上合乎情理,Kim先生对同性恋权利的关注还是有可能在实践中事与愿违。这出于三个原因。第一,问题反复无常。乌干达不是唯一将反同性恋法合法化的国家,也不是近期唯一强调反同性恋立场的国家。包括非洲多数国家在内的近80个世行的成员国都有歧视同性恋的法律。这些法律在很多地方被忽视,但是在有些地方尤其是埃塞俄比亚和尼日尼亚,最近都出台了更严苛的反同性恋法令。乌干达的做法令人不齿,但它不是唯一有如此行为的国家。Second, the stress on gay rights itself seems arbitrary. Of the many forms of bigotry the bank could battle, it is not clear that anti-gay laws are the most harmful to the poor. The bank lends to plenty of places that discriminate against women under Islamic law. It also lends to countries with laws that discriminate against minorities. The economic impact of these forms of bigotry is far bigger. But if Mr Kim tries to tackle all institutionalised discrimination by withholding lending, he will soon have no customers left.第二,强调同性恋权利本身看来就很武断。在多种形式的世行可以选择对抗的偏见中,并不清楚反同性恋法对穷人造成的伤害就是最大的。世行为很多在伊斯兰法律下歧视女性的地域提供贷款,它也为存在歧视少数民族法律的国家贷款。这些形式的偏见造成的经济危害更大。然而Kim现实试图通过扣贷款的方式来解决一切制度歧视,他很快就会发现他的客户都所剩无几了。Third, his approach is likely to backfire. In the short term, it weakens the campaign to lessen poverty. Ugandas loan, designed to support maternal-care clinics, was the equivalent of 20% of its health budget. And it still has a high child-mortality rate. Politically, the pressure from Mr Kim, though winning plaudits in Washington, is having perverse results, where it matters most. Ugandas government declares itself to be standing up against the arrogant imposition of “Western values”. The more the World Bank adds such conditions to its lending, the more African countries will be inclined to seek money elsewhere, not least from the no-questions-asked Chinese.第三,他的策略可能适得其反。短期来说,它将削弱消除贫困的行动。乌干达的贷款是用来援助当地产科诊所的,它相当于该国卫生预算的20%。现在,乌干达的儿童死亡率还是高居不下。从政治上来说,Kim先生面临的压力正在引发反常的结果。尽管他在华盛顿会议这一举足轻重的场合还是赢得了一片喝。乌干达政府声明反对粗鲁傲慢的“西方价值观”的输入。世行对该国的贷款施加的条件越多,有意从其他渠道寻求资金的非洲国家就会越多,它们尤其可能从不问问题的中国寻求帮助。The uncomfortable truth is that an economic institution like the bank has to pick its battles. There is a limit to how many conditions outsiders can attach to their aid. Its aim is to encourage economic development. Most of the evidence is that the bank is most effective when client countries see it as an economic partner, rather than a boss imposing a Western agenda.像世界这样的经济机构必须选择好战斗方向,这一事实令人不快。外界在援助同时附加的条件是有限度的。世行的目标是推动经济发展。多数据表明,会员国将世行看作经济伙伴而不是强加西方思想的老大才会让世行更加有效率。Ironically, at one level, Mr Kim seems to realise that. He is sponsoring a big management reform designed to make the bank better at finding the most promising solutions from around the world to help countries develop faster. Launching a battle for gay rights may salve consciences, but will make it harder to achieve that goal.很讽刺的是,从一种层面上,Kim先生似乎意识到了这一点:他正在发起一个大型的管理改革,用来使世行在寻找全球范围内帮助国家更快速发展的最有希望的解决方案上做得更好。发起针对同性恋权利的斗争可能会安抚人心,但会使得上述目标的实现变得更加艰难。 201405/297252Business商业报道A pixelated portrait of labour就业市场高清图LinkedIn offers a new way to look at employmentLinkedIn让你用全新的角度看待就业OFFICIAL statistics can tell you how many workers were jobless last month, how many had college degrees and how many worked in construction.官方统计数据能够告诉你上个月有多少人失业,多少个有大学文凭及多少人从事建筑业。But they cannot tell you how many know Hadoop, a software for managing data that is much in demand these days.但这些数据却无法告诉你有多少人会使用Hadoop这个如今需求量甚大的数据管理软件。LinkedIn, however, says it knows that, and much else gleaned from the profiles of its millions of members.然而,LinkedIn说它知道这些,还掌握许多从其数百万会员的注册信息收集而来的其它信息。The social-media website for professionals can tell you that one of the fastest-growing job titles in America is adjunct professor.这个专业人士的社交网站能告诉你,美国从业人数增长最快的一种职业是兼职教授,One of the fastest-shrinking is sales associate.从业人数减少得最快的职业之一是销售人员。Researchers aly mine the internet for hints about disease outbreaks, the national mood or inflation.研究人员已经在网络上找寻关于疾病爆发、国民心态及通货膨胀的线索。LinkedIn thinks its data can do the same for the job market.LinkedIn认为其数据能在就业市场上派上同样的用场。It has more than 150m members worldwide, 60m of them in America.LinkedIn在全球拥有一亿五千万会员,其中六千万来自美国。That should be enough to draw accurate inferences about the entire American labour force.凭此应足以精确推断整个美国劳动力市场的情形。At the request of the White House Council of Economic Advisers, it calculated which industries and job titles were experiencing the biggest gains and losses.应白宫经济顾问委员会的要求,LinkedIn对哪些行业及职业的从业人数最多或最少进行了统计。Scott Nicholson, a data scientist for the firm, says LinkedIn can potentially track such changes in real time,该公司的一位数据科学家 斯科特尼科尔森说,LinkedIn甚至可以实时追踪这些数据的变化,rather than the weeks or months government surveys take.而不像政府调查那样要费时数周或数月。It can also follow occupations and industries, such as e-learning, that dont have their own category in government tallies.LinkedIn也可以追踪如在线学习这种政府记录中没有单列出来的职业与行业的数据。It can trace shifts between regions, sectors and occupations.它还能追踪不同地区、行业、职业之间的变化。Are people quitting law firms to become law professors, moving from Arizona to North Dakota, or what?人们是否辞去了律师事物所的工作去当法律教授了?是否从亚利桑那州搬到了北达科它州?还是其他状况?The firm hopes to be able to track the nations evolving skills base.该公司希望能够对美国人不断发展的技能水平进行追踪。Members routinely pick up new skills and add them to their profile.其会员平日会学习新的技能并将其添加至个人信息中。LinkedIn can see how often job-changers mention a particular skill, such as Hadoop.LinkedIn能够知道跳槽者提及某项技能的频率。Jeff Weiner, the firms boss, imagines that eventually every job opening and its requisite skills will be digitally searchable by every potential candidate,公司老板杰夫韦纳的设想是最终每位潜在的求职者都能在网上搜索到空缺的职位及其所需的技能,使社会能更加人尽其才,reducing the friction that lets millions of vacancies co-exist with high unemployment.而不至于出现有数百万个空缺职位的同时却又失业率高企的局面。Such granularity could revolutionise economic research, says Erik Brynjolfsson of MIT.麻省理工学院的埃里克布吕诺尔夫松说,这种 分辨率会为经济调查带来革命性的变化。But for consistency and longevity, you cant beat the government.但若论调查的连贯性和持久性,无人能胜过政府。As Mr Brynjolfsson notes, Web companies dont tend to have the same lifespan as the US Census Bureau.正如埃里克布吕诺尔夫松所说,网络公司的寿命往往不可能和美国统计局一样长。 /201306/242696

Without the family, Semu could easily be eaten.没有家庭的保护,莎木很容易就被吃掉了。What to happen next will never be known,接下来会怎样,就不知道了。but its likely the rest of the beaches or even ran at the shark with their beaks, chasing it away.但好像家庭的其他成员聚过来了。它们用喙撞击鲨鱼,想赶走它。“Is it Puck?”那是帕克吗?“Theyve all been front.”它们到前面去了。“Isnt that a shark, on your left, at 11, its coming up. ”那是鲨鱼吗?在你左边,11点钟方向,过来了,过来了。“This is another one.”是另外一只。Its a hammerhead, with the family now on full of alert, its not getting any one near Semu.是锤头鲨,家庭成员警觉性很高,哪儿也不去。But seeing two sharks so soon after the birth doesnt bode well.但刚出生就遇到2只鲨鱼,不是什么好兆头。Around here, only half of the calves survive beyond their third year.只有一半的小海豚会活到第3年。Most are lost in the first few weeks of life.大多数没活过刚出生的那几周。Danger over, Semu was finally able to feed.危险结束了,莎木可以吃东西了。Pucks milk is five times richer than human milk, suckling every few minutes. He will gain weight fast.帕克的奶水是人类的5倍多,随时可以喂奶,莎木因此长得很快。Hes going to need all his strength to survive.它需要力量独自求生。With a new baby at the heart of the family, the affection of beaches seems closer than ever.新生儿是家庭的重心,比奇家庭充满了慈爱。201405/300233

Whole Foods Market全食超市Victim of success成功的受害者A peddler of pricey organic and natural foods finds it has competition贩售昂贵的天然有机食品的商贩发现了竞争对手but itll cost you但是售价太高了THE colourful chalkboards and baskets of fruit that greet customers at the entrances of Whole Foods Markets shops paint a rosy picture. Yet shares in the American seller of organic and natural food have fallen by more than 40% since hitting a peak last October, in a period when stockmarkets have been strong.在全食超市的入口处,色斑斓的的黑板画和篮筐里五颜六色的水果迎接着顾客,描绘出一幅乐观的景象。然而美国的天然有机食品售卖者的利润自去年10月触及峰值后,已经下降超过40%,这一时期股票市场一直很强劲。It is not that the retailer is in immediate crisis: its latest quarterly figures, on July 30th, showed sales and profits both up a bit. And it is not that people are going off the idea of paying more for food produced without chemical fertilisers, pesticides or additives: the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements reckons that the industrys worldwide revenues were a record of 63 billion in 2012; and Techsci Research, a market-research firm, predicts that the American market for such foods—the worlds largest—may grow by 14% by 2018.这并不是说零售商的危机迫在眉睫:7月30日,最新一季度的数据显示其销售收入和利润都有所回升。这并不是说人们不想花更多的钱来购买在生产过程中不施用化肥、杀虫剂和添加剂的食品,国际有机农业运动联合会估计,世界范围内此行业2012年年收入为630亿;据一家名为Techsci Research的市场调查公司预测,到2018年,此类食品的世界第一大市场——美国市场的增长也许会达到14%。The problem is that at Whole Foods, shoppers have been paying way over the cost of regular produce, and its success in getting them to do so has now attracted a lot of competitors, from rival organics chains like Sprouts and Trader Joes to mass-market retailers like Walmart and Costco. As a result, the price premium for organic produce is crashing down. On a recent shopping trip, a pound of organic apples cost 2.99 at Whole Foods but just 1.99 at Sprouts and even less at Costco.问题是,在全食超市,消费者购买农产品的花费比其常规生产成本高很多,且如今全食超市的成功已经吸引来更多的竞争对手,从有机生产链竞争对手如Sprouts和Trader Joes到大众市场零售商如沃尔玛、好事多。因此,有机农产品的溢价空间骤缩。近来在各大市场走一圈,一磅有机苹果在全食超市要2.99美元,而在Sprouts仅需1.99美元,在好事多超市价钱甚至更低。The firm has been trimming costs to keep its margins up, but the slump in its share price reflects investors expectation that this cannot continue, that profits will suffer and that Whole Foods dominance of the market is coming to an end.全食公司正削减成本以维持利润空间,但其股价的暴跌反映了投资者的预期:这不能继续,利润就会受到影响,以至于全食公司的市场主导地位将会被终结。That the company has had to recall a number of products—in late July it and other grocers recalled plums and peaches suspected of contamination with Listeria bacteria—has made it harder to maintain an air of superiority over its competitors. Organic foods claim to superiority is questionable anyway. Both Britains Food Standards Agency and the Annals of Internal Medicine, a journal, concluded after reviewing the extensive studies on the issue that there is no substantial difference in the nutritiousness of organics and non-organics. In some respects organics may be bad for the environment, because growing them uses land less efficiently than non-organics.全食公司不得不召回大量农产品——在7月下旬,全食公司以及其他零售商召回了怀疑受到李斯特菌污染的梅子和桃子,这使其更难维持其竞争优势。无论如何,有机食品所宣称的优势存在问题。英国食品标准局与《内科医学年鉴》杂志,在对此问题的广泛研究进行审查后得出结论:有机食品和非有机食品在营养成分上没有实质的区别。在某些方面,有机食品也许会对环境不利,因为种植有机蔬菜比种植非有机蔬菜的土地使用效率低。As for “natural” foods, there is no official definition of this, inAmericaat least; so the label, which Whole Foods also applies to many products, is close to meaningless. Alan McHughen, a botanist at theUniversityofCalifornia,Riverside, argues that the whole industry is “99% marketing and public perception,” reeling people in through a fabricated concept of a time when food, and life in general, was simple and wholesome.对于“天然”食品,没有官方定义,至少在美国没有;因此全食公司在其许多产品上贴上此类标签,近乎毫无意义。加州大学河畔分校的植物学家Alan McHughen认为,整个行业就是99%的市场营销和公众看法,这些把人们卷入一个被捏造的观念中:这个时代,食物和日常生活就是简单与健康。If true, the trick has worked nicely for Whole Foods. But its success has attracted so many imitators that it is losing its uniqueness. Even recent speculation about a takeover bid has failed to lift its shares. It may insist its food is sustainable. But it seems its prices are not.如果真是如此,这招对全食公司很有帮助。但它的成功吸引来如此多的效仿者以至于它正失去其独特性。甚至最近,一个关于收购全食公司的炒作也未能提振其股价。它也许坚持认为其食品是可持续发展的。但似乎其食品的售价并非如此。 /201408/318059

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