原标题: 樊城区人民医院正规京东时讯
In an archived comic from Dog House Diaries, the artist places two near-identical images side by side. In the first image, one male looks on as another scrawls a mathematical equation on a chalk board.《舍日记》上曾刊载过一个漫画,漫画家把两张几乎相同的图片放在一起,在第一张图中,一个男生坐在一边,看另一个男生歪歪扭扭地在黑板上写下一个方程式。;Wow, you suck at math,; the male says to the other male. In the next image, a female is seen scrawling the exact same equation on a chalkboard. ;Wow, girls suck at math,; the same male onlooker states. Although humorous, the comic speaks of a pernicious view that continues to affect women and society. Despite the continued progress with females in the workforce, there is still a notable absence of women leading math and science professions. It isn#39;t simply men who perpetuate the stereotype that women are not as innately inclined to these subjects—far from it! Several studies have shown unconscious biases across the board toward women in regard to their skills in math and science. Even some well-meaning teachers are being shown to believe these stereotypes, and thus the oppression of girls—some who could very well retain the skill set to be math and science prodigies—continues as women choose more ;feminine; professions and men lead the pack when it comes to math, science, technology and engineering. Below, we are counting down the top 10 reasons you (yes, you) believe that girls are bad at math and science. Alongside these reasons, we will be providing research studies and analyses that debunk these beliefs.;哇喔,你的数学糟透了,;旁观的男生对小伙伴说。另外一幅图中,旁观的男生没变,写方程式的是一个女生。;天哪!女生的数学糟透了!;男生如是说。尽管看起来挺幽默,这则漫画却影射了一个不好的观点,一个持续困扰女性群体乃至整个社会的观点:尽管女性在人才市场的情况已不断改进,但理科领域的女性领军人物少之又少。长期以来,男性都认为女性根本没有理科慧根,可原因不仅仅如此,甚至还相差很远。数项研究发现,人们的确对女性理科能力存在广泛的偏见,甚至还有几位好心的专家指出:即使女孩们选择了;女性化;的职业——其中不乏一些条件不错,可能成为理科精英的女性,她们也还将受到这种偏见带来的压力,而男孩子则继续在理科领域遥遥领先。下面,我们就列出你(没错!就是你!)认为女性不擅理科的十大原因,同时,我们会用研究和数据一一拆穿这些谬误。10.Bias10.偏见We all know that you shouldn#39;t hire someone under bias or prejudice, and although we still have a long way to go, there has been significant progress in hiring processes that work to ensure that discrimination is not a factor in the process. Still, with the average woman continuing to earn less than men overall, there is still plenty of room (as in, acres and acres#39; worth of room) for improvement.目前,社会招聘程序已取得显著进步,确保整个过程免受歧视或偏见的影响。因为我们知道,招聘就不应心怀成见,尽管为达到这一目标,我们还有很长一段路要走,目前女性整体人均工资水平仍低于男性,我们的进步空间还很大(按照目前这种速度来的话)。Not all employers who make biased decisions while hiring actually intend to be biased in their decision. What if someone has an implicit or unconscious bias that is affecting their decisions? Sometimes even the most well-meaning of employers fall victim to their subconscious, and this in turn can have an impact on the people we seeing leading fields like math and science (among others). A 2008 study placed employers in one group and ;job candidates; of different gender in another group. The researchers gave candidates a math test which entailed, ;…adding up sets of two-digit numbers in a 4-minute math sprint. (The researchers did not tell the subjects, but it is aly known that men and women perform equally well on this task.); In spite of the simple math task being one that both genders could excel at, it was found that when employers were given a photograph of the candidate (which was the only information they had on the candidate), ;…men were twice as likely to be hired for the simple math job, no matter whether it was a man or woman doing the hiring…; Moreover, the employers were given an Implicit Association Test, which revealed unconscious biases in regard to perceived ability for men and women in mathematical professions.并不是所有做出带有偏见的决定的雇主就心怀成见。如果说是他们的潜意识左右了他们呢?有时候,即使一些心怀善念的雇主都会受其影响,反过来,这也会影响我们看待理科等顶尖领域中所谓高知的眼光。2008年一项研究将雇主和应聘者分成两组。每位应聘者都会做一项测试:;4分钟内完成两位数加法速算。;(当时,双方对这项研究都不知情,但大家都已知道,受测的男女表现不分伯仲)在这一测试中,男女的表现都相当出色,但当拿到受测对象的照片时(这是雇主仅有的关于应聘者的唯一信息),男性被录取的可能性整整高出了一倍——无论雇主是男是女,同时,雇主们还做了一项內隐联想测试,测试结果也暴露了人们潜意识中对男女理科能力高下的判断。9.Self Fulfilling Prophecies9.自我实现预期A self-fulfilling prophecy is defined as, ;Any positive or negative expectation about circumstances, events, or people that may affect a person#39;s behavior toward them in a manner that causes those expectations to be fulfilled…An employer who, for example, expects the employees to be disloyal and shirkers, will likely treat them in a way that will elicit the very response he or she expects.;自我实现预期是指人们对环境、事件、他人都会抱有的某种或好或坏的期待,这些期待会影响人们待人接物的行为,从而使这些期待变成现实。例如:一位雇主觉得自己的雇员是一群不忠的混吃等死之辈,那他对待雇员的方式可能让雇员真的变成他想象中的那样。In the above example, we saw how bias from employers could lead to such self-fulfilling prophecies, and girls and women have been shown to unconsciously secure their fates as those that either shy away from math and science professions, or whose ability to perform well in these subjects is hindered by internalization of biases. From a very young age, girls and boys are bombarded with messages about how their gender dictates certain facets of their personality as well as their aspirations. Boys may strive for success in math and science because they are led to believe that their gender provides them with innate skills in these subjects, while girls may experience anxiety at school while being handed math and science projects after being led to believe these subjects will never be their strong suit. A 2012 study published in Psychological Science sought to investigate the impact that entity theories (defined as the belief that innate qualities can dictate your skill set) had on children. The study involved 144 children between the ages of four and seven who were all instructed to play a matching game involving 3-D block images. During the first round of the game, one of the researchers told some of the children that the boys playing the game were more successful, while a second group was told that one of the females had excelled at the game, and a third group was given no information.上面的例子揭露了偏见是如何影响雇主的自我实现预期。相应的,女性也常无意识地选择明哲保身:有些人远离涉及理科的领域,有能力驾驭这些学科也逐渐在泛滥的偏见中黯然失色。人们从小就被灌输了大量诸如;性别决定性格;、;性别决定志向;的理论。男生决心在理科上大展拳脚,因为人们说男生生来就是学理的料,女生却常常在接到理科项目时感到焦虑,因为人还说,理科从来都不是女生的强项。2012年,一项出版在《心理科学》的实验试图揭示实体理论(即天分决定技能论)对小孩的影响,实验对象是144名4-7岁的儿童,他们将在接受指导后玩一个3D图像的连线游戏。第一轮游戏期间,一位研究员告诉第一组:男生更会玩这个游戏,告诉第二组:其中一名女生已出色完成游戏,第三组没有任何提示。The impact of those statements was evident in the second, more challenging round of the game. As summarized by Slate: ;The scores of those who were given the gender prompts fell by an average of 12.8 percent. By contrast, children who were told about another individual child#39;s success or failure stayed about the same. Scores fell 2.9 percent among the kids who heard nothing.;这些话在更加激烈的第二轮游戏中收到可立竿见影的效果。实验结果如下:第一组分数下降12.8%,第二组分数持平,第三组分数下降2.9%。8.Both Genders Believe the Stereotype8.男性女性都相信;女性不擅理;It isn#39;t simply men who are perpetuating the stereotype that girls and women are bad at math and science—many females believe it too! In our first example where employers were found to have biases against women in regard to mathematical ability, the female employers were found to have just as strong as a bias as the male employers. Furthermore, various STEM research studies have shown that ;…barriers like stereotypes, gender bias, and a discouraging classroom atmosphere can deter women from pursuing careers in these areas and may explain why there are so few female scientists and engineers.; Another STEM research study noted, ;Femininity is linked to math anxiety towards math and doing worse in math, so it may be difficult for women to feel both feminine and confident in their math abilities.;长期以来,使;女性不擅理;这一理论根深蒂固的不仅仅是男性,女性也相信这一理论。第一个例子中,雇主普遍对女性的数学能力存在偏见,其中,女雇主的成见并不比男雇主少。STEM(科学,技术,工程,数学)研究发现,成见、性别歧视、压抑的课堂氛围都会使女性在面对理科职业时望而却步,这也是女性科学家、女工程师如此之少的原因。还有STEM调查表明,女性特征与数学焦虑、不擅数学息息相关,所以让一个散发着女性光辉的女生对数学充满信心是相当困难的。7.Ability Varies by Country7.在不同国家,女性理工科的能力千差万别When it comes to a nature versus nurture argument regarding females and their abilities within math and science, nurture would reign supreme according to recent studies. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, ;…15-year-old girls around the world, outperform boys in science – except for in the ed States, Britain and Canada.;研究发现:在男女理科能力的种族大比拼中,后天培养起着主导作用。据经济合作和发展组织称,除了美国、英国和加拿大之外,其他国家和地区中十五岁左右的女性都会在理科上表现得比男性更出色。Further research showed that, ;…countries with the poorest degrees of gender equality also have the widest gulfs between male and female mathematical performance.; Conversely, the US Department of Education found that girls, ;…who have a strong self-concept regarding their abilities in math or science are more likely to choose and perform well in elective math and science courses and to select math and science-related college majors and careers.; None of this evidence is surprising, but it is disconcerting to think that girls and women who would otherwise be excelling in math and science and who may also have potential to expound upon these talents with successful—and profitable—careers within the field are pursuing different trajectories due to the biases against them.调查还发现:一个国家,男女越平等,男女间数学能力上的差距越小。而美国教育部却发现了一个不同的结果:那些对自己工科能力具有强烈认知的女性会在工科选修课上表现出色。同时,她们也会更偏向于选择在大学进修理工类相关专业,毕业后从事理工类相关工作。上述的调查结果并不令人惊讶,令人惊讶的是:那些本可以在理工科游刃有余的姑娘们,那些本可以在理工类职业中扬名立万的姑娘们,为何就因为社会偏见而选择了其他职业呢?6.Women Choose ;Love; Over Math and Science6.感性胜于理性On an unconscious level, some women feel that pursuing careers in math and science will make them less romantically desirable. During middle and high school years, girls—particularly heterosexual girls—are liable to conform to what society purports to be ;attractive; and ;desirable; to the opposite sex. Girls are taught to be delicately feminine while boys are taught to be brawny and masculine.女性在潜意识里认为追求理科学位会令自己缺乏浪漫因子。进入中学的姑娘们——特指直女——开始遵循社会对女性的要求,变得;具有吸引力;和;令人觉得性感;,女孩就应该变得优雅有女人味,如同男孩就应该健壮有男人味。In 2011, Psychology Today made note of different studies that showed women believed men would find them less desirable if they pursued mathematics or science careers and that women also cared about math less when having ;romance on the mind.; ;In one study, male and female undergraduates saw images related to either romance (romantic restaurants, beach sunsets, lit candles) or intelligence (eyeglasses, libraries, books), in order to get the students thinking about their romantic or achievement-related goals. Later, they rated their interest in math, technology, science and engineering. The researchers found that among men, interest in these subjects was not influenced by the images they had seen. But among women, those who viewed romantic images expressed far less interest in math and science. (Interestingly, women who viewed intelligence images expressed the same level of interest as the men!); Psychology Today went on to note the implications these types of stereotypes have for men as well, i.e., just as women may shy away from careers that are perceived as ;masculine;, men may shy away from careers that are perceived as ;feminine;, such as those within teaching, counseling and the arts.在2011年《今日心理学》曾指出,各类研究表明女性普遍认为:工科女性缺少男人缘,而满脑子桃色念头的女生也的确不太关心理工学科的内容。;在一个高校学生的文理职业理想,研究人员先让他们分别观察感性图片(如浪漫的餐厅、黄昏的沙滩、燃烧的烛光)和理性图片(如眼镜、图书馆、书籍),然后开始测试学生对数学、技术类学科、工程学的兴趣度。研究发现,男生感兴趣的学科并不受所看图片的影响。但在女生当中,观察感性图片的人则对数学和科学很不感冒。(有意思的是,观察理性图片的女生对理工类学科的兴趣度与男生是一样!);《今日心理学》后来又指出,此类刻板印象对男性也具有影响。也就是说,就像女性怕被喊成;女汉子;而怯于去获取更多学位,男性同样怕被视为很;娘;而不愿意去取得诸如教育、咨询或艺术相关的学位。审校:西瓜 编辑:listen 来源:前十网 /201601/422954

Qing Dynasty清朝The Taiping Rebellion太平起义During the mid-nineteenth century, China’s problems were compounded by natural calamities of unprecedented proportions, including droughts, famines, and floods.19世纪中期,中国的麻烦由空前的自然灾害造成,包括干旱、饥荒和洪水。Government neglect of public works was in part responsible for this and other disasters, and the Qing administration did little to relieve the widesp misery caused by them.政府对于市政工程的忽视是造成灾害和其他一些灾难的部分原因,并且清政府并没有实行举措来缓解由它们带来的大范围苦难。Economic tensions, military defeats at Western hands, and anti-Manchu sentiments all combined to produce widesp unrest, especially in the south.经济紧张、与西方国家交战失败和反清的情绪共同导致了广泛的动荡,尤其是在南方地区。South China had been the last area to yield to the Qing conquerors and the first to be exposed to Western influence.中国南方是最后一片向清朝屈也是最早受到西方影响的地方。It provided a likely setting for the largest uprising in modem Chinese history---- the Taiping Rebellion.这为中国近现代史上最大的一次起义——太平起义创造了条件。The Taiping rebels were led by Hong Xiuquan (1814—1864), a village teacher and unsuccessful imperial examination candidate.太平起义军由洪秀全(1814——1864)领导,他是一个乡村先生,在科举考试中名落孙山。Hong formulated an eclectic ideology combining the ideals of pre-Confucian utopianism with Protestant beliefs.洪秀全制定了一个折衷的意识形态,将早先儒家的乌托邦思想与新教的信仰结合起来。He soon had a following in the thousands who were heavily anti-Manchu and anti-establishment.他迅速拥有了成千上万反清和反建制的追随者。Hong’s followers formed a military organization to protect against bandits and recruited troops not only among believers but also from among other armed peasant groups and secret societies.追随者们成立了一个军事组织以对抗土匪并从其他农民武装组织和机密团体而不仅仅是教徒中招募军人。In 1851 Hong Xiuquan and others launched an uprising in Guizhou Province.1851年,洪秀全和其他人在贵州省发动起义。Hong proclaimed the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (or Taiping Tianguo) with himself as king.他建立了太平天国并自己称帝。The new order was to reconstitute a legendary ancient state in which the peasantry owned and tilled the land in common; slavery, concubinage, arranged marriage, opium smoking, footbinding, judicial torture, and the worship of idols were all to be eliminated.新规规定要重新建立一个传说中的国度,农民共同拥有和耕作土地;奴隶制、纳妾制、包办婚姻、抽鸦片、缠足、严星拷问和偶像崇拜都被禁止。The Taiping tolerance of the esoteric rituals and quasi-religious societies of south China---- themselves a threat to Qing stability---- and their relentless attacks on Confucianism---- still widely accepted as the moral foundation of Chinese behavior ---- contributed to the ultimate defeat of the rebellion.太平天国对于中国南方的神秘仪式和准宗教社会的宽容使它们成为了清朝的一大威胁,它们对于仍被认作是中国行为道德根基的儒家文化的残酷攻击导致了起义的最终失败。Its advocacy of radical social reforms alienated the Han Chinese scholar-gentry class.它们对激进的社会改革的拥护使其遭到了中国汉家上流学者阶层的孤立。The Taiping army, although it had captured Nanjing and driven as far north as Tianjin, failed to establish stable base areas.太平军尽管攻占了南京又向北打到了天津却没能建立一个稳定的根据地。The movements leaders found themselves in a net of internal feuds, defections, and corruption.统治者间存在着内部纷争、变节与贪污腐败。Additionally, British and French forces, being more willing to deal with the weak Qing administration than contend with the uncertainties of a Taiping regime, came to the assistance of the imperial army.不仅如此,英国和法国的军队更希望与清朝谈判而不愿与太平天国的不确定作斗争,他们为朝廷军提供了帮助。Before the Chinese army succeeded in crushing the revolt, however, 14 years had passed, and well over 30 million people were reported killed.在中国军队成功摧毁起义前已经过去了14年,据传被杀害的人数超过了30000000.To defeat the rebellion, the Qing court needed, besides Western help, an army stronger and more popular than the demoralized imperial forces.为了击败叛乱,清廷除了需要西方军队的帮助外还需要一只更强大、比士气低迷的朝廷军更得民心的军队。In 1860, scholar-official Zeng Guofan (1811—1872), from Hunan Province, was appointed imperial commissioner and governor-general of the Taiping-controlled territories and placed in command of the war against the rebels.1860年,来自湖南省的士大夫曾国藩(1811——1872)被任命为钦差大臣以及太平天国统治地区的总督,他被命令与起义军开战。Zeng’s Hunan army, created and paid for by local taxes, became a powerful new fighting force under the command of eminent scholar-generals.曾国藩由当地税收创建和付薪酬的湘军,在这位杰出的士大夫将领的指导下,成为了一强大的新的作战部队。Zeng’s success gave new power to an emerging Han Chinese elite and eroded Qing authority.他的胜利为出现的汉人精英提供了新的力量并瓦解了清朝的主权。Simultaneous uprisings in north China (the Nian Rebellion) and southwest China (the Muslim Rebellion) further demonstrated Qing weakness.在中国北部(捻军起义)和西南部(穆斯林起义)同时发生的叛乱进一步展现了清朝的软弱无能。 /201512/412276

As the population imbalance in China between men and women has become intensive, Xie Zuoshi, a professor with the School of Economics and International Trade at Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, said in his blog that the problem can be solved by allowing polyandry.对于国内男女比例越来越不均衡,浙江大学国际经济贸易学院的谢作诗在他的客中说道这个问题可以通过允许一妻多夫制解决。This view is presented in an article written by Xie, ;No Need to Worry about 30 Million Single Men;, which is under severe criticism as many consider it violating moral standard.这个观点出自谢作诗的文章《三千万光棍是杞人忧天》,受到了严重批评,很多人称其破坏了道德准则。According to the National Bureau of Statistics, due to a severe gender imbalance, China will have more than 30 million men who cannot find wives. Sociology experts worry that this will turn into a severe social problem for the country.根据国家统计局数据显示,由于严重的男女比例失调,中国将有超过三千万男性找不到配偶。社会学专家担心这将变成一个严重的社会问题。Xie Zuoshi wrote that he does not think the imbalance will develop into a severe social problem because analyzed by economic theories, the 30 million single men problem can be viewed as a problem of high-income versus low income and several low-income earners can share a wife.谢教授并不认为这种比例失衡会造成严重社会问题,因为这三千万男性可以看作是一种高收入男性VS低收入男性,而低收入者可以几个人有一个妻子。;Males with high-income will get married easier because they can afford a wife. For low-incomers, one solution is to allow polyandry,; he wrote. ;In fact, in some rural areas in China, there are situations in which brothers of a family share one wife and they also live happily together.他说:;高收入男性更容易结婚,因为他们更能养得起自己的妻子。对于低收入者,一个解决方法是允许一妻多夫。实际上在很多中国农村地区,一家几兄弟配一个妻子的现象的确存在,而且他们生活很幸福。;He said that if polyandry is legalized, it would be a perfect solution to solve the 30 million single men#39;s sexual needs, which he believed will be the most important factor in igniting social unrest.他说这三千万男性的生理需求将是引起社会不安的重要因素,而一夫多妻可以解决这一问题。In addition, Xie Zuoshi wrote that with better economic development, more women from Africa and Southeast Asia will be attracted to marry Chinese men and allowing gay marriage will also relieve the problem.除此以外,谢教授还写道,随着经济发展,更多的来自非洲和东南亚的女性会愿意嫁到中国,允许同性婚姻也会缓解这一问题。While putting forward solutions, he also said that the abuse of estrogen in food might reduce sexual needs and capabilities of men in China.除了推荐解决方法外,他还称食物中滥用雌性激素可能会减少中国男性的生理需求和性能力。 /201510/406821Just one year after 2014 set a record as the hottest year in the historical record, 2015 is on track to beat it by a substantial margin, possibly signaling a return to a sustained period of rapid global warming.2014年是有历史记录以来最热的年份,仅仅一年后,2015年就显示了大举刷新记录的趋势,这可能预示着我们将回归到全球气温持续急速上升的阶段。The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the American agency that tracks worldwide temperatures, announced Wednesday that last month had been the hottest September on record, and that the January-to-September period had also been the hottest since 1880. Scientists say it is now all but certain that the full year will be the hottest on record, too.美国国家海洋与大气(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)对全球气温进行了追踪,该机构本周三宣布,自1880年有记录以来,上个月是最热的9月,今年1月到9月也比所有往年同期更热,科学家说,现在几乎可以肯定,今年全年将创下最热的新纪录。That means that delegates to a global climate conference scheduled for Paris in early December will almost certainly be convening at a time when climate-related disasters are unfolding around the world, putting them under greater pressure to reach an ambitious deal to limit future emissions and slow the temperature increase.这意味着,全球气候会议今年12月初在巴黎召开期间,与气候有关的灾害几乎肯定正在世界各地徐徐展开,这将让代表们面临更大的压力,要达成一项雄心勃勃的协议,以限制未来的温室气体排放,减缓温度上升的速度。The immediate cause of the record-breaking warmth is a strong El weather pattern, in which the ocean releases immense amounts of heat into the atmosphere. But temperatures this year are running far ahead of those during the last strong El , in 1997 and 1998, and scientists said the record heat would not have occurred without an underlying trend of warming caused by human emissions of greenhouse gases.气温上升破纪录的直接原因,是出现了强烈的厄尔尼诺气候特征,海洋把大量热量释放到大气中。上一次强烈的厄尔尼诺现象出现在1997年和1998年,但今年的气温远高于那次,科学家表示,如果没有人类排放温室气体造成的变暖趋势,这种创纪录的高温原本不会出现。“We have no reason at this point to think that El itself is responding to the forcing from greenhouse gases,” said Richard Seager, a climate scientist at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. “You can think of them as independent and adding to each other.”“目前我们没有理由认为,厄尔尼诺现象本身是在对温室气体的排放做出反应,”哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)拉蒙特-多尔蒂地球观测中心(Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)的气候专家理查德·西格(Richard Seager)说。“你可以把它们看作两个独立因素,互相叠加。”The El phenomenon and the accompanying heat are aly roiling weather patterns worldwide, likely contributing to dry weather and forest fires in Indonesia, to an incipient drought in Australia, and to a developing food emergency across parts of Africa, including a severe drought in Ethiopia. Those effects are likely to intensify in coming months.厄尔尼诺现象及其带来的热度,已经对世界各地的天气规律产生了影响,比如印尼出现干旱,发生了森林火灾,澳大利亚进入早期干旱阶段,在非洲的部分地区,食品紧张状况正在恶化,埃塞俄比亚发生了严重旱灾。这些问题可能会在未来几个月内加剧。Past patterns suggest that El will send unusual amounts of rain and snow to the American Southwest and to California, offering some relief for that parched state but also precipitating floods and mudslides. The California effects are likely to be strongest in the latter part of the winter, experts said.过去的规律表明,厄尔尼诺现象将给美国西南部和加州带来不同寻常的大量雨雪,在一定程度上缓解该州的炎热状况,但也会引发洪水和泥石流。专家说,加州在冬末期间受到的影响可能会最大。Earlier this year, the global warmth contributed to a spring heat wave in India and Pakistan that killed many people, possibly several thousand, with temperatures hitting 118 degrees Fahrenheit in parts of India. The effects on the natural world have been severe as well, with extreme ocean temperatures bleaching coral reefs around the world, and many of them likely to suffer lasting damage.今年早些时候,在全球气温上升的影响下,印度和巴基斯坦遭受热浪袭击,丧生人数可能高达几千,在印度部分地区,气温创下118华氏度(约48摄氏度)的记录。自然界遭受的影响也同样严重,极端海洋温度令世界各地的珊瑚礁发生白化现象,其中很多可能受到了持久性的损害。Forecasters have been issuing warnings about a strong El for many months. The coming few months will test whether governments, and the global relief agencies that support poor countries, have prepared, particularly to provide food relief for hard-hit regions.天气预测者数月来一直发布警告称,将会出现强烈的厄尔尼诺现象。未来几个月将会是一段考验期,考验政府及持贫穷国家的全球救援机构是否已经做好准备,特别是为受灾严重的地方提供粮食救济。“The warning is out,” Dr. Seager said. “The world has had time to plan for this.”“已经发出了警告,”西格士说。“全球有时间做计划。”Though worldwide in scope, El originates in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, when normal weather patterns shift in a way that allows the ocean to release large amounts of stored-up heat into the atmosphere. That perturbs atmospheric waves that can travel thousands of miles, redistributing heat and moisture around the globe.尽管范围涉及全球,厄尔尼诺现象始于热带东太平洋,正常的天气规律发生转变,使得海洋向空气中释放大量储存热量。这扰乱了能够传播数千英里的大气波动,在全球重新分配热量和水分。The effects can be profound, with some research even suggesting that civil wars become more likely in tropical countries when they are under stress from an El .影响可能非常深远,一些研究甚至指出,热带国家受到厄尔尼诺现象带来的压力时,更可能爆发内战。The World Food Program, a ed Nations relief agency, is aly preparing for larger operations across Africa, and appealing for donations. Harvests are down across large swaths of that huge continent, and the number of people going hungry in Ethiopia is likely to be in the millions in coming months, relief groups have estimated.联合国救援机构世界粮食计划署(World Food Program)已经准备在非洲开展更大规模的行动,并呼吁大家捐款。据救援组织估计,非洲大陆大部分区域的收成有所下降,未来几个月,埃塞尔比亚的饥饿人口可能达到数百万。 /201510/405243Rise and Fall of Eastern Han Dynasty东汉的兴起于衰落A distant relative of Liu royalty, Liu Xiu, led the revolt against Wang Mang with the support of the landholding families and merchants.刘皇室的远亲刘秀在地主和商人的持下带头反抗王莽。He “reestablished” the Han Dynasty at Luoyang, which would rule for another 200 years, and became Emperor Guangwu of Han China.他在洛阳“复兴”了汉室,使其又存在了200年,他就是汉朝的光武帝。In 105, During Eastern Han Dynasty, an official and inventor named Cai Lun invented the technique for making fine paper.公元105年,东汉年间,一位叫蔡伦的官员和发明家创造了一种制作高级纸张的技术。The invention of paper is considered a revolution in communication and learning, dramatically lowering the cost of education.纸的发明被认为是对于交流和学习的一场革命,它极大地降低了学习的成本。Nevertheless the Eastern Han emperors failed to put forward any groundbreaking land reforms after the failure of its precedent dynasty.然而,东汉时期的皇帝没能在前朝的失败后提出一些开创性的土地改革。Rife bureaucratic corruption and bribery contributed into lingering adverse consequences of land privatizations throughout the dynasty.当时盛行的官僚腐败与行贿受贿带来了一直影响着这个朝代土地私有化的负面后果。Prestige of a newly founded dynasty during the reigns of first three emperors were barely able to hinder the corruption ;在前三位帝王统治下的新立朝代的威望很难阻止腐败,however Confucian scholar gentry turned on eunuchs for their corrupted authorities when consort clans and eunuchs struggled for power in subsequent reigns.但是当那些儒家贵族看到外戚与太监们在后来继位的皇帝统治时互相争权夺利就把社会的腐败全部归因于太监。None of these three parties was able to improve the harsh livelihood of peasants under the landholding families.这三群人都无法改善受地主压迫的农民的艰难生活。Land privatizations and accumulations on the hands of the elite affected the societies of the Three Kingdoms and the Southern and Northern Dynasties that the landholding elite held the actual driving and ruling power of the country.精英控制下的土地私有化与不断积累影响着三国和南北朝时期的社会,因为地主精英掌握了国家的实际领导力和执政权。Successful ruling entities worked with these families, and consequently their policies favored the elite.成功的政权与这些家族合作,最终使贵族受到政策优待。Adverse effects of the Nine grade controller system or the Nine rank system were brilliant examples.九品中正制的负面效果就是极佳的例子。Taiping Taoist ideals of equal rights and equal land distribution quickly sp throughout the peasantry.太平道教对于权利平等和土地费配均衡的想法很快在农民中传开了。As a result, the peasant insurgents of the Yellow Turban Rebellion swarmed the North China Plain, the main agricultural sector of the country.因此,黄巾军中的农民反叛军蜂拥至国家重要的农业区——中国北部平原。Power of the Liu royalty then fell into the hands of local governors and warlords, despite suppression of the main upraising of Zhang Jiao and his brothers.尽管有张角兄弟为主力的镇压,刘皇室的权力后来还是落入了地方首领和军阀的手中。Three overlords eventually succeeded in control of the whole of China proper, ushering in the period of the Three Kingdoms.三位君主最总成功控制了中原地区,引领时代进入三国时期。The figurehead Emperor Xian reigned until A.D. 220 when Cao Pi forced his abdication.傀儡皇帝汉献帝在曹丕的逼迫下于公元220年退位。In 311, around one hundred years after the fall of the Eastern Han, its capital Luoyang was sacked by barbarians.311年,大约是东汉王朝覆灭后的100年,一群蛮族人洗劫了当年的都城洛阳。 /201510/397354

South China#39;s island province Hainan opened a new stretch of track that completes the world#39;s first high-speed train line circling an island.中国南方的海南省,近日开启了一条新的高铁路线,这条路线也是世界上首个环岛的高铁路线。The circular line stretches across the beautiful landscapes of 12 different cities and counties at over 200 km/h. It reduces the travel time from around eight hours by car to three hours and 10 minutes.环岛高铁将以200公里的时速,串联起海南12个市县的美丽风景,将此前8小时左右的车程缩短至3小时10分钟。The 345-km west loop high-speed railway was officially put into operation on Wednesday. It has 16 stops in six cities and counties, linking provincial capital Haikou with Sanya, a tropical tourist spot. It began construction in Sept 2013 with an investment of 27 billion yuan (.23 billion).这条长达345km的环形高铁路线西线在本周三正式投入运营。沿线经过6个县市,并设有16个站点,将省会城市海口与著名热带旅游景点三亚连接了起来。该路线于2013年9月开工,共投资270亿元(42.3亿美元)。The 308-km eastern ring, also from Haikou to Sanya, was put into operation at the end of 2010 with a designed speed of up to 250 km per hour. It passes Boao, a scenic town where the Boao Forum for Asia is held annually.而另一条从海口到三亚的环岛东线,长达308km,在2010年末便开始投入使用,其设计速度高达250km/h。东线穿过了风景秀丽的鳌,每年的鳌亚洲论坛也在那里举行。With a land area of 35,400 square km, Hainan is slightly larger than Belgium. A popular destination for beach lovers, it is expected to receive 47 million visitors this year.海南省占地35400平方公里,较比利时面积略大一些。该省也是深受海滩爱好者欢迎的目的地。预计今年海南将迎来4700万游客。 /201601/419594In the fields of science and culture, the Eastern Han exceeded the former Western Han due to the enhanced regime and the maintained stability of the society in its early period.东汉前期,政权进一步加强,国家趋于稳定,文化、科学技术等方面的发展都超过了西汉的水平。Wang Chong was a militant materialist and philosopher, whose main workLuAi/ie/ig (Discourses Weight in the Balance) lashed out at orthodox theology, and showed a rationalist critic of superstition and the thought of cosmic universalism.王充是唯物主义思想家和哲学家,著《论衡》 抨击封建神学,批判神秘主义和世俗迷信。Regarding yuan qi (primordial substance) as the original material basis of all things, heaven and earth included, he took matter as the point of departure in interpreting natural phenomena and life itself.他主张元气论,认为天地万物都是元气分化出来的,人与物禀气而生,气散而亡,天道自然无为,没有意志和神灵。His great book erected a monument in Chinese history of atheism in the method of demonstration and argumentation.他的著作用实和说理的方法,在中国无神论史上树起一座丰碑。Ban Gu was the editor of Comprehensive Discussions in the White Tiger Hall , but what earned his lasting academic fame is his History of the Han Dynasty .东汉班固是《白虎通义》的编撰者,但使他名声大震的却是《汉书》。Following the biographic-thematic style of Records of the Historian , Ban Gu spent twenty years finishing this voluminous work.班固花费20多年的心血,仿《史记》,著成了中国第一部断代史《汉书》。The book comprises 100 volumes, covering the history of 230 years from the peasant uprisings towards the end of the Qin Dynasty to the defeat of Wang Mang.《汉书》共100篇,叙述了秦末农民战争至王莽覆灭的230年的断代历史。In 105, Cai Lun improved the old technique of paper making, using tree barks, rags and old fishing nets to make paper,which was called Marquis Cai,s paper in honour of the inventor.公元105年,蔡伦改造了原有的纸张制造技术,用树皮、麻头、破布、旧渔网等原料造纸,被称为“蔡侯纸”。It put an end to the use of bamboo slips as writing materials and became one of the four great ancient Chinese inventions. Chinese paper making was sp to Japan from Korea in the 7th century,to Arabia in the 8th and to Europe in the 12th, which contributed greatly to the development ol world culture.中国的文字记录方式脱离了使用竹简的时代,同时造纸术也成为中国古代四大发明之一,中国的造纸术在7世纪传人日本、朝鲜,8 世纪传人阿拉伯,12世纪传入欧洲,这都极大地促进了世界文化的发展。In the field of natural science, represented by Zhang Heng, the academe of the Eastern Han made great achievements.在自然科学方面,以张衡为代表的东汉学术界,有着很高的成就。Zhang Heng invented seismography and the Armillary Sphere so as to observe the universe and perceive earthquake. The theories of making this equipment are still in a wide application.张衡则以高超的工艺制造了“浑天仪”、“地动仪”等科学仪器,观察天象,感应地震。制造这些仪器的原理至今仍被广泛使用。The Mathematics in Nine Sections , completed in early Eastern Han after repeated revision over a long period, systematically summarized the important achievements in this field since the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods.《九章算术》完成于东汉初年。此前先后有多人对 其进行了修改、补充。该书系统总结了春秋、战国以来的数学成就。The book contained 264 applied mathematics problems and was divided into nine sections according to the methods of solution and field of application.书中收有264个数学应用问题,并依照问题的解法和应用范围分为9个部分。Its appearance demonstrated that mathematics in China had developed into a scientific system.《九章算术》的完成标志着中国的数学已发展成为一个科学体系。Emperor Shen Nong*s Material and Medica (Shengnong Bai Cao) is the earliest existent pharmaceutical work of the Eastern Han and the first systematic conclusion about the medicine application, known as the classic of the traditional Chinese pharmaceutical system.《神农本草经》是现存最早的药物学专著,为我国早期临床用药经验的第一次系统总结,历代被誉为中药学经典著作。The book is composed of three volumes, recording 365 kinds of medicine—252medicinal herbs, 67 animal drugs and 46 mineral drugs— together with their locations, their properties, their functions, their efficacy and their mixed application.全书分三卷,载药365种(植物药252种,动物药67种,矿物药46种)。书中对每一味药的场地、性质、采集和主治病症都有详细记载。对各种药物怎样相互配合应用,以及简单的制剂,都做了概述。Zhang Zhongjing was from the modern Nanyang, Henan province, one of the most eminent Chinese physicians during the last years of the Eastern Han.张仲景,今河南南阳人,是东汉末年的名医。During his time, many people were infected with febrile disease.汉末疫疾流行,大批人感染死亡。He learned medicine from his townfellow Zhang Bozu, assimilating from previous medicinal literature, and collecting many prescriptions elsewhere, finally writing the medical masterpiece Shanghan Zabing Lun or Treatise on Febrile Diseases .张仲景从师同乡张伯祖学医。他汲取前人医学著作之所长,广泛于写出了传世巨著《伤寒杂病论》。Due to Zhang ’ S contribution to Traditional Chinese medicine he is often regarded as the sage of Chinese medicine.后人尊称他为“医宗之圣”。Hua Tuo, a famous physician at the end of the Eastern Han, first employed the method of anesthesia in his surgical operation. He devised a series of exercises based on the movements of five animals (tiger, deer, bear, ape, and crane) known as wuqinxi , or “ Frolics of The Five Animals ”,which helps to enhance health.另外,东汉末年的名医华佗,是有记载以来第一位利用麻醉技术对病人进行手术治疗的外科医生,他创造的“五禽戏”是我国第一套体操性质的健身活动。In the field of agriculture, Fan Shengzhi (his book Fan Shengzhi Shu ) proposed measurements to ameliorate the harvest results. The peasantry was recognized as the provider of the whole society, and his work had to be estimated.范胜之著《范胜之书》,提出了改进农业生产的方法,认为农民要为全社会提供粮食,为此必须对其劳动进行评估。While men worked the fields, women had to spin and to wave.男人在田间劳作,女人应在家中纺纱织布。Fan Shengzhi also made propositions for gardening, horse breeding, and the breeding of silkworms.他还对园艺、养马、养蚕提出了建议。In this period, calligraphy and painting no longer merely served as picture writing ,they began to develop into a kind of art.到东汉时期,书法、绘画已不单纯作为文字图形符号使用,它们的艺术地位逐渐显露出来。 /201512/413046Rule of Wen and Jing文景之治When the emperors Wen and Jing in the Western Han Dynasty (206B.C.---- 8 A.D.) came into power, they went on with more moderate and humane policies carried by Emperor Gaozu.汉文帝与汉景帝执政时,相较于高祖,他们采取了更加温和与人性化的政策。Historical records show that during their reigns the Han Dynasty (206B.C. ---- 220A.D.) prospered.历史记录显示,当他们当政时,汉朝(公元前206年至公元220年)繁荣发展。Untroubled by wars or natural disasters, people lived in peace.人们平安度日,不受战乱或自然灾害的忧扰。This resulted in an increase in population and the development of manufacturing industries and commerce.这最终造成了人口的增长以及制造业和经济的发展。The emperor Wen attached much importance to agriculture and economy.汉文帝将注意力更多放在了农业与经济上。He encouraged agricultural output by further reducing taxes and asked people to grow mulberry and raise silkworms.他通过不断减少税收以及建议人民种桑树、养蚕来鼓励农业的发展。Meanwhile, Wen introduced the reform of punishment and abolished many cruel penalties, in the 23 years of his reign, there was no reconstruction of the palace and his carriages remained the same.同时,文帝提倡惩罚制度的改革并取消了许多残酷的刑罚,在他统治的23年间,他不曾修缮过宫殿,连自己的马车也多年如一日。According to the historical records, the food supply was so ample that much got perished in the bams.根据史料记载,那时的食物供给十分充足以至于许多粮食都烂在了谷仓里。Another important factor that contributed to the prosperity of Han was that Wen and Jing endeavored to maintain a friendly relationship with Han and neighboring countries.另一个使得汉朝繁荣兴盛的原因在于文帝和景帝致力于与汉朝周边的国家维持良好的关系。 /201510/397344

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