原标题: 中航工业襄阳医院看男科好吗ask信息
A major reason why many cancers are so dangerous is thatthey metastasize.癌症的危险因素主要在于癌细胞转移。This means that instead of staying in oneplace, the cancer cells migrate from their original site to otherparts of the body.换而言之,癌细胞不会老实地待着,可以从原发部位转移到身体其他部位。No wonder that scientists are busy studyingthe mechanism that enables cells to move around, in hope offinding a way to control this migration.科学家苦心研究转移细胞的原理,希望能抑制癌细胞“迁移”。Whether its an immune cell going off to battle infection, or a cancer cell making its way to a newarea of the body, the underlying mechanism for its movement is the same.无论是“冲锋陷阵”抵御感染的免疫细胞,还是在“迁移”的癌细胞,它们运动的基本原理是相同的。All non-blood cells aresurrounded by a fibrous material known as the extracellularmatrix.除了血细胞,其他细胞均由纤维物质细胞外基质包围。Anyway, cells on the go usea point-to-point adhesion system, which functions like tiny hooks, to grab the materials that makeup the extracellularmatrix.移动的细胞采用点对点附着体系,就像小钩一样捕捉构成细胞外基质的物质。So, basically, in order to move, a cell climbs hand-over-hand along the extracellularmatrix until itreaches a blood or lymphaticvessel and penetrates it.基本而言,细胞顺着细胞外基质移动,一旦发现血管或淋巴管,穿透血管和淋巴管,From there, its smooth sailing.这样就畅通无阻了。By theway, the thinner walls of lymphaticvessels are easier to penetrate, which is why examininglymph nodes plays a major role in cancer detection.因为淋巴管壁很薄,极易穿透,所以通过淋巴的检查可以诊断癌症。The trick then, is not only to figure out all the factors that affect the chemical reactions thatenable cells to move around, but also to figure out how to control these reactions selectively.而关键不仅仅是找出所有因素影响细胞自由运动的化学反应,还要明白如何能有选择地控制化学反应。Because cell movement is necessary for healing wounds and fighting off diseases, stopping itcompletely isnt an option.因为细胞运动对于伤口愈合和抵抗疾病都至关重要,完全抑制细胞运动并不可取。Instead, scientists will have to figure out how to block movement inselect locations, like in the extra-cellular matrix around growing tumors.科学家必须解决如何抑制某些部位的运动,比如恶化的肿瘤周围的细胞外基质。 /201407/313967Financial-technology firms金融技术公司Apps at the gate应用近在咫尺Tech start-ups promise to transform finance, if regulators will let them如果监管者允许,技术创业公司希望改变金融业Aug 3rd 2013 |From the print editionTWO millennia after the Temple was cleansed of money-changers, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, plans to open his churches to moneylenders. This is no capitulation in the struggle between God and Mammon. It is an effort to “compete out of existence” payday lenders that offer expensive loans by supporting not-for-profit credit unions.在寺院与金钱交易撇清关系两千年之后,坎特伯雷大主教Justin Welby计划开放教堂给放贷者。这不是选择上帝或者贪婪之间的妥协。这是通过持非盈利信用合作社让高利息贷款失去市场。The archbishop is right that more competition is needed, but old-fashioned credit unions are unlikely to be able to beat the slick systems and snappy service of online providers, like Wonga. A more effective way of pushing down rates would be lighter regulation to allow more lenders to flourish.大主教是对的,确实需要加强竞争,而这些老古董也不太可能被像Wonga之类的拥有更加灵活的系统和快速的务的网上金融务提供商击败。推低利率更有效的方法是放松监管,允许更多放贷者进入市场。Digital communications have given birth to a new generation of finance companies (see article). Money-transfer agents such as Xoom have drastically cut the time and costs for migrant workers to send money home. Peer-to-peer lenders are matching savers and borrowers, slashing fees and delivering a better deal to both. New foreign-exchange firms are giving travellers access to the prices ed on wholesale currency markets. Card companies such as Square and iZettle let anyone from yoga teachers to plumbers accept payments by credit card. Firms such as M-Pesa have given millions of people in developing countries access to mobile money.线上交流已经催生出了新一代的金融公司。像Xoom这种转帐机构大大减少了外国务工人员汇款回家的时间和费用。点对点借贷配对债权人和借债人,降低费用,给双方最好的选择。新的外汇公司让旅行者以大型外汇市场的汇率兑换现金。诸如Square和iZettle这样的信用卡公司让从瑜伽老师到管道工的客户都能使用信用卡消费。M-Pesa这类公司已经让发展中国家数百万的人民使用上了移动钱包。Heavy regulation of financial companies means many firms stick to small niches to skirt the boundaries of banking regulations. Peer-to-peer lenders do not offer savers the security of deposit insurance or the convenience of guaranteed instant access to their cash. This limits their appeal. Other firms that take deposits such as Holvi, a Finnish start-up that offers group accounts, are not allowed to lend. Those that do lend, such as Wonga, cannot take deposits.金融公司严格的监管制度意味着许多公司许多坚持小利基的公司要绕过监管的局限。点对点借贷不提供给债权人存款保或者直接取钱的便利。其他的公司像Holvi,一个位于芬兰提供集体账户的初创公司,只提供存款,但不能借贷。而像Wonga这样能借贷的公司则不能存款。Creating a financial-tech company is arduous. Whereas it takes less than a day to register a company in Britain, it takes months or years and can cost millions to get authorised as a bank. The number of new banks started over the past decade can almost be counted on one hand. Even those that have started, such as Metro Bank or Aldermore, are penalised by regulation: rules on capital favour large and complex firms. In America the Dodd-Frank Act is an imposing barrier to all but the biggest firms. And regulation is closing in on some existing firms. M-Pesa has struggled to grow much beyond Kenya, partly because authorities stand in its way. The market for remittances has been a hothouse for start-ups in Britain, partly because it was lightly regulated. Yet almost half the country’s money-transfer firms may be shut as banks close their accounts to comply with money-laundering rules.创建一家金融科技公司很费力。在英国一家普通公司可能不到一天就注册完成了,而要是成立一家则有可能经历长达数月甚至数年的审批,而且可能要花费上数百万的费用。过去十年里成立的数量一只手就能数过来。即使是成立了的像Metro Bank和Aldermore,都被监管部门处罚过。关于资本的规定更有利于大型公司。在美国,多德弗兰克法案对所有非大型公司是一个障碍。对很多公司的监管很严。M-Pesa努力在肯尼亚之外发展,部分原因就是政府出面阻碍其发展。在英国,汇款市场在初创公司中很火,部分原因就是其监管相对较松。但是如果以违反洗钱规则关闭它们的账户,那么近一半的转帐公司将会关门大吉。Banks need to be more heavily regulated than other firms because of their central role in the economy. However, governments could regulate more smartly, raising capital requirements for big and systemically important banks while easing the burden on smaller ones. Regulators should be even more relaxed about many of the new entrants to the market, most of which simply provide quicker and simpler ways of shifting money around. Most of these start-ups avoid the alchemy of banking—the transformation of short-term deposits into long-term loans—so pose little systemic risk.比其他公司的监管更严厉,原因是它们在经济活动中至关重要。但是,政府能更聪明地管理业。提高对大型系统性的监管,放松对小型的管理。监管人员应该对新入行的公司放轻松,这些公司只是提供更方便快捷的转账方式。大多数初创公司避开业的核心业务--将短期存款转换成长期借贷--这样系统性风险就很小了。The idea of lighter-touch regulation will seem to many an anathema after the financial crisis. It would certainly lead to more failures by small banks and start-ups. This would also impose some costs on society and deposit-guarantee schemes. Yet these costs would be outweighed by the enormous benefits to consumers and businesses of a far more competitive financial system.对很多人来说,金融危机之后放宽监管很危险。当然,放松监管会带来很多小和初创公司的失败。这也会给社会以及存款保计划带来很多代价。但是这些代价会被消费者的获利和金融系统更激烈的竞争所抵消。 /201308/251564

The British Army英国军队A changing force变化的力量The British Army is taking on a radical new shape英国军队正在发生彻底的改头换面LIEUTENANT Christopher Hill is one of the last of his kind. The 25-year-old chose to join his unit, the fourth battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland, because he knew it was earmarked for one of the British Armys final deployments to Afghanistan. “I wanted to get an operational tour while I can,” he explains, standing by a six-wheeled Mastiff armoured vehicle.克里斯托弗赫尔中尉是他所属兵种的最后一个人。这个25岁的年轻人选择加入的部队是苏格兰皇家第四部队,因为他了解到这是英国军队最后一次为阿富汗调度的部队之一。他站在六个轮子的装甲车上解释说:“我想在可以的情况下获得一次实战的经历”。The last British outstation in southern Afghanistan, an observation post called Sterga 2 above the Helmand river, closed in May. Camp Bastion is the only base left. The army will cease combat operations in Afghanistan at the end of 2014—a timetable determined by Barack Obama, but which, as one soldier points out, happily provides a four-month buffer before the 2015 general election. As a 13-year campaign winds down, the army will change dramatically.在阿富汗南部的最后一个边哨所于五月份撤销。该哨所叫做斯特格,位于赫尔曼德河之上。堡垒军营是唯一留下的军事基地。这军队将在2014年末取消在阿富汗的军事行动——该日期是由奥巴马决定的。但是一位士兵也指出,这为2015年的大选提供了四个月的缓冲区。随着13年的军事活动落下帷幕,该部队将迅速转型。Next month Lieutenant-General Sir Nick Carter will take over as chief of the general staff. The armys new boss is also its architect: asked to find savings of 5.3 billion (.9 billion), he devised a plan to cut the number of full-time soldiers from 102,000 to 82,000 by 2018. But some are sceptical. A report by Parliaments defence committee earlier this year doubted whether the plan will meet Britains security needs.下个月,中将尼克卡特爵士将以总参谋长的身份接管。该部队的新上司也是其缔造者:为了节省53亿英镑,他修订了一个计划,在2018年将全职的士兵从10,200削减到82,000人。但是有人也存在质疑。议会的防卫委员会今年早期的一个报告质疑该计划是否满足英国的国防需要。According to a senior British officer in Afghanistan, the army at first wished to restructure the infantry by cutting two Scottish battalions. That suggestion caused a row and is no longer on the table. Instead some battalions will have fewer regular soldiers. During operations numbers will be boosted by paired reservist units providing up to one rifleman in three. Overall, across the army, reservist numbers will increase from 19,000 to 30,000.阿富汗的一位英国高级官员表明,部队首先希望能够通过削减两个苏格兰军营的人数而达到重建步兵团的目的,这一建议引起了人们的愤怒最终没有付诸实施。相反,某些军营的正规士兵少之又少。在军事行动中,加入预备役部队,士兵数量飙升,其中三个人里面就有一个是步兵。总的来说,全军的预备役军人数将从19,000 上升到 30,000。Reservists can work well. Lieutenant Colonel Graham Johnson, commanding officer of a medical regiment in Afghanistan, said part-timers make up 10% of his unit. “The military offer a lot of leadership skills and development at the lower level,” he explains. “And we benefit from their clinical competence.” But with infantry the situation is trickier. There are too few reservists, and many are unable to drop their civilian jobs at short notice. Regular commanders calling on their reservists could receive fewer than they need.预备役军人也能做得很好。阿富汗医疗团的指挥官格雷姆·约翰中尉称,他的单位兼职人员占了10%。他解释道“军队提供了大量的领导技能和低水平的发展,我们从他们完善的医疗能力中获益匪浅。”但是在预备役中,这种情况更为棘手。几乎没有预备军人,许多都无法一得到通知就停止原有的普通工作。正规军的司令认为预备军人拿到的工资可能比所需的更少。The army has advertised heavily for reservists, and increased the bounties paid to regular soldiers leaving the army who join the part-timers. But Britain lacks the legal and cultural apparatus to sustain a large reserve. In America part-time soldiers who fail to show up face serious sanctions; employers keep reservists jobs open. By contrast the British Territorial Army, recently renamed the “Army Reserve”, has been a more amateur affair, regarded by some as a drinking club. One London-based reservist, who has completed an Afghanistan tour, wryly said his bosses regard him as comparable to a maternity risk.军队强烈宣传预备役招兵,并提高了正规军退役成为兼职军人的奖金金额。但是英国缺乏法律和文化制约来维持大量的预备役。在美国,兼职军人没有按时报到会受到严厉的制裁;雇主也为现役军人大开大门。相比而言,最近被更名为“陆军预备役”的英国的地方自卫队更多的是一种业余的工作,被有些人与酒吧一类的场所相提并论。一位伦敦的预备役军人,刚刚结束了阿富汗之旅,讽刺地说他的老板们对他的重视程度不亚于妇。A recent survey showed that only 42% of regular soldiers who had worked with reservists saw them as professional. Even fewer thought they were well integrated. “The army know they have to be seen to make the arrangement with the reserves work, although privately they doubt that it will”, says Professor Michael Clarke, director-general of the Royal ed Services Institute, a defence think-tank.最近一项研究表明,与预备役军人工作过的正规军,只有42%认为他们是职业军人。几乎没有人认为自己能够融入这个团体。皇家国防联合务研究所的专家迈克尔·克拉克表示,“军队知道自己必须要做得看起来为预备役做得安排有成效,尽管私底下他们也对此很怀疑” 。The reforms could also create fissures among full-time soldiers. Under the plans, the army will be split into “reactive” and “adaptive” forces. The reactive sides job is conventional fighting, though it will have fewer tanks than formerly. The adaptive force will sit at lower iness. It will train foreign troops, something “the British military has done ever since the early days of empire”, says General Sir Peter Wall, the current chief of the general staff.该改革也可能在全职军人中引起纷争。军队按计划将被分为“作战型”和“防御型”两种。反抗性部队的工作是传统的打仗,,尽管其所拥有的坦克与之前比起来没有差别。而适应性部队的准备机能较低。它将训练外国部队,当前的总参谋长皮特·瓦尔称其有点像“英国军队自帝国早期就开始做的那样”。Because the reactive force will be first to deploy to a major crisis, the new system risks creating a two-tier army. The problem is potentially acute in the Royal Armoured Corps, operators of Britains tanks. Regiments there will be permanently streamed to the reactive or adaptive forces, with fewer opportunities to cross-post soldiers than in larger infantry outfits with feet in both camps. Adding this fuel to the existing rivalries between regiments is a risk.因为反抗性军队将会率先部署解决一个主要的危机,新体制创造一个两层的军队结构。潜伏在皇家坦克部队,即英国坦克部队的问题非常尖锐。部队自此将分为作战型部队和防御型部队,而那些夹在中间的士兵的机会就比擅长两种作战方式的少了许多。将这一计划用在军队上无疑会加剧危险。But the most obvious change to the armed forces is a straightforward one: Britain will probably not be engaged in a major foreign war in the near future. That may hamper recruiting. It will also divide those entitled to wear operational-services medals and those who are not. This is why officers are keen to get whatever residual action they can. “There were very competent guys who I went through training with who were just unfortunate, they didnt go to the right place at the right time and they didnt get an operational tour,” says Lieutenant Hill. Still, he knows his billet is more comfortable than his predecessors endured. He regrets the fact that, since he is based in Camp Bastion rather than an austere forward base, he can go to a shop and eat an ice cream.但是军队最明显的改变是非常直截了当的:英国可能在近期不会再加入大型的境外战争。这可能会影响新兵征募。这也会将那些参加过实战的军人和未参加过的分开来。这就是为什么军官非常热衷于参加剩下的战斗的原因。赫尔中尉说,“和我一起训练过的战友都是很有能力的,但是不幸的是,他们不能在合适的时间去到合适的地方,因而无法参加实战”。而且,他认为自己目前的宿舍比之前的人更为舒适。他感到遗憾的是,自从他从严峻的前线基地回到堡垒军营以后,他竟然可以去商店买冰淇淋吃了。 /201408/323654

They respond to touch, temperature, currents, and the cycles of the sun and the moon.它们对触碰,温度,洋流及日月的交替都有反应。And their tiny movements combined to give each colony a rhythm of its own.它们轻微的运动形成整个群落的一种独特节奏。The polyps cant build the reef alone.珊瑚虫自己不能建造珊瑚礁。For this, they need parterners that are even smaller.它们需要一种体积更小的同伴。Within each polyps tentacles are millions of tiny brown dots.每个珊瑚虫的触角里都有无数的小棕点。Each is a microscopic plant, which transform sunlight into food and energy for the corals.每一个都是显微镜下才能看到的植物。它们将太阳能转化为食物和能量提供给珊瑚。Its a miraculous parternship that allows the corals to turn the minerals in the water into limestone, building their stony skeletons.这是一种绝妙的合作关系,这使得珊瑚能将水中的矿物质转化为石灰岩从而形成它们石质的骨架。In this way, each colony grows.只有这样每一个珊瑚群才能生长。If we were able to watch a reef over several years, wed see a continuely growing marine metropolis.如果我们每隔几年就观察一次某块珊瑚礁,我们将会发现一个规模持续扩大的海底都市。Its intricate architecture provides homes for thousands of creatures.它错综复杂的构造给无数生物提供住所。201408/322228

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