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郴州汝城县男科最好的医院光明解答

2019年09月15日 18:28:08 | 作者:国际口碑 | 来源:新华社
Banyan菩提The long arms of the law法律的长臂Across Asia, judges are having too much say in politics在亚洲,法官对政治施加了过多影响AFTER nearly three years, Yingluck Shinawatras stint as prime minister of Thailand drew this week to its inevitable close. The end came not with the bang of a people-power revolution that at one point seemed likely to unseat her; nor with the muted rumble of tanks in a coup like the one that toppled her brother Thaksin from the same job in 2006; still less with the raucous clamour of a contested election, though one had been called for July 20th. Rather, it petered out in the whimper of a court order. Not for the first time the Thai judiciary has intervened to solve a problem that a broken political system could not fix. And not for the first time its intervention was to the Shinawatras detriment.坚持了约三年之后,英拉·西那瓦的总理岁月也将在本周不可避免地走向终结。然而最终让她认输的,既非一度动摇她职位的人民力量革命的爆发,也非在2006年曾迫使英拉的哥哥他信去职的坦克的低吼与政变。一场具有争议的选举也在民众喧嚷的要求下被推迟到了6月20日,不过英拉的去职与之也关系不大。最终这个故事在法庭判令与阵阵呜咽中渐渐落幕。对于泰国司法来说,这不是第一次介入解决那些由破碎的政治体制无法解决的问题。而西那瓦家族吃司法介入的亏,也同样不是第一次了。However, Thailand is not alone in fighting political battles with legal weapons. A number of Malaysian opposition politicians find themselves in legal trouble, with potentially serious consequences. In Myanmar the opposition is planning demonstrations this month to demand reform to a constitution that places legal obstacles in the way of the countrys democratisation, and of the right of Aung San Suu Kyi, the opposition leader, to stand in a presidential election she would surely win. Even in China a purge of potential opponents of Xi Jinping, the president and party leader, takes the form of a series of prosecutions for corruption. More hopefully, in Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, a former army chief and military dictator, is fighting a charge of treason, in a trial testing the armys willingness to cede privileges and immunity to an elected civilian government.不过,利用法律武器进行政治斗争,可不仅仅是泰国一家。马来西亚的一些反对派政治家如今正深陷法律麻烦,可能会遭遇严重的后果。缅甸的反对派正在计划在本月展开一场示威游行,要求对一项妨碍国家民主化的宪法进行改革,并为反对派领袖昂山素季争取参加总统大选的权利。只要能参加选举,她就一定能获胜。即便是中国国家主席和党总书记习的清除潜在敌手行动中,也采取了对腐败提起公诉的形式。巴基斯坦则看来更有希望,前陆军参谋长,军事独裁者佩尔韦兹·穆沙拉夫正在与叛国罪的指控相斗争,这是一次对军方限制特权、不干预民选文职政府之意愿的检验。Various trends are at work. One, evident in India and Pakistan, is an enduring tradition of activism by a robustly independent judiciary. Often this has made the courts popular by comparison with the perceived lethargy, incompetence or malice of politicians. Public-interest litigation and its ability to make rulings suo moto (off its own bat) have encouraged Indias Supreme Court to meddle in environmental and social policy. It has forced Delhis buses, taxis and tuk-tuks to convert to compressed natural gas from dirtier fuels and has taken charge of Indias trees. The courts green interests might please liberals, but they rued a ruling last December that overturned a Delhi High Court decision lifting a ban on homosexuality. In Pakistan the courts helped bring down Mr Musharraf, but then proceeded to hound his civilian successor, Asif Ali Zardari, through his five-year term.这其中包含了很多不同的趋势。在印度与巴基斯坦,坚定又独立的司法部门有悠久的激进做派传统。相对于公众心目中陈腐,无能,又阴险的政治家,法院的这一形象更受民众欢迎。公益起诉的资格与独立作出裁决的能力使得印度最高法院乐于干预环境与社会政策。它已经让德里的巴士、的士、嘟嘟车都抛弃了落后的燃料,换上液化天然气,并且接管了全印度的树木。法院的绿色诉求或许能取悦自由派,不过他们也为去年十二月印度最高法院推翻了德里高级法院给同性恋禁令松绑的裁决而感到惋惜。巴基斯坦的法院正对打倒穆沙拉夫有功,不过随后的五年总统任期中,他们又盯上了穆沙拉夫那位文职的总统继任者,阿西夫·阿里·扎尔达里。Elsewhere, however, governments use the law as an instrument of political control. That is most obvious in one-party dictatorships such as China and Vietnam. But the suspicion of judicial persecution lingers even in countries whose governments present themselves as relatively liberal—such as Malaysias, which has lifted some repressive colonial-era legislation. Yet, after a close general election last year, a number of opposition politicians face charges for sedition or for breaches of the law on assembly. The most serious case has nothing to do with politics. It is the five-year sentence on a charge of sodomy against which Anwar Ibrahim, the leader of the opposition, is appealing.不过在其他地方,政府把法律当做了实施政治控制的工具。这在中国越南之类的一党专政国家尤为明显。不过,即使那些政府自我标榜为相对自由的国家,也无法摆脱司法迫害的嫌疑——譬如马拉西亚政府就推行了一些殖民地时代的镇压性法律。去年那场势均力敌的大选结束后,就有一些反对派政治家收到了煽动与妨碍法律制定的指控。其中最严重的案例甚至与政治都没有关系。反对党领导人安华·易卜拉欣被控罪并最终被判刑五年,他表示将上诉。When Barack Obama visited Malaysia last month, Najib Razak, the prime minister, stressed that the Anwar case was a judicial matter in which the government had no part. Yet it was the governments own appeal which led to Mr Anwars earlier acquittal being overturned. He is the figurehead who unites a diverse opposition torn at present by disagreement over the plan of one of its components, an Islamic party, to introduce fierce hudud punishments, such as amputations, in Kelantan, a state it governs. His disappearance into jail would be most damaging.上个月巴拉克·奥巴马访问马来西亚时,现任总理纳吉·阿都拉萨强调了安华案只是一起司法事件,政府没有参与其中。但正是政府的压力使得早先对安华的无罪裁决被推翻。安华是将反对派团结在一起的精神领袖,如今反对派内部四分五裂,原因是其中一家伊斯兰政党计划在其治下的吉兰丹州引入可怕的固定刑惩罚,而各反对派政党对此意见不一。安华入狱将重创反对派联盟。Thailand is illustrative of a third trend: for conservative judiciaries, when a time-honoured political dispensation changes, to find themselves, in effect, part of the opposition. Like much of the civil service, army and other pillars of Thailands royalist establishment, the judiciary abhors the Shinawatras alleged corruption with a special intensity in part because it fears their popularity, and hence their ability to overturn the accustomed order. In the Maldives, too, the courts helped get rid of a popular leader in 2012. Mohamed Nasheed was the first directly elected president after a long dictatorship. He threatened to shake things up, but lost a power struggle with a judge.泰国则代表了第三种趋势:保守的司法体制长久以来拥有超然的政治地位,但如今格局已渐渐改变,事实上司法部门已经成为了反对派的一部分。与公务员,军队,以及其他泰国保皇派主要群体一样,司法部门非常痛恨西那瓦家族的腐败。而且其中也有畏惧的成分。西那瓦家族拥有广泛的民众持,进而有能力颠覆现有格局。同样在马尔代夫,法院也在2012年为除去一位广受欢迎的领导人出了一把力。穆罕默德·纳希德是这个国家历经长期独裁后的第一位直选总统。 他曾出言要改天换地,但在与司法的权斗中败下阵来。The Singapore sting新加坡之痛The lesson drawn from all this by authoritarian ruling elites facing pressure for reform is how important it is to have the courts on your side. Not only does it avoid awkward stand-offs; it helps foster the impression that you are moving towards “the rule of law”. So, in Sri Lanka, the government of Mahinda Rajapaksa early last year impeached and sacked a troublesome chief justice. And in Cambodia laws now being considered would have the effect of emasculating judicial independence.面临改革压力的独裁统治都学到了一课:把司法拉拢到自己一边非常重要。这不单能避开麻烦的制衡状态,更能营造一种正在走向的印象。所以在斯里兰卡,马欣达·拉贾帕克萨的政府就弹劾并解职了一位麻烦的首席大法官。而柬埔寨的现行法律也被认为具有削弱司法独立性的作用。Cambodias strongman, Hun Sen, is known to cast an envious eye at an unlikely role model: Singapore. There, the ruling Peoples Action Party has been in power even longer than his own Cambodian Peoples Party (CPP). And it has managed this without resorting to the thuggery and coups that have ensured the CPPs grip. Part of the PAPs secret is its use of the law. Strict defamation and contempt-of-court laws inherited from the British were invoked against foreign critics and domestic opponents, forcing some into bankruptcy. Lee Kuan Yew, the founding prime minister, whose son now holds that job, justified this as necessary to protect Singapores leaders reputations, rather than as a way of hounding the opposition. But it had the same effect.众所周知,柬埔寨政治强人洪森非常羡慕一位可能不是榜样的榜样:新加坡。新加坡的执政党人民行动党比洪森的柬埔寨人民党掌权时间更久。而且人民行动党并不依靠人民党那套为抓紧政权所施展的阴谋与政变。法律就是人民党的一种秘密武器。严苛的诽谤与藐视法庭法源自英国,被用来打击外国批评家与国内反对派,其中有些人因此破产。首任总理李光耀认为这能保护新加坡领导人的名誉,而不是用来追击反对派。其实效果都一样。However, those in Cambodia and elsewhere make two mistakes when they see Singapore as a model of efficient authoritarianism applied in large measure through the legal system. One is that Singapore is an international city seen as under the rule of law. Its courts are respected, if not always the use the government has made of them. The other is that many Singaporeans are turning against the PAP, which is even trying to change its image.柬埔寨等国视新加坡为依靠司法实施高效威权主义的榜样,不过他们犯了两个错。首先新加坡是一个法治的国际化城市。要是政府不总是私自动用司法力量,那司法是很受尊敬的。其次很多新加坡人正转而反对人民行动党,甚至人民行动党自己也在寻求改变形象。 201406/303177

Science and technology科学技术Mass extinctions大灭绝Small but deadly陨石很小不过危害却很致命The biggest extinction in history was probably caused by a space rock that changed the climate历史上规模最大的一次物种灭绝,也许是由于陨石坠落导致的气候变化而造成AS EVERY schoolchild knows, the dinosaurs were wiped out in an instant, when a rock from outer space hit what is now southern Mexico.就像每个小学生知道的那样,当一块天外陨石坠落到现今的墨西哥南部地区之后,恐龙就那在一瞬间遭受了灭顶之灾。That happened 66m years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period.这一切就发生在6600万年前的白垩纪末期。Well-informed schoolchildren also know that this mass extinction was neither unique nor the biggest.一些学的小学生还知道这次物种大灭绝既不是历史上唯一的一次,也不是历史上最大的一次。The geological record speaks of four others since animal life became complex at the beginning of the Cambrian period 541m years ago.地质学档案记录了5亿4100万年前寒武纪物种多样化以来的另外四次物种大灭绝。What neither these clever schoolchildren nor anyone else knows, however, is whether these extinctions had similar causes.有些历史不论是那些聪明的小学生还是别的人都还不知道,比如,导致这些灭绝的原因是否相似?But evidence is accumulating that the biggest extinction of all, 252.3m years back, at the end of the Permian period, was indeed also triggered by an impact.不过有据不断地明发生在2亿5230万年前二叠纪时期的那次大灭绝也是因为陨石坠落而造成的。Nevertheless, though the trigger was the same, the details are significantly different, according to of the University of Western Australia.然而,按照西澳大利亚大学的埃里克·托瓦尔教授的说法,虽然两次大灭绝引发的原因是一致的,但是其中细节却大不相同。When the dinosaurs vanished they were accompanied by more than 70% of the other animal species on Earth.当时和恐龙一起灭绝的还有地球上超过70%的物种。At the end of the Permian, the extinction figure was more than 80%.在二叠纪末期,那场大灭绝带走了超过80%的物种。And just as the Cretaceous slate-clearing permitted the rise of a hitherto obscure group called the mammals,就如同白垩纪大灭绝成就了一个迄今为止都未被研究透彻的物种—哺乳类动物的崛起,so the Permian clearance permitted the rise of the reptiles,二叠纪大灭绝也成就了爬行类生物的崛起,one branch of which turned into Tyrannosaurus, Diplodocus and all the other names familiar from childhood.它们的一最后演化成了如今小学生们口中的暴龙、梁龙以及其它各种叫龙的动物。The idea that an impact caused the Permian extinction has been around for a while.导致二叠纪大灭绝的原因长期以来都没有一个定论。As at the end of the Permian, as at the end of the Cretaceous, huge volcanic eruptions had been going on for hundreds of thousands of years.在二叠纪和白垩纪末期,大量火山持续爆发了数百到数千年。These may have weakened the worlds ecosystems, making them vulnerable to an external shock.这可能破坏了地球的生态系统,使其难以抵御外来的破坏。But the abruptness of both extinctions indicates that the coup de grace was administered by something else,但是两次大灭绝来得如此突然,这说明了实施致命一击”的另有其人,and in the case of the Permian some fragments of meteorite of the correct age, found in rock in Antarctica, suggest that, as with the Cretaceous, that something was an asteroid or a comet.而且在南极洲的岩石里发现的一些陨星碎片与二叠纪的年代相吻合,这说明了地球在二叠纪与在白垩纪一样,遭受了小行星或是彗星的袭击。What was missing from the story, though, was a suitable crater.只不过这个故事里还缺一个部分—一个合适的陨石坑。Fracking hell!如同置身地狱一般的裂解反应Last year Dr Tohver and his colleagues thought they might have found it.去年,托瓦尔士和他的同事表示他们也许找到这个陨石坑了。They redated a hole that straddles the border of the states of Mato Grosso and Goias in Brazil, called the Araguainha crater, to 254.7m years, with a margin of error of plus or minus 2.5m years.他们重测了一个位于位于巴西马托·格罗索州和戈雅斯州交界的洞穴—阿拉瓜尼亚陨石坑,并确定其形成年代为2亿5470万年前,年代误差在正负250万年左右。Previous estimates had suggested Araguainha was 10m years younger,早期研究所估计的阿拉瓜尼亚陨石坑的形成时间要较这个数据晚1000万年,but Dr Tohver has put it within geological spitting distance of the extinction date, which itself has a margin of error of plus or minus 200,000 years.不过托瓦尔士把这个时间差归结于大灭绝发生的具体时间本身就有一个范围,大概是正负20万年的误差。Which would all be fine and dandy, except most people think Araguainha is too small to be the culprit. It is a mere 40km across.除开大部分人觉得阿拉瓜尼亚实在太小,不足以成为元凶以外,这对大灭绝来说会是个很好的解释。The Chicxulub crater in Mexico, which did for the dinosaurs, is 180km in diameter, and it may have been paired with an even bigger impact in the Indian Ocean.导致恐龙灭绝的墨西哥希克苏鲁伯陨石坑,其直径有180公里,而且它可能与同时期在印度洋产生的另一个更大的碰撞共同作用,从而导致白垩纪大灭绝。Dr Tohver, however, has an answer to this criticism.面对质疑,托瓦尔士有着合理的解释。His latest paper, just published inPalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, describes the rock in the area in which Araguainha resides.他最近在古地理学,古气候学,古生态学”杂志上发表的一片文章详细描述了阿拉瓜尼亚附近的岩石性质。After an extensive geological survey, he and his team discovered that a sizeable amount of this rock is oil shale.经过了广泛的地质学研究调查后,他和他的团队发现这些岩石很多都是油页岩,Any hydrocarbons in the crater would certainly have been vaporised.这说明所有的碳氢化合物已经被汽化。More intriguingly, the researchers calculate that the impact would have generated thousands of earthquakes of up to magnitude 9.9 for hundreds of kilometres around.更有趣的是,研究人员通过计算发现撞击所产生的能量足以在附近数百公里的范围内产生几千次9.9级地震。In effect, it would have been the biggest fracking operation in history, releasing oil and gas from the shattered rock in prodigious quantities.从效果上来说,这也许是历史上最大的裂解工程,它将数量惊人的石油和天然气从岩石中释放出来。The upshot, Dr Tohver believes, would have been a huge burp of methane into the atmosphere.托瓦尔士相信,这导致了巨量的甲烷被排向大气层。Since methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, that burp would have resulted in instant global warming, making things too hot for much of the planets animal life.而甲烷是很强的温室效应气体,它就使得全球气温瞬时上升,过高的气温危及了许多物种的生存。Presto! The Permian mass extinction is explained.是的!这就是二叠纪物种大灭绝的解释。Determining whether this was really what happened will take a lot more digging, of course.当然,要确认这是不是造成这一切的真实原因还有待更多的探索研究。Even now, there are those who think the formation of the Chicxulub crater was a coincidence, and that what did for the dinosaurs was actually the volcanoes, so Dr Tohver will have to work hard to convince the sceptics.直到今天还有人认为希克苏鲁伯陨石坑的形成只不过是个巧合,真正让恐龙消亡的原因是火山爆发,所以托瓦尔士还需要加把劲来明他的假设。If he does, though, he will have proved himself a great geological detective, for he will have been responsible for solving one of the biggest puzzles in palaeontology.如果他做到了,他将明他是一个伟大的地质学发现者,因为他解开了古生物学中的一个最重要的谜题。 /201308/252459

Some are little more than rocks, others substantial mountains, covered in woodland. 有的也就比岩石大点,其他的则是覆盖着森林的山脉。The first British person to see that was captain Cook, who stood here in 1770, and for the first time, realized the scale of the Great Barrier Reef. 第一个到达这里的英国人是库克船长,他1770年来到这里,第一次意识到大堡礁的规模。He also realized that the scale of the problem that faced him. 但他也意识到眼前的问题。For Cook and his men without benefits of modern charts and sonar, it represented nothing more than a deadly labyrinth. 对库克和他的船员而言,没有现代航海图和定位装置。这就是致命的迷宫。But its exactly this complexity and the sheer size of the reef that has created so many opportunities for life. 但也正是它的复杂和庞大,大堡礁才能提供各种生物各种生存机会。There are fish of almost every imaginable kind. 这里有各种能想得到的。Coral eaters, plant eaters, plankton eaters, the hunters and the hunted. 以珊瑚为食,以植物为食,以浮游生物为食。Bluefin trevally, powerful predators that hunt in packs. 蓝鳍鰺,非常强悍的群体捕食者。One minute that apparently minding their own business, the next, charging their prey with a sudden rush. 前一分钟还在独自晃晃悠悠,下一秒随即就对他们的猎物展开攻击。Working together, they create confusion. 它们一起合作,制造混乱。The trevally depart as quickly as they arrived, and the colorful reef fish regroup again to feed.它们来无影去无踪,随后这些色缤纷的鱼又重新聚集在一起觅食。201409/326415

Finance and economics财经商业The euro crisis欧元危机Debtors prison负债人的监狱The euro zone is blighted by private debt even more than by government debt欧元区饱受私人债务的困扰,其程度甚至超过政府债务THE European Central Bank announced this week how it will undertake a root-and-branch examination of banking assets before it takes charge of supervision in the euro area late next year.欧洲央行在本周宣布了它们在明年年底接管监督欧元区之前如何对资产进行彻底的检测。One aim of the exercise is to identify the bad debts that are fouling up euro-zone banks and preventing the flow of new credit.演习的目的之一是要找出那些使上涨欧元区结垢和妨碍新的信贷流动的坏账。This is important because parts of the single-currency area are crippled not just by public borrowing but by private debt, most of which is sitting on banking books.这是很重要的,因为造成部分单一货币区残缺的不只是因为公共借款,更是因为私人债务,而且其中大部分是坐在账户。Throughout the euro crisis, tough austerity programmes have been aimed at tackling sovereign debt.在整个欧元区危机中,严厉的紧缩计划旨在应对主权债务。That German-inspired focus is badly misplaced.德国风格的焦点是严重错位的。High private debt is more detrimental to growth than high public debt, according to recent research by the IMF.根据国际货币基金组织最近的研究,高额私人债务比高额公共债务更不利。Indeed the IMF study finds that excessive sovereign debt reduces growth only when household and corporate sectors are heavily indebted too.事实上,国际货币基金组织的研究发现,只有当家庭和企业部门都负债累累的时候,过多的主权债务才能减少增加。The malign effect of high private debt becomes apparent in the busts that follow credit-driven booms.高额私人债务的恶性影响逐渐变得明显,随之而来的是信贷驱动的蓬勃发展。Households that have borrowed too much in relation to their income trim their spending, the main component of GDP.许多家庭为了平衡他们的收入和出已经借了太多的债务,这些也是国内生产总值的主要成分。Overleveraged firms avoid investing and concentrate on shrinking their balance-sheets by paying off loans.过度杠杆化的公司为了避免投资,正在集中精力收缩其资产负债表,还清贷款。As bad debts erode their capital, banks become more reluctant to lend.由于坏账侵蚀其资本,越来越不愿意放贷。These adverse trends reinforce each other, increasing the overall drag on growth.这些不利趋势互为因果,在整体上拖累经济增长。Figuring out the point at which debt becomes excessive is not an exact science.弄清楚债务变得过大的原因不是一门精确的科学。The European Commission, which now has the job of monitoring any emerging macroeconomic imbalances, uses a figure of 160% of GDP for private debt—what households and non-financial companies owe in the form of loans and debt securities such as corporate bonds.欧盟委员会,现在负责监测任何造成宏观经济失衡的因素,得知现在私人债务占国内生产总值的160%—家庭和非金融公司的欠款以贷款及债务券的形式,如企业债券。That looks conservative: it happens to be the prevailing level in both America and the euro area as a whole.这看起来很保守的:它正好体现了美国和欧元区作为一个整体的当前水平。A more realistic trigger for concern might be 200% of GDP.现实可能更引起关注,因为它可能是GDP的200% 。On this basis, eight countries of the 17 that share a common currency look vulnerable.在此基础上,17个国家中的8个共享一个共同的货币的理由看起来更加脆弱。Of the eight, Belgium and Luxembourg are less worrying than they might appear because their corporate debt is swollen by the presence of multinationals and includes a big chunk of inter-company lending.在八个国家中,比利时和卢森堡没有看起来的那么令人担忧,因为大型跨国公司和公司间借贷的存在使他们的企业债务膨胀。But that does not apply to the Netherlands, where private debt is over 220% of GDP mainly because households owe so much.但是,这并不适用于荷兰,私人债务占国内生产总值的220%以上,主要是因为家庭私人借贷。In tiny Malta it is nearly 220%.而在微小的马耳他,数字接近220 % 。Private debt is also high in four countries that have had to be bailed out: in Cyprus and Ireland it is over 300% of GDP; in Portugal it is 255%; and in Spain 215%.在其他四个国家私人债务也很高:在塞浦路斯和爱尔兰国占内生产总值的300%以上,在葡萄牙是255%和在西班牙是215%。In all but one of the eight countries a majority of the private debt is corporate.但所有八个国家中的大部分私人债务是企业借贷。This preponderance of company borrowing is most extreme in Luxembourg, but also notable in Ireland whose debt is also affected by the presence of multinational firms; even so, Irelands household debt alone is over 100% of GDP.这种公司借贷的优势最明显的是卢森堡,不过爱尔兰的债务也明显受到跨国公司存在的影响,即便如此,在爱尔兰,家庭债务就超过GDP的100% 。The Netherlands is the only country where the majority of debt is personal: its household debt is 128% of GDP.荷兰是唯一一个大部分债务是个人的国家,其家庭债务占国内生产总值的128 %。Although Italy has the second-highest sovereign debt in the euro area, it does not feature among the countries with excessive private debt.虽然意大利在欧元区主权债务数量上居于第二,但它的私人债务并不过多。Its firms owe somewhat less than the euro-zone average and Italian household debt is especially low.其公司的借贷稍低于欧元区平均水平,而且家庭债务尤其低。But monitoring the ratio of debt to GDP is not the only measure of vulnerability.但监测的债务占国内生产总值的比例,不是衡量标准的唯一漏洞。For non-financial companies, an important indicator of fragility is a high ratio of debt to equity; and on this measure Italian firms, especially the small and medium-sized ones, are particularly stressed.对于非金融类公司,脆弱性的一个重要指标是债务与权益比率高,意大利企业,尤其是小型和中型的,对这一点措施特别强调。Other balance-sheet indicators also suggest that Italian business is in a bad way.其他资产负债表指标也表明,意大利的商业形式是在糟糕的。For example, 30% of corporate debt is owed by firms whose pre-tax earnings are less than the interest payments they have to make.例如,30%的企业债务是因为公司的税前盈利低于要付的利息。That share of frail companies is even higher in Spain and Portugal.在西班牙和葡萄牙的一些公司中份额甚至更高。But Italys plight is in stark contrast to the situation in France and Germany, where little more than 10% of corporate debt is owed by such weak performers.但是,法国和德国的处境与意大利的困境完全相反,他们几乎没有高于10 %的企业债务拖欠的情况。Italian firms have been hurt by the erosion of their competitiveness within the euro zone.意大利公司在欧元区内已经因竞争力受到侵蚀而受伤。Little progress has been made to lighten the private-debt burden since the crisis began.从危机产生开始,为减轻私人债务负担所做的努力已经小有进展。Though it eased in Spain from 227% of GDP in to 215% in 2012, it rose over the same period in Cyprus, Ireland and Portugal.虽然将西班牙从年占国内生产总值的227%减少至2012年的215 % ,但在塞浦路斯,爱尔兰和葡萄牙较上年同期仍然上升。In Britain, by contrast, private debt fell from 207% of GDP in to 190% in 2012 thanks to improvements by both households and firms.相比之下,在英国,私人债务从年占国内生产总值的207 %下降至2012年的190%,无论是家庭还是企业都有所提高。Getting debt down has proved intractable because the economic climate has been so unforgiving.债务下降已经被明是棘手的,因为经济气候一直这么无情。Debt burdens automatically become lighter as money incomes rise.债务负担,随着收入上升而减轻。But that has not been the case in economies hit by a double-dip recession and hurt by prices that are close to deflationary levels.但是这并没有因二次衰退的打击和价格的伤害而接近通缩的水平。There is an inherent contradiction between the need for debtor countries in the euro zone to regain competitiveness through lower prices and at the same time to ease excessive debt with a dose of inflation.在欧元区的负债国家,有一种通过低价重获竞争力和同时舒缓膨胀减少过度借贷的内在的矛盾。Even in a better economic climate, though, southern Europe would be bad at writing down debt.不过,即使在一个更好的经济气候下,欧洲南部在债务上也不能做得更好。Corporate insolvencies have increased sharply but from low levels.低层次的企业破产大幅增加。Social attitudes frown on debtors, who are usually pursued through the courts in a long and costly process.债务人得不到社会的认可,通常是诉诸法院的一个漫长而昂贵的过程。Insolvency laws have recently been reformed in several countries.最近几个国家已经重新修订了破产法。The Portuguese government, for example, has made it easier for debt to be restructured outside the courts.例如,葡萄牙政府采取措施使法院以外的债务重组更为容易。But the reforms often fail to work.但改革期间往往不能正常工作。The Spanish law is intended to promote restructuring of viable firms but in practice most insolvencies end in liquidation after lengthy court proceedings.西班牙的法律是为了促进可行的企业重组,但实际上,大多数企业在冗长的法庭诉讼程序结束后依然清算破产。The cultural stigma of a bankruptcy remains: potential entrepreneurs in countries like Italy and Spain worry more about failure than they do in Britain and America.破产的耻辱在文化上的仍然存在:有潜力的企业家在像意大利和西班牙这样的国家比在英国和美国更担心失败。Dutch discouraged绝望荷兰High household debt helps explain why the Netherlands, along with Italy and Spain, remained in recession in the second quarter of 2013 even as the euro area in general embarked on recovery.高家庭债务有助于解释为什么既意大利和西班牙之后,同样位于欧元区的荷兰在整体复苏之后在2013年的第二季度依然处于衰退状态。Dutch GDP this year will be 2% lower than in 2011 and more than 3% below its previous peak, in 2008.荷兰国内生产总值今年将比2011年低2%,比2008年的高峰下降了3%以上。Though this loss of output is dwarfed by that suffered in southern Europe, it illustrates the malign effect of high debt when house prices fall—recent declines have been close to those in Spain.虽然这与欧洲南部遭受的产出损失相比是相形见绌,但它说明房价下跌给高额负债造成了恶性影响,近期的跌势已经接近那些在西班牙的高额债务。That has pushed a quarter of Dutch homeowners into “negative equity”: their houses are worth less than their mortgages.这将使四分之一的荷兰房主成“负资产”持有者,因为他们的房屋价值低于他们的抵押贷款。Explore our interactive guide to Europes troubled economies探索欧洲的经济困难是我们的交互式指南Elsewhere in the euro area high corporate debt has been doing most damage.在欧元区其他地方的高企业借贷已经造成了严重的损失。Firms that have overborrowed are reluctant to embark on new ventures, and banks are in any case reluctant to lend because their balance-sheets are peppered with bad debts.借贷过多的企业都不愿做出新的尝试,而无论如何不愿放贷因为他们的资产负债表已经做好了穿插坏账的准备。This unhappy state of affairs prevails throughout southern Europe though its precise causes vary.这种糟糕的财务状况,在整个南部欧洲盛行,虽然其确切的原因各不相同。In Spain the bad debts have arisen mainly from the property bubble and have been tackled over the past year by recognising the losses and transferring the written-down loans to Sareb, an asset-management company. In Portugal they stem from the attrition of more than a decade of stagnation.在西班牙发生的坏账主要来自房地产泡沫的出现,并已在过去的一年解决已识别的损失并转移贷款到资产管理公司Sareb。The ECBs banking probe will cause some of this debt to be written down as banks are forced to recognise some of their bad loans.欧洲央行的探头会造成一些债务被记录成被迫承认的一些不良贷款。But the clean-up could be limited because of the fear among the European countries with solid finances that bad banking debts will be dumped into a common rescue fund.但是,清理是有限的,因为糟糕的债务可能被丢到具有坚实的财政基础的欧洲国家间的一个共同救助基金。If the quality of these assets is not properly addressed this time, it will cast a long shadow over the euro zones chances of making a sustained economic recovery.如果这时不能妥善处理这些资产的质量,它给欧元区经济持续复苏的机会带来巨大的阴影。 /201310/262649

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