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Germany and Austria are working on a proposal for a common European asylum law, Germanys refugee crisis coordinator said in an interview with German magazine Focus.德国难民协调人员在接受德国杂志《Focus》采访时透露,德国和奥地利正着手于一项共同欧洲难民法的提案。Hundreds of thousands of migrants fleeing war and poverty in Syria, Afghanistan and elsewhere have arrived in Germany this year, with many entering from neighboring Austria.今年,来自叙利亚、阿富汗还有其他地方的成百上千名难民,因战争和穷困逃往德国。其中许多人是从邻国奥地利进入的德国境内。Peter Altmaier, who Chancellor Angela Merkel tasked with overseeing the governments handling of the refugee crisis, said in an interview published on Saturday that he was working closely with Josef Ostermayer, an Austrian minister involved in policy on the migration crisis. ;Were talking about what such a system could look like,; said Altmaier, who is also Merkels chief of staff.Peter Altmaier受默克尔任命负责监督政府的难民危机事务运作。周六,他在一次采访中表示,他和奥地利处理移民危机的大臣Josef Ostermayer有密切的合作。这位默克尔的首席参谋说:“我们在讨论这样的系统会是什么样的。”He said they would soon approach other countries such as France and the Netherlands, adding that there was more willingness to talk about the issue now than there had been for years.他还表示,他们会和如法国和荷兰等其他国家进行接洽,并补充说明,现在各国比之前几年有更大的意愿来讨论相关事宜。Austrian daily Kurier reported earlier this month that Austrian Justice Minister Wolfgang Brandstetter had submitted a plan to Brussels suggesting common rules for processing asylum applications made at EU missions abroad or at hotspots set up by the EU or the ;international community;.奥地利日报《Kurier》报道称,本月初,奥地利司法部长Wolfgang Brandstetter向欧盟提交了一份计划,建议制定共同规则来处理在欧盟国家内、欧盟设置的热点地区内或者是“国际社区”内的移民申请。That plan also calls for common criteria by which to judge applications, a common procedure for allowing people to enter the bloc, and a sharing of the financial burden among all member states, the newspaper said.报道还提到,这项计划同时还呼吁建立申请的共同审核标准,还有通用的准入程序,并呼吁欧盟成员国间应互相分担经济压力。来 /201512/417251

Switzerland is not known normally for jolting the global financial system but that is what it has done, and without warning. It has abandoned a self-imposed peg of the Swiss franc against the euro, introduced in 2011, and lowered the aly negative interest rate on deposits from minus 0.25 per cent to minus 0.75 per cent.瑞士一般并不以令全球金融体系震荡而著称,然而它刚刚就这么干了一回,而且毫无预警。瑞士取消了自己强加的瑞士法郎兑欧元汇率上限011年出台),并将已经为负的存款利率0.25%降至-0.75%。In the wake of Thursday’s announcement, the Swiss franc soared against the euro by almost 40 per cent, though this gain was subsequently halved.上周四该政策一经宣布,瑞郎相对欧元一度飙升近40%,不过这一涨幅随后回吐了一半。So let us put the action of the Swiss National Bank into context; what was the aim and what is its significance?那么,让我们梳理下瑞士央SNB)此举的来龙去脉,看看它目的何在,其意义又是什么?The central bank might have seen an opportunity to stop the vigorous expansion of its balance sheet since 2011, which followed currency market interventions to hold down the Swiss franc and support the euro in the midst of the sovereign debt crisis. By the end of 2014, it had risen to about SFr500bn, or 80 per cent of gross domestic product. Relative to the size of its economy, Switzerland’s central bank had a balance sheet about three times larger than those of the US Federal Reserve and the Bank of England. Flows into Swiss francs have grown as a result of the quest for a haven from Russia’s economic and political problems.瑞士央行或许是认为,这是阻止其资产负债规模急剧扩张的一个机会。自2011年瑞士央行干预汇市、压低瑞郎汇率并撑遭遇主权债务危机的欧元以来,该行的资产负债规模就一直在扩张。到2014年底,其资产负债规模已扩至000亿瑞郎,相当于瑞士国内生产总GDP)0%。就央行资产负债规模与本国经济规模之比而言,瑞士央行是美联Fed)和英国央BoE)倍以上。在俄罗斯遭遇经济和政治问题后,为寻求避险,越来越多的资金涌入瑞郎。The authorities may have grown concerned, moreover, at the prospect of additional flows into francs should there be an announcement by the European Central Bank at its meeting on 22 January as is now widely expected to commence quantitative easing. If there had been any such influx with the peg still in place, the SNB’s balance sheet would have expanded even further.另外,瑞士当局或许是越来越担心,一旦欧洲央ECB)如人们现在普遍预期的那样2日的会议上宣布启动量化宽松,可能会有更多资金流入瑞郎。如果汇率上限依然存在时出现过这种流入,那么瑞士央行的资产负债规模可能已进一步扩大。In theory, the SNB could have continued to build up its balance sheet without limit, comfortable in the knowledge that it could print unlimited Swiss francs to cover any foreign currency losses in the future if the franc rose. However, in so doing, the traditionally cautious central bank might well have landed itself with even bigger financial stability concerns than those it has been grappling with hitherto ultimately, about the consequences of open-ended money creation. The monetary base has quintupled to SFr400bn since the middle of 2011, property prices and rents are increasing rapidly, and bank lending has risen by 25 per cent as a share of GDP to 170 per cent.理论上讲,瑞士央行本可继续放心地无限扩大其资产负债规模,因为它清楚自己可以无限量印制瑞郎、以弥补若未来瑞郎升值所造成的任何外汇损失。但这家一向谨慎的央行如果真的这样做,很可能引起外界对其金融稳定性的更大担心,甚至要比它迄今一直竭力应对的问题引发的担忧更严重——这件事归根结底与无限货币创造的后果有关。自2011年中期以来,瑞士的货币基础已扩大了4倍,000亿瑞郎,房价和租金正在快速上涨,贷款增长5%,贷款总额相当于GDP70%。In any event, the central bank may have seen no mileage in being a backstop for selling “cheapfrancs should the euro fall in the foreign exchange markets once a QE programme starts.不管怎样,瑞士央行可能已经看到了,如果量化宽松启动后欧元汇率在外汇市场上下跌,出售“廉价”瑞郎撑欧元并无益处。Switzerland will now have to address at least three important problems.瑞士眼下至少需要解决三大问题。First, if the franc’s immediate appreciation against the euro is not reversed, it will intensify the deflation that is working its way through the economy. As oil prices started falling, inflation was expected to be around zero but we should now expect it to far below that, with prices falling substantially.首先,如果目前瑞郎相对欧元的升值不逆转,将会加剧正在影响整个瑞士经济的通缩。在石油价格开始下跌时,人们曾预期瑞士的通胀率会降至零左右,但考虑到物价正大幅下跌,我们现在应当预期通胀率会降至远低于零的水平。Second, a stronger franc rate against the euro could lower Swiss economic growth by about 0.7 per cent. It will have a negative effect on business and investment decisions, and will harm exporters, which ship about half their products to countries using the euro. It could spur higher direct investment abroad.其次,瑞郎兑欧元汇率走高可能会造成瑞士经济增幅减少.7个百分点。这将对商业和投资决策产生负面影响,并损害出口企业,瑞士出口企业有一半左右的产品都发往使用欧元的国家。这有可能会促使瑞士人对海外进行更多的直接投资。Third, the rise of the franc will expose the central bank to sizeable losses on its assets, about half of which are denominated in euros though these might simply offset comparable gains made from currency interventions in 2014.第三,瑞郎的走强将令瑞士央行面临巨大的资产损失,其资产约有一半以欧元计价——尽管这些损失可能只是刚好抵消了014年从干预汇市中获得的收益。Only last month, when the central bank reaffirmed its peg policy, it warned of the dangers of local and global deflation, and stated that the currency was still overvalued.就在上个月,瑞士央行在重申其汇率上限政策时,还警告瑞士及全球有陷入通缩的危险,同时表示瑞郎仍然受到高估。The abandonment of the peg is, therefore, additionally surprising. Suppressing the value of the Swiss franc did not make local deflation any less likely, and presiding over this latest rise will only make bigger price falls likely. Some European banks have been active in lending the currency for mortgages in eastern Europe. These and other Swiss franc borrowers now face a new deflationary shock as their local debt service and amortisation costs rise.因此,瑞士央行取消汇率上限的做法就更加令人惊讶。压低瑞郎汇率并没有减少瑞士通缩的可能性,而促成这次的上涨只会导致物价的更大幅下降。部分欧洲一直在东欧积极推出瑞郎抵押贷款。随着当地的偿债和摊还成本上升,这些抵押贷款的借款人以及其他借入瑞郎的人现在面临一个新的通缩冲击。As delegates head off to the World Economic Forum in Davos, they might reflect that history is repeating itself in a curious way. In the late 1970s, Switzerland introduced negative deposit rates to stop currency appreciation against the Deutschmark; and, when that did not work, it capped the franc’s value. That policy failed.在各位参会者启程参加达沃斯世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)之际,他们可能在想历史正在以一种奇特的方式重演0世纪70年代末,瑞士出台负存款利率以阻止瑞郎对德国马克升值;当此举没有奏效时,瑞士为瑞郎汇率设置了上限。这一政策失败了。This time, Switzerland has pursued the same policies in reverse order.这一次,瑞士以相反的顺序执行了同样的政策。Foreign exchange markets are important lightning conductors of global shocks, this time deflation but central banks acting alone have rarely provided stability. With the ECB on the cusp of implementing QE, that goal seems a long way off.外汇市场是防范全球性冲击的重要避雷针(这一次的全球性冲击是通缩),但各国央行的单打独斗很少能带来稳定性。在欧洲央行即将启动量化宽松之际,要实现这一目标似乎还有很长的路要走。来 /201501/355264

In a decrepit office below a billiard hall in the city of Naha, capital of Okinawa in southern Japan, a small group is dreaming of a new country.在日本南部冲Okinawa)首府那霸(Naha)一间台球厅下面的一个破旧办公室里,一小群人正在梦想着建立一个新的国家。Surrounded by flags showing three stars on two bands of blue, symbolising the Okinawan sea and sky, they represent a revived movement for the Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, to declare independence from Japan.这些人是主张琉球群岛(包括冲绳)从日本独立出去的复国运动的代表。四周悬挂的旗帜上是两条蓝色色带(一深一淡),象征着冲绳的海洋和天空,色带上面有三颗星。“Support for Ryukyu independence is growing,says Chousuke Yara, a perennial electoral candidate for the movement. “People are coming to understand that Okinawa was originally part of the Ryukyu kingdom, then invaded by Japan and made Japanese by education.”琉球复国运动的常年选举候选人屋良朝助(Chousuke Yara)表示:“人们逐渐开始持琉球独立运动。人们开始明白,冲绳最初是琉球王国的一部分,后来被日本侵略,通过教育才实现日本化的。”The movement has a long way to go a recent poll of islanders put support for independence at just 8 per cent. But another 21 per cent back full devolution and 88 per cent want greater self-determination a sign of a growing alienation from the rest of Japan that could have profound consequences for regional security.琉球复国运动还有很长的路要走——最近对岛上居民的调查显示,持独立的比例只%。但还有21%持全面分权8%希望拥有更大的自决权,这是与日本其他地区疏远加剧的迹象,可能对地区安全具有深远的后果。The Ryukyu chain, which stretches in a 1,000km arc from Taiwan to the Japanese mainland, are a natural barrier between China and the Pacific. The island of Okinawa is a cornerstone of the US military presence in Asia, with US bases covering about 20 per cent of its land area.琉球岛链(Ryukyu chain)是一条从台湾延至日本本土的长000公里的弧形岛链,是中国和太平洋之间的天然屏障。冲绳岛是美国在亚洲军事存在的基石,美军基地大约占到该岛陆地面积0%。There is a range of opinions on security in the independence movement, Mr Yara says. But his vision of a nonaligned and pacifist republic would send shivers down the spine of any US military planner.屋良朝助表示,独立运动中有许多关于安全的观点。但他提出的创建一个不结盟的和平主义共和国的愿景,将让美国军方规划者不寒而栗。“The Ryukyus and China have always had a friendly relationship, so there’s no reason to think the current Chinese regime would trouble us,he says. “For example, if Japan were picking on us, we could have a military alliance with Taiwan or China, or the opposite, we could ally with the US and Japan.”他说:“琉球和中国始终关系友好,因此没有理由认为当前的中国政权会为难我们。例如,如果日本为难我们,我们可以与台湾或中国结成军事联盟,反过来,我们也可以与美国和日本结盟。”Resentment over the US bases has been a running sore in relations between Okinawa and the mainland following incidents such as the rape of a local schoolgirl by US servicemen in 1995 and the crash of a US helicopter in 2004. Shinzo Abe, Japan’s prime minister, wants to relocate the controversial helicopter base at Futenma to Henoko Bay in the north of the island, but locals want the base shut or moved off the island altogether.995年美国军人强奸当地一位女学生004年一架美国直升机坠毁等事件发生之后,对美国驻军的不满一直是影响琉球和日本本土关系的隐痛。日本首相安倍晋Shinzo Abe)希望将有争议的普天间(Futenma)直升机基地迁至冲绳岛北面的边野古Henoko Bay),但当地人希望关闭基地或者将基地彻底搬出冲绳岛。Takeshi Onaga, Okinawa’s popular governor, recently revoked a permit for building a new base at Henoko. Last week Mr Abe took out a court injunction against Mr Onaga and resumed construction. Elderly protesters outside the site at Henoko were dragged away by police after Mr Abe’s decision.人气极高的冲绳县知事翁长雄志(Takeshi Onaga)最近撤销了在边野古新建一处美军基地的许可。上周,安倍对翁长雄志申请了法庭禁令,重启新基地的建设。在安倍做出决定之后,边野古法庭外的老年抗议者被警方拖走。“I can’t restrain my furious resentment,says Mr Onaga, elected last year on a mandate to oppose relocation of the Futenma base to Henoko. “The coercion continues.”去年以反对普天间基地迁至边野古为竞选平台当选的翁长雄志表示:“我无法克制自己的满腔怒火。高压政治在继续。”Masaaki Gabe, a professor at the University of the Ryukyus, agrees that Okinawans feel distant from the government in Tokyo. “People feel Japanese but they also have feelings of discrimination by the Tokyo government,he says.琉球大学(University of the Ryukyus)教授沃步正明(Masaaki Gabe)也认为,琉球人对东京政府感觉疏远,“人们认为自己是日本人,但他们也有一种被东京政府歧视的感觉”,他表示。Another incident like the rape or the helicopter crash could change feelings towards independence, he adds. “If there was a big event, and it wasn’t handled to the satisfaction of the Okinawan people, then it could have serious effects.”他补充称,再发生一起强奸或者直升机坠毁之类的事件可能改变人们对独立的态度。“如果发生一起重大事件,处理结果又没有让冲绳人满意,那么就可能造成严重影响”。The dispute over the US bases is the most significant issue between Okinawa and the mainland but the island is diverging from Japan in other ways. With Japan’s highest birth rate, its population is ageing more slowly. And unlike on the industrial mainland, the island economy is growing fast.围绕美军基地的争执是冲绳和日本本土之间最重大的问题,但该岛与日本也存在其他差异。这里的生育率是日本最高的,其人口的老龄化较为缓慢。而且,与早已工业化的日本本土不同,冲绳经济正在迅速发展。Asian tourists are drawn by Okinawa’s blend of subtropical beauty and urban culture: visitor numbers rose 10 per cent last year to more than 7m, with the number of Chinese tourists more than doubling.亚洲游客被兼具亚热带美景和都市文化的冲绳吸引:去年游客数量增0%,至700多万人,其中中国游客数量增长一倍多。Okinawa is also trying to promote its strategic location to business as a potential logistics hub. The economy’s dependence on the military bases is down to about 5 per cent. “We’ve gone from being an economy that relies on bases to the bases holding us back,said Masaki Tomochi, an economics professor at Okinawa International University and a leading light in the independence movement.冲绳也在努力向企业推介其作为潜在物流枢纽的战略位置。该岛经济对美军基地的依赖已降至5%左右。冲绳国际大Okinawa International University)经济学教授、独立运动核心人物友知正Masaki Tomochi)表示:“我们的经济过去依赖美军基地,现在则是这些基地阻碍了我们的发展。”Mr Tomochi, who can see the Futenma base from his office, went to Scotland last year to support its campaign for independence from the UK and came back inspired. Okinawa was invaded by the Satsuma samurai in 1609, six years after King James I united the thrones of England and Scotland.从友知正木的办公室可以看到普天间基地。去年他曾前往苏格兰持其脱离英国的独立运动,回来后深受鼓舞。在詹姆斯一世统一英格兰和苏格年后609年,冲绳遭到萨武士的入侵。“Discrimination is not just in the past, it’s today we’re still being discriminated against,he says. “First we need everyone to know the history of the Ryukyus. Then we can think about the future.”他说:“歧视不只发生在过去,还发生在今天——我们仍在遭受歧视。首先我们需要每个人都知道琉球的历史,然后我们才可以考虑未来。”来 /201511/408271

Housekeeping is crucial to safe workplaces. It can help prevent injuries and improve productivity and morale.打扫卫生对工作场所的安全至关重要,它有助于预防受伤,提高生产力,提振士气。The practice extends from traditional offices to industrial workplaces, including factories, warehouses and manufacturing plants that present special challenges such as hazardous materials, combustible dust and other flammables. Here are 11 tips for effective workplace housekeeping.无论是传统办公室,还是工业生产车间,比如含特别风险(危险品、易燃粉尘和其他易燃物)的工厂、仓库和制造厂,打扫卫生都很重要。以下是高效清洁工作场所1个技巧. Prevent slips, trips and falls预防滑倒、绊倒和掉落Report and clean up spills and leaks.有物体溢出、泄露时应报告上级并清理干净。Consider installing mirrors and warning signs to help with blind spots.考虑在盲区旁放置镜子、张贴警示标志。Replace worn, ripped or damage flooring.地板破损、裂开或有损坏时应更换。Use drip pans and guards.使用滴油盘和防护装置. Eliminate fire hazards消除火灾隐患Keep combustible materials in the work area only in amounts needed for the job. When they are unneeded, move them to an assigned safe storage area.在工作场所只存放工作需要量的易燃物品。不需要时,将易燃品移至指定的安全储藏区。Store quick-burning, flammable materials in designated locations away from ignition sources.将速燃、易燃物品存储在远离火源的指定地点。Avoid contaminating clothes with flammable liquids. Change clothes if contamination occurs.避免衣物沾染易燃液体。一旦沾染,赶快换掉衣.Control dust控制粉尘Dust accumulation of more than 0.8 millimeters covering at least 5 percent of a rooms surface poses a significant explosion hazard. Vacuuming is the ;preferred; method of cleaning. Sweeping and water wash-down are other options. ;Blow-downs; using compressed air or steam is allowed for inaccessible or unsafe surfaces.粉尘沉积超过0.8毫米,覆盖房间表面达5%或以上时,会有重大的爆炸隐患。吸尘器是清理灰尘的最佳选择。清扫和洒水也是可选的。对于接触不到或不安全的表面,可用压缩空气和蒸汽进行排气清理. Avoid tracking materials避免留下痕迹Work-area mats should be kept clean and maintained.工作场所里的垫子应保持干净并加以保养。Separate cleaning protocols may be needed for different areas to prevent cross-contamination.不同场所应有独立的清理规定,以防交叉污染。If the materials are toxic, industrial hygiene testing, uniforms and showering facilities might be needed.如果这些物质有毒,需要进行工业卫生检测,穿戴工作,安装淋浴设备. Prevent falling objects避免物体掉落Protections such as a toe board can help prevent objects from falling and hitting workers or equipment. Other tips include stacking boxes and materials straight up and down to keep them from falling. Place heavy objects on lower shelves, and keep equipment away from the edges of desks and tables.趾板等防护物品有助于预防物体掉落,以免击中工人或设备。其他的建议包括:整齐堆放堆垛箱、物避免掉落;将重的物品放在低架子上;设备应远离桌边. Clear clutter清理杂物Keep aisles, stairways, emergency exits, electrical panels and doors clear of clutter, and purge untidy areas. Empty trash receptacles before they overflow.过道、楼梯、紧急出口、配电板和门口处禁止堆放杂物,脏乱场所应清理干净。垃圾箱装满前应清空. Store materials properly正确储藏物品Storage areas should not have an accumulation of materials that present hazards for tripping, fire, explosion or pests. Unused materials and equipment should be stored out of the way of workers. Remember to put everything back in its proper place. Keeping a storage space nearby so workers are encouraged to use it.储藏区不应堆放可能绊倒人、引发火灾和爆炸、招致害虫的物品。未使用过的物品和设备应放在不影响工人的区域。谨记所有物品用完后应放到合适的地方。储藏区应设在附近,以方便工人使用. Use and inspect personal protective equipment and tools使用并检查个人防护装备和工具Wear basic PPE such as closed-toe shoes and safety glasses while performing housekeeping. Determine what type of PPE to don based on the potential risks. Regularly inspect, clean and fix tools. Remove any damaged tools from the work area.打扫卫生时穿戴基本的个人防护装备,如包头鞋、安全眼镜。根据潜在的风险来判断穿戴哪种类型的个人防护装备。定期检查、清理和修补工具。将所有损坏工具移出工作区. Determine frequency确定清洁频率All workers should participate in housekeeping, especially in terms of keeping their own work areas tidy, reporting safety hazards and cleaning up spills. A company should have a mixture of deep cleaning and more frequent, lighter cleaning that involves sweeping and responding to spills.打扫卫生人人有责,特别是个人工作区应保持干净,上报安全隐患并清理泄漏液体。公司应既有全面大扫除,又经常做一般性清扫,如扫除垃圾,清理泄漏液体0. Create written rules制定书面规则Housekeeping policies should be put in writing. Written protocols could specify which cleaners, tools and methods should be used.清洁卫生制度应以书面形式呈现出来。书面协议可以明确规定应该使用哪种清洁剂、工具和方法1. Think long-term着眼长远Housekeeping should be more than a one-time initiative. Keep records, maintain a regular walkthrough inspection schedule, report hazards and train employees to help sustain housekeeping.清洁卫生不应该只是三分钟热度。应该做记录,定期做全面检查,汇报隐患,指导员工经常清洁卫生。来 /201508/392528


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